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  • Heart over mind An empirical analysis of social

    entrepreneurial intention formation on the basis of the theory

    of planned behaviour.

    Inaugural dissertation

    for obtaining the academic degree

    Doctor rerum oeconomicarum

    Faculty of Economics

    Schumpeter School of Business and Economics

    University of Wuppertal Bergische Universitt Wuppertal

    Submitted by Dipl.-Kauffr. Kati Ernst

    from Berlin

    Author: Kati Ernst

    Address: Am Schweizer Garten 75, 10407 Berlin

    1st Supervisor: Professor Christine K. Volkmann

    2nd

    Supervisor: Professor Tobias Langner

    Date: Wuppertal & Berlin, July 26th, 2011

  • Die Dissertation kann wie folgt zitiert werden:

    urn:nbn:de:hbz:468-20120327-142543-6[http://nbn-resolving.de/urn/resolver.pl?urn=urn%3Anbn%3Ade%3Ahbz%3A468-20120327-142543-6]

  • Authors note

    1

    AUTHORS NOTE

    I would like to thank Professor Christine Volkmann and Professor Tobias Langner for

    supervising this dissertation and hereby giving me the opportunity to pursue this topic I

    am so passionate about. Additional thanks to Professor Volkmann for keeping an open

    mind for the numerous twists and turns my work took, and offering guidance and

    encouragement when I needed it.

    Thank you to Professor Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Wolfgang Spiess-Knafl from the TU

    Munich, Professor Markus Beckmann, Dr. Silke Tegtmeier, and Professor Edgar

    Kreilkamp from the Leuphana University Lueneburg, and Professor Sven Ripsas from the

    Berlin School of Economics and Law, and their respective students for their cooperation

    in data collection.

    I would also like to thank the other PhD students and professors at the Schumpeter

    School of Business at the Bergische University of Wuppertal for their support and

    constructive comments in discussing my work-in-progress, especially Professor Dirk

    Temme and Professor Gerhard Arminger. A special thanks goes out to Dr. Marc

    Grnhagen, for numerous discussions, both of theoretical and practical nature, constant

    help in organizing and running data collection, for challenging my ideas and sharing his

    enthusiasm for my work.

    This entire process wouldnt have been the same without TZ. Thank you, Simone, for the

    companionship and the talks and endless passed-on learnings. Thank you, Thomas, for

    the tunes and twelve oclock timeliness. Thank you, Jannis, for the positive vibes and

    your liveliness.

    And most of all, I would like to thank my husband Mattes, for his unconditional support,

    his ceaseless faith in me, for random content-discussions over dinner, and for taking this

    project and me into three cities and three continents along the way.

    I dedicate this thesis to my abuela Gisela.

    Berlin, July, 2011 Kati Ernst

  • Table of contents

    2

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 15

    1.1. Motivation .................................................................................................................... 17

    1.2. Research question and scope ...................................................................................... 20

    1.3. Theoretical and practical relevance of the research question ................................. 21

    1.4. Structure of the thesis ................................................................................................. 23

    2. Theoretical basis and framework ................................................................................... 25

    2.1. Social entrepreneurship .............................................................................................. 25

    2.1.1. The function of social entrepreneurship in market and society ........................... 26

    2.1.2. History of social entrepreneurship ....................................................................... 28

    2.1.2.1. Social entrepreneurship in practice ......................................................... 28

    2.1.2.2. Social entrepreneurship in academia ....................................................... 30

    2.1.3. The academic framework: Social entrepreneurship as a form of

    entrepreneurship ................................................................................................. 35

    2.1.3.1. Introduction to theories on entrepreneurship ........................................... 36

    2.1.3.2. Relating social entrepreneurship to business entrepreneurship ............... 39

    2.1.4. The problem of definition: Development of an understanding of social

    entrepreneurship as a basis for this thesis .......................................................... 41

    2.1.4.1. Social entrepreneurship definition analysis ............................................. 43

    2.1.4.1.1. Theoretical approaches to social entrepreneurship ................. 44

    2.1.4.1.2. Selected factors shaping approaches to social

    entrepreneurship .................................................................... 48

    2.1.4.2. Understanding of social entrepreneurship underlying this thesis ............ 51

    2.2. Entrepreneurial intentions ......................................................................................... 52

    2.2.1. Understanding of intention in this study .............................................................. 52

  • Table of contents

    3

    2.2.2. Intentional studies in entrepreneurship ................................................................ 52

    2.2.2.1. The motivation behind intentional studies in entrepreneurship .............. 53

    2.2.2.2. Brief history of intentional studies in entrepreneurship .......................... 55

    2.2.3. Intention models................................................................................................... 55

    2.2.4. The theory of planned behaviour as a theoretical framework for the

    development of a model on social entrepreneurial intention formation ............ 57

    2.2.4.1. The classical model of the theory of planned behaviour ......................... 58

    2.2.4.2. Adapting and extending the model of the theory of planned behaviour . 61

    2.2.4.3. The theory of planned behaviour in entrepreneurship ............................. 63

    2.2.4.3.1. A short detour: Shaperos entrepreneurial event ..................... 63

    2.2.4.3.2. Selected previous applications of the theory of planned

    behaviour in studying entrepreneurial intentions .................. 65

    2.2.4.3.3. Criticism on the use of the theory of planned behaviour in

    studying entrepreneurial intentions ....................................... 68

    2.2.5. Social entrepreneurial intentions.......................................................................... 69

    3. Development of a theory-based model of social entrepreneurial intention

    formation ......................................................................................................................... 73

    3.1. The classical model of the theory of planned behaviour adapted to social

    entrepreneurial intention formation ........................................................................ 73

    3.1.1. Social entrepreneurial intentions.......................................................................... 74

    3.1.2. Attitude towards becoming a social entrepreneur ................................................ 74

    3.1.3. Perceived behavioural control on becoming a social entrepreneur ..................... 75

    3.1.4. Subjective norms on becoming a social entrepreneur .......................................... 77

    3.1.5. Relationships between attitude-level theory of planned behaviour-constructs .... 78

    3.2. Extension of the classical model of the theory of planned behaviour for the

    model of social entrepreneurial intention formation ............................................. 81

    3.2.1. Social entrepreneurial personality........................................................................ 83

  • Table of contents

    4

    3.2.1.1. The motivation behind including social entrepreneurial personality ...... 84

    3.2.1.1.1. Understanding of social entrepreneurial personality ............... 84

    3.2.1.1.2. The relevance of personality in social entrepreneurial

    research to date ...................................................................... 85

    3.2.1.2. Personality in business entrepreneurship research .................................. 85

    3.2.1.3. Personality in social entrepreneurship research ...................................... 88

    3.2.1.3.1. Entrepreneurial personality in social entrepreneurship ........... 92

    3.2.1.3.2. Prosocial personality in social entrepreneurship ..................... 97

    3.2.1.4. Hypotheses on the role of social entrepreneurial personality in the

    model of social entrepreneurial intention formation ........................... 100

    3.2.2. Social entrepreneurial human capital ................................................................. 103

    3.2.1.1. The motivation behind including social entrepreneurial human capital

    in the model of social entrepreneurial intention formation ................. 103

    3.2.1.1.1. Understanding of social entrepreneurial human capital ........ 103

    3.2.2.1.2. The relevance of human capital in social entrepreneurial

    research to date ........

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