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  • 1. Healthy Brain Aging: Exercise, Nutrition, and Preventing ADFocus on Diabetes, Blood Pressure, Diet and ExerciseHenry Edmonds, MEd, Program CoordinatorJoseph & Kathleen Bryan Alzheimers Disease Research CenterDuke University Medical Center

2. Healthy Brain Aging: Exercise, Nutrition, andPrevention of ADJoseph & Kathleen Bryan Alzheimers Disease Research Center Some Facts about Alzheimer's DiseaseDementia and Alzheimers DiseaseWhat Happens to the BrainDiagnosis of ADReduce The Risk For Alzheimers DiseaseFactors that Contribute to Cognitive Decline!Ways to Exercise your Brain!Eating Well!Alzheimers Disease Prevention Registry (ADPR)Brain Health Quiz 3. The Bryan ADRC Alzheimers Disease Research Center (ADRC)began in 1984 One of the oldest ADRCs in the US 4. The Bryan ADRC: What we do?Research on AD AD Braine Bank Alzheimers DiseasePrevention RegistryMemory Disorders Clinic Diagnosis and treatmentHelp for Caregivers Duke Family Support ProgramEducational Programs LecturesAfrican American Community Outreach Program (AACOP) 5. ALZHEIMERS IS AN EPIDEMIC!We need yourhelp withpreventionstudies.The memoriesyou save couldbe your ownAlzheimers is an epidemic: it affects 1 in 9 Americans over 65, with a new diagnosisevery 68 seconds. By 2050, 16 million Americans may battle the disease, with the costof care jumping six-fold to $1.2 trillion.* We must accelerate Alzheimer's preventionresearch NOW! But 80% of studies fail because too few people sign up. Will you helpchange that?Alzheimers Association, 2014 Alzheimers Disease Facts and Figures 6. African Americans And Alzheimer'sAfrican-Americans may have a 60% higher riskof type 2 diabetes, which is a risk factor forAlzheimer's and vascular dementia.Data from a large-scale longitudinal studyindicate that persons with a history of either highblood pressure or high cholesterol levels are twiceas likely to get Alzheimers disease. Those withboth risk factors are four times as likely tobecome demented.The cumulative risk of dementia among first-degreerelatives of African-Americans who haveAlzheimers disease is 43.7%.There is a critical need for African-American clinical trial participants. Join a studytoday and help move research forward so your grandchildren when they are old,will never hear the words, You have Alzheimers.Data from, Alzheimer's Silent Epidemic hits Black Americans, Report prepared by the Alzheimers Association and released by the Congressional Black Caucus. 7. WHAT IS DEMENTIA AND ALZHEIMERS DISEASE?Dementia Dementia is memory loss that is severe enough to interfere with everydaylife and ability to function, and is not part of the normal aging process. Dementia is defined as a loss of mental function in two or more areas suchas language, visual and spatial abilities, memory, thinking and reasoningskills, or judgment.Alzheimers Disease Alzheimers Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. AD is a degenerative disease that attacks the brain, begins gradually, andprogresses at a variable rate. AD results in impaired memory, thinking, and behavior and can last from 3to 20 years from the time of onset of symptoms.1Alzheimers Association. (2012). Alzheimers Disease Facts and Figures, Alzheimers & Dementia, Volume 8: 131-168.2Brookmeyer, R., Johnson, E., Ziegler-Graham, K., & Arrighi, H. M. (2007). Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimers disease. Alzheimers & Dementia, 3, 186-191. 8. The Alzheimers Brain 9. Stages of Alzheimers DiseaseTimeInitial SymptomsFunctionDependenceTotal DependenceFinal StagesDiagnosis 10. Diagnosis ofAlzheimers DiseaseProbable Alzheimers dementia established by exam & mental statustesting confirmation by neuropsychological exam deficits in two or more areas of cognition, one ofwhich is memory progressive worsening of symptoms onset between ages 40-90 absence of other causes for dementia 11. HOW TO REDUCE THE RISK FORALZHEIMERS DISEASEThe relationship between hypertension,cholesterol levels and dementia isparticularly relevant for elderly African-American patients because they are morelikely than whites to have hypertensionand/or diabetes.Every heartbeat pumps one-fifth of our bloodto our brain. Billions of brain cells need thefood and oxygen carried by our blood tothink, solve problems and remember.Conditions that damage our heart and bloodvessels can threaten brain health also. Whenwe take steps to reduce our risk of heartdisease, diabetes and stroke, we may alsoreduce our risk for Alzheimer's. 12. Factors that Contribute toCognitive Decline! Effects of hypertension and heart disease Effects of diabetes Sedentary lifestyle Lack of stimulation Stress/depression Neurodegenerative disease 13. Exercise your Brain!Rationale: Use it or lose it!You must exercise your brain in order tomaintain function.Cognitive reserve: The development ofcognitive reserve may protect againstcognitive decline. This may be innate oracquired earlier in life. 14. Ways to Exercise your Brain!Mental stimulationReadingPuzzlesChallenging gamesSocial engagementPhysical exercise 15. Eating Well!Rationale:Healthy diet offersprotection from CVD andobesity which areassociated withincreased risk of ADAntioxidant intake fromfruits and vegetablesmay protect againstoxidative stress 16. 7 Super Foods That Prolong Life1. Salmon2. Walnuts, almonds or other nuts3. A Carrot a day for vitamin A4. Eggs including the yoke5. Flax Seeds6. Blueberries7. Dark Chocolate or Hot Cocoa 17. Concluding SuggestionsMaintain your brain through:1. Exercise2. Cognitive stimulation3. Healthy Diet4. Control blood pressure, cholesterol,weight, and blood glucose levels5. Work to improve your memory 18. Alzheimers Disease Prevention Registry(ADPR)Entry Criteria:55 years old or older Absence of dementia or life-threatening illness An interest in AD preventionEnrollment signals nothing more than your willingness to be contactedabout potential primary or secondary AD prevention efforts conducted inpartnership with the Bryan ADRCTo enroll contact Michelle McCart (Registry Coordinator)Toll-free 1-866-444-2372 or 919-668-1605Or enroll securely online at 19. Brain Health Quiz 20. Brain Health QuizAverage Daily Blood Pressure1) Normal or low blood pressure (below oraround 120/80)2) Mildly elevated high blood pressure (around130/85)3) High blood pressure (around 140/90)4) Very high blood pressure (above 160/100) 21. Brain Health QuizDiabetes1) No diabetes2) Diet-controlled diabetes3) Mild-to-moderate diabetes, on medications4) Severe diabetes for more than 10 years,poorly controlled 22. Brain Health QuizDiet1) Eat fruits and vegetables 5x/day, with a balanceddiet of meats, carbohydrates, bread and fish (2-3servings a week)2) Eat fruits and vegetables once or twice a day, witha fairly good, balanced diet3) Occasional fruits and vegetables, no particularattention to diet4) No fruits and vegetables, fast-food hamburgersmore than 2-3 times a week 23. Brain Health QuizBrain Stimulation1) Interested in solving problems, crossword puzzlesand Sudoku puzzles, playing card games, fixingthings around the house, other brain-teasingactivities2) Occasional brain-stimulating activities3) Do not enjoy solving problems or puzzles of anykind4) Avoid active thinking as much as possible, let otherpeople figure things out 24. Brain Health QuizStress and Anxiety1) No stress, feeling happy and in control of life, havea positive attitude2) Occasional stressful situations, such as dealing withdeadlines weekly3) Frequent stress and anxiety most days of the week,rarely relax4) Running around all the time, always feeling behind,constantly feel worried, stressed and anxious 25. Brain Health QuizCholesterol1) Normal cholesterol profile (LDL 40),controlled with diet and exercise2) Mildly elevated cholesterol, on medications3) High cholesterol (total cholesterol > 200), onmedications, but not under good control yet4) High cholesterol, not on medications 26. Brain Health QuizWeight1) Thin to normal2) Mildly overweight3) Overweight (with abdominal size of >40inches for men, and >35 for women)4) Obese 27. Brain Health QuizSmoking1) Never smoked, or quit more than 10 years ago2) Quit, with occasional smoking in bars orrestaurants3) Smoke up to one pack per week4) Smoke one pack per day or more 28. Brain Health QuizLeisure Activities1) Enjoy hobbies (gardening, dancing, movies, daytrips, fishing, crochet, etc.), keep busy with themonce a week2) Occasional hobbies, about once or twice permonth3) No regular leisure activities, may travel once ortwice a year4) No hobbies, no leisure activities, watch non-educationalprograms on TV more than 3-4 hours aday (reality shows?) 29. Brain Health QuizExercise1) Walk or engage in some form of exercise once ortwice a week, for more than 30-45 minutes, atleast four days a week2) Walk or engage in some forms of exercise once ortwice a week, for at least 30 minutes each time3) Do not participate in any regular exercise program,may take a long walk occasionally4) No exercise ever, sedentary (couch-potato) lifestyle 30. YOUR SCORES!15: Green zone - keep up the goodwork!16-30: Yellow zone needimprovement31-40: Red zone - need majorimprovements, see your doctor soon 31. In a Nutshell! Work to improve your memory Healthy diet: Dietary sources ofnutrients are preferred oversupplements Control chronic conditions: watch yournumbers! Regular physical exerciseJoseph and Kathleen Bryan AlzheimersDisease Research Center 32. Thank YouJoseph and Kathleen Bryan Alzheimers Disease Research Center


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