Health promotion

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Lubna Mohammad Samar faraaj

Health promotion

Health promotionis the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health (Ottawa Charter 86)

involves the facilitation of skills in individuals and change in environments which impact positively on health (VicHealth 2005)

is everyones business (CEO DHCS 2004)

What is health ?Health is a dynamic state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO 1998)

Health promotion or education ? Health promotion is a broad umbrella that encompasses : political action to change political policies Responsibilities of employer's toward their employees health Etc.Most people knows at least the basics that keeps them in good health but for unknown reasons they adapt unhealthy life styles

Health promotion or education ?Health education involves providing info.. For different individuals for example :Young\elder people Heavy\occasional drinkers Pregnant\baring age women etc.

Health education has been classified into three types:Education about body and how to look afterHow to access and to use health informationEducation about national and regional policies

Health education classification Primary health education :Directed toward healthy people and aims to prevent illness and to raise health status Secondary health education:Directed toward ill people and aims to prevent progression toward chronic state and to restore the patient former statue ex: stopping smoking ; changing eating habits Tartary health education :Concerns with educating people and their relatives and carers how to make the most of the remaining potential for healthy living . Ex: providing patient with info about side effects of drugs and how to deal with

Health promotion goals:Give people appropriate education and information to make choices Enable people to examine these informed choicesHelp people to develop the skills to analyze and recognize alternative choices Empower people to be able to make informed decisions about their health

Stages in changing health behaviorPrecontemplation stage :At this stage people can either have no awareness that they need to change their actions or they do not accept to change Contemplation stage :Individuals becoming positively motivated toward healthy changesCommitment stage:Individuals are (ready to change)Action stage:Individuals starts to make changes

Continue.Maintenance stage:Individuals will need to continue with the action commenced in the previous stage at this time an individual may struggle with their self-imposed changes Relapse stage:Many individuals been through this stage and back to their former behaviors but this isn't usually the end point as they might re-enter to the contemplation stage againExit stage: When this stage is reached the individuals has changed their behaviors in a way that they will not relapse the changed behavior becomes permanent

Health promotion and pharmacistsHealth promotion activities conducted by pharmacists have been divided into four separate and distinct categories:Promoting health and will being (e.g. Nutrition's and physical activities)Preventing illness (e.g. immunization)Identifying illness (e.g. detecting disease ) this role is very definite role for community pharmacistThe maintenance of health for those with chronic or potentially long term conditions (e.g. asthma ; HTN)

Why should pharmacist be involved in health promotion?Uploading their code of ethics :(Pharmacist prime concern must be for the will being of patients and public). RPS Their accessibility to the general pubic:In practical levels a 6 million visits are made to community pharmacists per day Their knowledge base:Pharmacies dont run appointment systems like other HCP and they have a lot of data considering OTC medications and health status Their place in primary care teamGovernment initiative's include them

Health promotion activates in pharmacy.Beside promotional materials the main aim is to raise people awareness to the pharmacist as Source for professional advice.Health promotion materials : Leaflets: are the major provision . They are available from the pharmacy ; clinics ; health promotion centers etc.. And should be displayed appropriately so that the public has easy access to it .Yet the pharmacist is sufficiently close to be available to explain any thing that is not understood by the reader . Alternatively leaflets an be displayed near to relevant products e.g. sun screens. Pharmacist should be familiar with the contents of the leaflets and carefully select them to match his\her community demands and to make sure that its available in the suitable languages

Books and pamphlets :They can be sold or provided by pharmacist to their clients . Several community pharmacist have set up libraries for such books videos and pamphlets for use by public Non-written health promotional materials :Such materials include audiotapes videos and smart phones apps , the internet as well some of these materials are especially designed for people with disabilities

Health promotion displaysThese include:Window display (interactive communication [you ask and I will answer method ] )Window display make effective use for window space One study reported the use of WD to raise the awareness of emergency hormonal contraception and increased the demands for emergency hormonal contraception tests and information leaflets WD also could provide an info source that is not accessible for publics in their normal lives or of a sensitive nature e.g. andropause Posters displayed in a good place inside the pharmacy In store display By providing healthy life style products such as sugar free meds and drinks or smoking cessation products

Health promotion activities in pharmacy No smoking policy If pharmacist are to be seen as a source of information on health promotion its important that the pharmacy is seen as a good role model . Thus all pharmacists should have a no smoking policy and be seen as an environment wish support healthy living

Health promotion activities in pharmacy Social inclusion policy :Health and health promotion is for every one , irrespective of gender , age , ethnicity , social class , disabilities , health status , etc. thus pharmacies and their services should be for all . Ideally all pharmacist should have access for physically disabled people , mothers with prams , similarly pharmacies should be fitted with (loop systems ) for hearing problems

Health promotion activities in pharmacy Consultation areas \ rooms :The discussion of health promotion topics with an individual may raise sensitive issues that need to be conducted in private , if its not possible to provide a separate rooms the conversation should be held without over hearing and with out distraction

Topics for health promotion activity

Role of pharmacists in health promotion All pharmacist should encourage healthy behaviors and respond to those seeking medical advise .In order to provide good HP advice , pharmacists should have good communication skills and ideally, be able to detect at what stage in the cycle of change the patient is , so that the HP advice can be individualized to help the recipient

Opportunistic and patient driven opportunities Many of the current HP activities in the pharmacy are opportunistic or patient driven . These can be conveniently categorized as follows :Sale for goods other than medicines :Community pharmacists sell many goods , which are not medicines but related directly or indirectly to health issues . Its possible for pharmacists to engage in verbal health advice with the purchaser or provide health promotion leaflets on related topics

Examples of HP opportunities when sales are made saleHP activities sunglassesLeaflet on sun awarenessChildren tooth pasteLeaflet on oral healthSliming foodsDiscussion on healthy eating and weight controlDiabetic chocolateHealthy eating leaflets

Opportunistic and patient driven opportunities Sale of medicines:Sales of OTC medicines provide the opportunity for pharmacist to relate the purchase to some HP activity in the form of an advice on the use of medicine or the condition e.g. (a patient comes to the pharmacy to buy a laxative , could be provided with a leaflet about healthy eating ).Some pharmacists may feel that such activities are intrusive on the individual . But the aim is always to help ( remember the code of ethics )

Educational interventionsThere are many examples in which pharmacist provide educational interventions to groups of individuals e.g. patients with DM , HL , CHD , HTN .Other pharmacists give regular talks to school- children , women groups and local self-help groups , on health promotional issues

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