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  • 7/26/2019 Haul Truck Fuel Consumption - Published


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    Haul truck fuel consumption and CO2emission under various engine load conditions

    Article December 2010





    2 authors:

    Vladislav Kecojevic

    West Virginia University



    Dragan Komljenovic




    Available from: Vladislav KecojevicRetrieved on: 22 April 2016

  • 7/26/2019 Haul Truck Fuel Consumption - Published


    44 DECEMBER 2010 Mnng engneerng www.miningengineeringmagazine.com

    Technical Papers

    Haul truck fuel consumptionand CO2emission under variousengine load conditions

    by V. Kecojevic and D. Komljenovic

    Abstract nEnvironmental and economic costs related to equipment fuel consumption andcarbon dioxide (CO

    2) emission present a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Haul

    trucks are an integral part of the overall surface mining system and they consume a signicantquantity of fuel. Consequently, they produce a signicant amount of CO

    2. The objective of

    this research is to (i) establish a mathematical relationship among a trucks fuel consumption,

    power and engine load factors and (ii) determine the amount of a trucks CO 2emission andthe associated cost that may arise from potential CO

    2 legislation. In order to achieve these

    objectives, the authors have considered original equipment manufacturer (OEM) haul trucks,which are commonly used in surface mining operations. The research presented here maybe used by mining professionals to help determine the cost and environmental burden of thetrucks application and efciently manage energy consumption.

    IntroductionHaul trucks account for the major

    share of overall surface mining equip-ment costs. Fuel consumption is alwaysthe primary operating cost associatedwith trucks. Fundamental changes infuel conservation, efficiency and re-ducing negative environmental impactrelated to CO

    2emission are of crucial

    importance.A number of factors contribute to

    fuel consumption. These factors includetruck load, speed, power, weight (emptyand gross), accelerations, idle time, fuelquality, aerodynamics, road surfaceand tire quality, wheel alignment andtires inflation pressure, road grade, the

    operators driving style, outside tem-perature, weather and adequacy of atrucks maintenance program. The ma-jority of these factors can be controlledto a certain extent by mine operators.Adequate management of these fac-

    tors may significantly reduce truck fuelconsumption while providing requiredtruck performance, without importantinvestments or operational changes. Ittranslates into decreased engine load,which allows for the same performancewith lower fuel consumption and, con-sequently, a lower CO

    2footprint. Thus,

    this study will analyze the impact oftruck power and engine load factorson fuel consumption and on the subse-quent CO

    2emissions and cost.

    Fuel consumptionThe most accurate method to deter-mine the fuel consumption of trucks isto obtain data from actual mine opera-tions. However, if no such opportunityexists, various equations and data pub-lished by the truck original equipmentmanufacturer (OEM) can be used forestimation purposes.

    According to Runge (1998) and Fi-las (2002), an hourly fuel consumption(FC) (L/hr) can be determined from thefollowing equation:

    FC= P 0.3 LF (1)

    where Pis engine power (kW), 0.3is unit conversion factor (L/kW/hr) andLFis an engine load factor (the portionof full power required by the truck).Values for the truck engine load factorsrange from 0.18 to 0.50 (Runge, 1998),

    while Filas (2002) states that engineload factors typically range between0.25 and 0.75, depending on the equip-ment type and use level.

    A similar equation for fuel con-sumption was suggested by Hays (1990):

    FC= (CSF P LF) / FD (2)

    where CSFis the engine-specificfuel consumption at full power (0.213 0.268 kg/kW/hr) (0.35-0.44 lb/hp perhr), Pis power (kW), LFis engine load

    factor and FDis the fuel density (0.85kg/l [7 lb/gal] for diesel). Hays recom-mends the following values for engineload factors: 25% (light: considerableidle, loaded hauls on favorable gradesand good haulage roads), 35% (aver-age: normal idle, loaded hauls on ad-verse grades and good haulage roads)and 50% (heavy: minimum idle, loadedhauls on steep adverse grades).

    Liebherr has developed a methodto determine the truck fuel consump-tion per hour. According to this OEM,the fuel consumption rate is direct-ly proportional to delivered power

    V. Kecojevic, member SME, is

    associate professor of miningengineering at West VirginiaUniversity, Morgantown, WV, and D.Komljenovic is a reliability engineerat Hydro-Quebec, University ofQuebec in Trois Rivieres, Montreal,QC. Paper number TP-10-015.Original manuscript submitted April2010. Revised manuscript acceptedfor publication August 2010.Discussion of this peer-reviewed andapproved paper is invited and mustbe submitted to SME Publications by

    Feb. 28, 2011.

  • 7/26/2019 Haul Truck Fuel Consumption - Published


    www.miningengineeringmagazine.com Mnng engneerng DECEMBER 2010 45

    Relationship between fuel consumption of Liebherr trucks and their engine

    power at a load factor of 100%.

    Figure 1

    Figure 2

    The relationship between fuel consumption (L/hr) and gross power (kW) for

    Caterpillar trucks.

    (Baucom, 2008). An 100% load factor isassumed and the following fuel consump-tions were obtained: 455 L/hr (120 gal/hr)for 1,864 kW (2,500 hp) truck power, 490L/hr (129 gal/hr) for 2,013 kW (2,700 hp),522 L/hr (138 gal/hr) for 2,163 kW (2,900

    hp), 547 L/hr (146 gal/hr) for 2,237 kW(3,000 hp), 617 L/hr (163 gal/hr) for 2,610kW (3,500 hp) and 640 L/hr (169 gal/hr)for 2,722 kW (3,650 hp). Figure 1 showsa relationship between engine power P(kW) and fuel consumptionFC(L/hr) forLiebherr trucks at 100% engine load fac-tor. Analyzing Fig. 1, it can be concludedthat an increase in truck power at a loadfactor of 100% will lead to an averageincrease in fuel consumption at the rateof 0.2139 L/hr (0.056 gal/hr) per kW. Itshould be noted that as engine ratings ap-proach and exceed 2,237 kW (3,000 hp),fuel efficiency (L/hr per kW) continuesto improve (Baucom, 2008). A high valueof R2= 0.9964 indicates a strong positivelinear correlation between engine powerand fuel consumption for Liebherr trucks.

    Analyzing Eqs. (1), (2) and the resultsdepicted in Fig. 1, the following can be ob-served: the gradient of an increase in fuelconsumption is 0.300 L/hr (0.079 gal/hr)per kW, from 0.