guidelines for adapting the old city to a special regime

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The case study chosen and presented in this document- Jaffa Gate and its immediate vicinity, delineates a possible implementation of the security and spatial guidelines as they were outlined before through a specific design of an entering/exiting crossing facility.

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  • Jaffa Gate Crossing FacilitiesSpatial Study

    The Old City Initiative SAYAarchitecture & consultancy

  • Research: Architects Yehuda Greenfield-Gilat and Karen Lee Bar-Sinai ( www.sayarch.com )Prepared for: Old City Initiative May 2007Graphics and Layout Design: Nimrod Schenkelbach

  • Content

    A. Introduction ................................................................6B. The Security Issue ......................................................7C. A Spatial approach to conflict resolution .........8D. Location of Project ................................................ 10E. Structure of Study .................................................. 11

    A. Urban setting .......................................................... 13B. The Boundaries of the Special Regime ........... 15C. Gate and Numbers ................................................. 16D. The Special Regime and the Gates ................... 19E. Security Arrangements in the Gates ................ 27F. What Gate is Chosen for this Study ? ................ 31

    A. Introduction and Location - General ............... 34B. Location of Proposed Facility ............................. 36C. Jaffa Gate Vehicle Entrance ................................. 39D. Site Management Options .................................. 44E. Planning the Facilities .......................................... 50F. Operating the Facilities ........................................ 65 G. Security Management Scenarios ..................... 71

    Summary ....................................................................... 82

    General Introduction

    Old City Special Regime

    Jaffa Gate Study

    Summary

    1

    2

    3

  • E. Structure of study

    C. A Spatial approach to conflict resolutionD. Location of project

    B. The security issueA. The Old City Initiative

    General Introduction

  • Jaffa Gate Crossing Facilities Spatial Study / The Old City Initiative

    Old City special regime Jaffa Gate StudyGeneral Introduction

    6

    General Introduction A. The Old City Initiative

    The Old City of Jerusalem is perhaps the most contentious issue in the Arab-Israeli conflict, and will certainly be a corner stone in any future solution of it. Its sovereignty, administration and control are questions of great dispute, and its holy sites resonate powerfully in the hearts and minds of Muslims, Jews and Christians around the world. The Old City cannot be divorced neither from its political, social and economic links to Jerusalem as a whole, nor from its Israeli or Palestinian hinterlands. This includes the issues of security, barriers, settlements and freedom of movement. Leaving these questions unresolved may therefore hinder the achievement of a durable peace between Israelis and Palestinians.

    This study follows the Old City Initiatives working assumptions, proposing a single governance approach for the Old City as a concept for achieving a peaceful and sustainable agreement between Israelis and Palestinians in the city of Jerusalem. The initiative therefore proposes to establish an interim special regime that meets the needs of stakeholders within the framework of a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine, with Yerushalayim and Al-Quds as their capitals. Its core components include the appointment of an administrator with executive powers; formation of a governing council composed of Israelis, Palestinians, and possibly foreign representatives chosen by the two parties; Establishment of an Old City police force composed of internationals, Israelis and Palestinians.

  • Jaffa Gate Crossing Facilities Spatial Study / The Old City Initiative

    Old City special regime Jaffa Gate StudyGeneral Introduction

    7

    General Introduction B. The security issue

    The Old City is small, densely overcrowded and poor urban area, as well as a home to different religions, nationalities, cultures, and politics. As such, law enforcement and ensuring public order and safety within it are great challenges. In addition, any security mechanism must take into full account Jerusalems role as the focal point of individual and group identities, and the sensitivities and mistrust this engenders. Taken together, these physical and symbolic factors make the Old City a vulnerable target for those seeking to disrupt Muslim-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian co-existence. Disruptions could range from provocative political action to outright terrorism, which would not only cause death and suffering, but would also threaten existing political agreements and enrage the regions inhabitants, as well as communities worldwide. It is quite clear that in absence of a fair-minded security mechanism, no agreement respecting the Old City would be sustained.

    This study investigates the question of movement into and out of the Old City, aiming to propose an efficient yet secure and spatially respectful scheme of operation and design of facilities. Such a plan is will be able to naturally blend with the local context, with minimal disruption to the flow of goods and peoples, whether they be Old City residents, Israelis or Palestinians, pilgrims or tourists.

  • Jaffa Gate Crossing Facilities Spatial Study / The Old City Initiative

    Old City special regime Jaffa Gate StudyGeneral Introduction

    8

    General Introduction C. A Spatial approach to conflict resolution

    This study aims to address the Old City Regimes conflict resolution challenge through a spatial approach. To this end, it utilizes planning and design tools to envision the political solutions final outcome, and investigates the spatial challenges it raises. SAYAs spatial approach to resolution planning is based on several basic assumptions relating to resolution of territorial arrangements:

    1. As all territorial resolutions are bound to be spatially implemented they demand spatial attention. Providing it in advance rather than retrospectively, raises the chances for better solutions to come about, and may greatly contribute to the harmony between all the solutions components.

    2. The spatial investigation allows both to envision a solution and shed light on its limitations. Implementation of a special regime security system and facilities will largely restrict the freedom of movement into and out-of the Old City. By planning, designing and studying these facilities in advance, various methods for accommodating these limitations are enabled.

    3. The spatial approach produces a new, highly relevant (yet hitherto inexistent) form of knowledge and database. This may greatly assist decision makers and future negotiations both in Jerusalem, and in other sites of conflict around the world.

    4. Outcomes of Resolution Planning are also useful as tools both for influencing public opinion and for communicating and marketing conflict resolution concepts to the wider public.

  • Jaffa Gate Crossing Facilities Spatial Study / The Old City Initiative

    Old City special regime Jaffa Gate StudyGeneral Introduction

    9

    General Introduction C. A Spatial approach to conflict resolution

    According to the assumptions listed above, the Jaffa Gate case study will attempt to follow a series of planning guidelines:

    Understanding the uniqueness of each site or gate, its special urban, geopolitical and social characteristics leading as a basis for a specific planning strategy.

    Propose a location and design for security crossing facilities within the existing urban fabric in a manner which blends into and respects the historical landscape.

    Aim that the monitoring and access control of people and goods at the Old Citys gates will be the quickest and most respectable as possible.

  • Jaffa Gate Crossing Facilities Spatial Study / The Old City Initiative

    Old City special regime Jaffa Gate StudyGeneral Introduction

    10

    General Introduction D. Location of project

    The old city is not only located in the center of greater East and West Jerusalem. But is also situated in the heart of the seam area between the Jewish and Arab demographic spreads, and may symbolically and functionally be seen as a possible bridge between them.

    The case study chosen and presented in this document- Jaffa Gate and its immediate vicinity, delineates a possible implementation of the security and spatial guidelines as they were outlined before through a specific design of an entering/exiting crossing facility. It aims to cover a variety of aspects, and integrate the security arrangements, movement flows, and a design approach sensitive to the historical urban fabric, thereby maintaining the visual qualities and form of the historical wall and entrance. Nevertheless it must be noted that the Jaffa gate is of a high Israeli affinity, and hence forms only a partial picture of a comprehensive spatial study, which addresses the two dominant sides of the city as entrance and exit points into the special regime.

    Old city

  • Jaffa Gate Crossing Facilities Spatial Study / The Old City Initiative

    Old City special regime Jaffa Gate StudyGeneral Introduction

    11

    General Introduction E. Structure of study

    The different chapters of this work will be as follows:

    1. Introduction- presenting the background and core assumptions of the project, its location and the basic key issues to be addressed.

    2. Old City special regime- Interpretation of the Old City Initiatives special regime into an operational and spatial scheme. The chapter will examine the regulations and control policy of the entrances and exits to the Old City.

    3. Jaffa Gate crossing study Delineation and outline of a specific design for an entering/exiting facility in Jaffa Gate.

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