Guideline for transportation of Dangerous Goods by air

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Guideline for ground handler staff and cargo personel of Tirana International Airport. Published in English 2012.


<p>Air transport of dangerous goods</p> <p>Introduction on air transport of Dangerous Goods. -Introduction-Background-Regulations</p> <p>-Limitations</p> <p>-Classification</p> <p>-Class 1: Explosives</p> <p>-Class 2: Gases</p> <p>-Class 3: Flammable liquids</p> <p>-Class 5: Oxidizers-Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances</p> <p>-Class 7: Radioactive material</p> <p>-Identification</p> <p>-Fig. 1 List of Dangerous Goods Packing</p> <p>-Fig. 2 Packing Instruction Packaging, Marking and labeling and Documentation</p> <p>-Fig. 3 Shippers Declaration</p> <p>-Fig. 4 Example of a NOTOC: </p> <p>-Handling and loading</p> <p>-Table 1 Class compatibility</p> <p>-Table 2 Separation chart</p> <p>-Table 3 Compatibility Chart</p> <p>-Table 4 Separation distances for radioactive substances</p> <p>-Emergency and contamination</p> <p>-Dangerous Goods Emergency Chart</p> <p>-Dangerous goods in passenger baggage</p> <p>-Provisions for Dangerous Goods</p> <p>-Carried by Passengers or Crew</p> <p>-Radioactive materials</p> <p>Background</p> <p>In the early 1950s, a growing demand was found for transporting hazardous materials and substances by air. Experience from other forms of transportation had shown that, handled correctly, this could be done without risk so long as the goods are suitably packaged and in limited quantities. These experiences, in conjunction with the aviation communities knowledge of the characteristics of air transport, resulted in the first industrial regulations on the safe transportation of dangerous goods. Today we know these regulations as IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (IATA DGR). These regulations are however, based on the requirements of Annexes 18 of the Chicago Convention and the subsequent editions of ICAO Technical Instructions (ICAO TI) which the legal documents are relating to air transport of dangerous goods. IATA DGR applies to IATA member airlines, associate members and interlines partners so, unless operating as such; ICAO TI is the document to comply with.</p> <p>The core of all regulations on transporting dangerous goods is the list of hazardous</p> <p>materials and substances as recommended by the United Nations Committee of Experts and the International Atomic Energy Agency. This list consists of more than 3000 entries describing the hazards and how they are to be handled. Each entry has been assigned a number known as the UN number as a form of universal index.</p> <p>As in all potentially hazardous activities, awareness is the key to maintaining safety. In May 1996, the world sadly saw the tragic consequences of insufficient awareness when a DC-9 from Value Jet crashed in the Florida Everglades after hazardous materials had caused a severe fire on-board (picture below). Generally, regulations tend to require relevant training of all staff, ground or airborne, who may encounter dangerous goods with recurrent training every two years.</p> <p> Regulations</p> <p>The regulations to be adhered to are the previously mentioned ICAO TI and IATA DGR, as applicable, and JAR OPS 1/3 subpart R and various state regulations.</p> <p>State regulations generally do not address specific handling requirements of the various</p> <p>substances that may be hazardous, referring only to ICAO TI in those respects. They do</p> <p>however, regulate operational requirements and limitations.</p> <p>In this document, I mainly refer to IATA DGR and JAR OPS, with some references to</p> <p>different state regulations. IATA DGR contain all of the requirements of ICAO TI with</p> <p>additional requirements that are more restrictive and reflect industry standards or operational requirements of IATA members. Where ICAO TI concerns ICAO member states and consequently includes state variations, IATA DGR also lists operator variations. For instance, some operators such as Swissair and Cathay Pacific do not accept Gallium for transport as it has a severely detrimental effect on aluminum.</p> <p>Dangerous goods are defined as articles or substances which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or to property when transported by air.</p> <p>When we discuss dangerous goods in this context, we generally mean cargo, as dangerous goods are prohibited in passenger baggage, with a few exceptions. Hazardous substances in passenger baggage can however, pose a greater threat to air safety than cargo as they may easily find their way onto an aircraft unnoticed. The travelling public cannot be expected to have the knowledge of the characteristics of air transport that professionals in the industry have, or even of the potential dangers of articles they carry in their baggage. Therefore, it is the responsibility of all staff involved in passenger and dead-load handling, as well as aircrews, to be vigilant to signs of potential hazards. The operator has the final responsibility to make sure the passengers and or client is informed and aware of regulations and technical instructions. In our operation the aircrew will do this by using the list of goods on page .</p> <p> Limitations</p> <p>Articles and substances classified as dangerous goods have various limitations imposed on then depending on how dangerous they are. Some goods are considered too hazardous to transport by air while others may be limited to transport on cargo aircraft only and some may be acceptable on both cargo and passenger aircraft. Certain dangerous goods normally not acceptable for transport by air may be transported under exemption by the state of origin, the state of destination and all states to be over-flown.</p> <p>Dangerous goods forbidden in aircraft under any circumstances:</p> <p> Explosives which ignite or decompose when subjected to a temperature of 75C</p> <p>(167F) for 48 hours.</p> <p> Explosives containing both chlorates and ammonium salts.</p> <p> Explosives containing mixtures of chlorates with phosphorous.</p> <p> Solid explosives which are described as extremely sensitive to mechanical shock</p> <p> Liquid explosives which are described as moderately sensitive to mechanical shock.</p> <p> Any article or substance, as presented for transport, which is liable to produce a</p> <p>dangerous evolution of heat or gas under the conditions normally encountered in air</p> <p>transport.</p> <p> Flammable solids and organic peroxides having, as tested, explosive properties and</p> <p>which are packed in such a way that the classification procedure would require the use</p> <p>of an explosives label as a subsidiary risk label.</p> <p>The dangerous goods listed in table 2.1A of IATA DGR (this is a long list and therefore not reproduced here).Dangerous goods forbidden unless exempted:</p> <p>1. Radioactive material which is:</p> <p> in vented type B(M) packages</p> <p> in packages which require external cooling by an ancillary cooling system</p> <p> in packages subject to operational controls during transport</p> <p>2. Explosive3. a pyrophoric liquid.</p> <p>4. Unless otherwise provided, articles and substances (including those described as not</p> <p>otherwise specified) which are identified in the List of Dangerous Goods as being</p> <p>forbidden.</p> <p>5. Infected live animals.</p> <p>6. Liquids having a vapor inhalation toxicity which requires Packing Group I</p> <p>packaging.</p> <p>7. Substances that are offered for transport in a liquid state at temperatures equal to or</p> <p>exceeding 100C (212F), or in a solid state at temperatures equal to or exceeding</p> <p>240C (464F).</p> <p>Limitations on dangerous goods acceptable for air transport are to be found in the lists based on the recommendations of the Committee of Experts in IATA DGR or ICAO TI.</p> <p>A permanent approval is required in order for an operator to be allowed to carry dangerous goods with the exception of four instances.</p> <p>These are:</p> <p>1. Articles and substances required for the airworthiness of the aircraft.</p> <p>2. Catering or cabin service supplies.</p> <p>3. Veterinary aids or humane killers for animals.</p> <p>4. Medical aids for a patient.</p> <p>Under 1), we find such things as oxygen and fire extinguishers. Point 2) includes such things as dry ice and alcohol (whiskey is classified as dangerous goods). There are many articles which fall under 4), the most common being oxygen or compressed air and electric wheelchairs.</p> <p>The Universal Postal Union prohibits all dangerous goods in airmail with two exceptions.</p> <p> Infectious substances may be accepted, provided the consignment is accompanied</p> <p>by a Shippers Declaration and it may be refrigerated with dry ice.</p> <p> Radioactive material may also be accepted if it has very low activity.</p> <p>Very small quantities of dangerous goods may be transported in such a manner that they may be excepted from the marking, labeling and documentation requirements. This is known as Dangerous goods in Excepted Quantities and is only applicable to goods acceptable on passenger aircraft. The following provisions must also be met:</p> <p>Substances of division 2.2 without a subsidiary risk.</p> <p>Substances of class 3, all packing groups.</p> <p>Substances of class 4, packing groups II and III but excluding all self-reactive substances.</p> <p>Substances of division 5.1, packing groups II and III.</p> <p>Substances of division 5.2, only when contained in a chemical kit or first aid kit.</p> <p>Substances of division 6.1, all substances in this division, except those having an inhalation toxicity requiring packing group I.</p> <p>Substances of class 8, packing groups II and III but excluding Gallium and Mercury.</p> <p>Substances and articles of class 9, other than magnetized material</p> <p>The concept excepted quantities can not be applied to passenger baggage or airmail. There is also an extensive list of goods not acceptable as cargo in excepted quantities. I have not included this list here because it basically lists the opposites of the above list.</p> <p>When we speak of very small quantities we are dealing with, for instance, 1g or 1mL for solids or liquids of packing groups I or II in division 6.1 or requiring a subsidiary toxic label, or 30g or 30mL for other substances. For non-flammable gases with no subsidiary risk we are limited to receptacles with a water capacity of 30mL.</p> <p>The combination of packages in an outer package allows, with a few exceptions:</p> <p>Packing group I 300g or 300mL.</p> <p>Packing group II 500g or 500mL.</p> <p>Packing group III 1L or 1kg.</p> <p>Always refer to ICAO TI or IATA DGR for details.</p> <p>Though excepted quantities do not require the regular labeling of dangerous goods they do require labels stating that they are Dangerous Goods in Excepted Quantities stating class and UN-number of the contents. When packing these goods it is not necessary to use the approved packages normally required for dangerous goods. It is sufficient to use good quality packaging according to the specifications in the regulations. For inner packaging, they should be constructed of plastic, glass, earthenware or metal.</p> <p>The regulations also allow for Dangerous Goods in Limited quantities. All this means is that some forms of dangerous goods may be packed in simpler, though good quality, packages if the quantity is less than a given amount. I have not provided a list of substances allowed in limited quantities here because, though it is not long it is fairly detailed. These goods still need to be marked, labeled and documented as dangerous goods. The net amount allowed as limited quantities is specified in the List of Dangerous Goods</p> <p>along with packing requirements. The gross weight of a limited quantity package must</p> <p>however, not exceed 30kg. I will clarify the difference under the section Identification.</p> <p>Classification</p> <p>Dangerous goods are divided into nine classes depending on the type of hazard they pose, while the three packing groups relate to the degree of hazard. Some classes are divided into divisions as there may be several types of substances with the same type of hazard. Gases, for instance, can be toxic, flammable or non-toxic and non-flammable.</p> <p>Class 1: Explosives</p> <p>Explosives are defined as:</p> <p> Explosive substances except those whose predominant hazard should be in another</p> <p>class.</p> <p> Explosive articles, except devices containing explosive substances in such a limited</p> <p>quantity or of such a character that their inadvertent or accidental ignition or initiation,</p> <p>during transport, will not cause any manifestation of projection, fire, heat, smoke or</p> <p>loud noise external to the device.</p> <p> Other articles or substances which are manufactured with a view to producing a</p> <p>practical explosive or pyrotechnic effect.</p> <p>Division 1.1 Explosives having a mass explosion hazard</p> <p>Division 1.2 Explosives having a projection hazard but not a mass</p> <p>explosion hazard</p> <p>Division 1.3 Explosives having a fire hazard, a minor blast</p> <p>hazard and/or a minor projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.</p> <p>Division 1.4 Explosives presenting no significant hazard.</p> <p> NOTE: Class 1.4S is the only explosive acceptable on passenger aircraft. Division 1.5 Very insensitive substances having a mass explosion hazard.</p> <p>Division 1.6 Extremely insensitive substances that do not have a mass explosion hazard.</p> <p>Class 2: Gases</p> <p>In this class, we find compressed and liquefied gases, and refrigerated liquefied gases. Also gases in solution, mixtures of gases and mixtures of gases with vapors of other substances.</p> <p>Articles charged with a gas and aerosols also belong here.</p> <p>Division 2.1 Flammable gas.</p> <p>Division 2.2 Non-flammable, non-toxic gas.</p> <p>Division 2.3 Toxic gas.</p> <p>Class 3: Flammable liquids</p> <p>This class has no divisions. It comprises liquids, mixtures of liquids and</p> <p>liquids containing solids in solution or suspension, which give of a flammable vapor.</p> <p>Class 4: Flammable solids</p> <p>This class has no divisions. It comprises liquids, mixtures of liquids and liquids containing solids in solution or suspension, which give of a flammable vapor.</p> <p>Division 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion.</p> <p>Division 4.3 Substances that, in contact with water emit flammable gases.</p> <p>Class 5: OxidizersOxidizers are substances which, though not necessarily combustible in them-selfe, may cause or contribute to combustion in other materials.</p> <p>Division 5.1 Oxidizer.</p> <p> Division 5.2 Organic peroxides. </p> <p>Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances</p> <p>This class includes substances which are liable to cause death, injury or to harm human health if they are swallowed or inhaled, or by skin contact.</p> <p>Division 6.1 Toxic substances.</p> <p>Division 6.2 Infectious substances.</p> <p>Class 7: Radioactive material</p> <p>This class has no divisions but is possibly the one that there is the most to be said about. Therefore, I have devoted an entire section to this class alone. For the purpose of regulations, a radioactive material is any substance with a specific activity greater than 70 kBq/kg.</p> <p>Class 8: Corrosives</p> <p>This class has no divisions. It comprises substances that can cause severe damage by chemical action when in contact with living tissue, other materials or the aircraft. </p> <p>Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous goods</p> <p>This class covers all articles and substances that are not covered by other classes, and include...</p>