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A Series o f Essays and Research Papers

Greenhouse Warming and Nuclear Hazards

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A Series of Essays and Research Papers

Greenhouse Warming

and Nuclear HazardsPeter FongEmory University, USA

r pworld ScientificN E W JERSEY

- LONDON - SINGAPORE

*

BElJlNG

*

SHANGHAI

- HONG KONG

*

TAIPEI

*

CHENNAI

Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte.Ltd.5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224

USA ofice: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601

UK ofice: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE

British Library Cataloguing-in-PublicationData A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

GREENHOUSE WARMING AND NUCLEAR HAZARDS A Series of Essays and Research PapersCopyright Q 2005 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Re. Ltd.All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any meam, electronic or mechanical. including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from ihe Publisher.

For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher.

Printed in Singapore.

To K. L.ChengFor his foresight to the age of wisdom away from the age offoolishness and his first proposal for a device to use nuclear waste for the improvement of health*.

K. L. Cheng, Microchemical Journal 72, 113-114 (2002).

l[t 'WAS the best

of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it w s the age of foolishness, it a was the epoch o belief, it was the epoch o increddity, f f it was the season of Light, it was the season of D r ak ness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing bef r us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all oe going direct the other way-in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some o its noisiest auf thocities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree o comparison only. f ATALE OF TWO CMIES 6. &&

"Chiii Nuan was exiled, wandering on the river bank. The fisherman spotted him and asked: "Aren't you the Alderman of the Third Precinct? Why are you so anguished?" Chiu Niian answered: "The entire world is muddy but I only am clean; everybody is drunk but I only am sober.

That's why I am exiled." The fisherman then asked "If the whole world ismuddy, why not dig up the dirt and stir up the waves? If everybody isdrunk, why not chew up the mash and suck up the alcohol?" The reply: "I

understand the newly bathed cleans the robe and the newly washed dresses the hair. How could I subject my pristine body to the filthy whirlpool. I would rather go to the sparkling Miro River and live with the fishes and shrimps."... Lamented the fisherman: "Oh! Clean water of the turbulent river! Wash my tassels! Muddy water of the turbulent river! Wash my feet!" Then left without further words.

The Fisherman, by Chiii Nuan* B

& , ca. 500 B.C.

* More on pp. 26,275-294.

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CONTENTSForewordxi

Preface

xv

Introduction Greenhouse Warming and Nuclear Hazards 1Three smoking guns prove the falsity of greenhouse warming Nuclear waste disposal, from trash to treasure Cancer death rates of 50 states of U.S. related to natural and nuclear-bomb-test-induced low level radiation

31925

Part I Greenhouse WarmingAn essay on the controversy of greenhouse warming Appendix: A billion year climate history and the evolution of humanity Related research papers on the origin of ice ages

3335 62

87 87 95 111 119

- Latent heat of melting and its importance of glaciation cycles- Origin of ice ages: Initial condition forcing and dynamics - Unraveling a centurys mystery of the ice ages - The fourth phase of water and the theories of greenhouse

effects and ice age glacial cycles

Part I1 Research Papers on Nuclear HazardsThe ultimate direct measurement of low level radiation effects Long life expectancy as the beneficial effect of low radiation Low level radiation extends life span by cutting death rates of disease including heart disease, cancer, stroke, etc. Reexamining nuclear energy safety

153155 175207 230

Index

249

ix

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ForewordThere are three major global environmental problems: greenhouse warming, nuclear hazards and the ozone hole. The ozone problem has been solved (Nobel Prize awarded). This book deals with the remaining two issues. The current greenhouse warming theory would be correct on Earth without the ice ages, such as in the Cretaceous Period (Dinosaurs). Then we can study the atmosphere based on stable equilibrium, by which the increase in carbon dioxide by fossil fuels will lead to global warming. However, our Earth today is still in an ice age (in the interglacial of Pleistocene), in which the polar ice caps and the cloud layers act as thermostats to stabilize temperature and to avoid global warming. Ice age is in neutral equilibrium, due to the phase transitions of water in which the temperature is unchanged, leading to thermostat effects. To be specific, upon adding greenhouse heat due to carbon dioxide, Earth will respond by increasing evaporation of ocean water and cloud coverage. The cloud so increased will cool down Earth by reflecting away more sunlight. This leads to the crucial result of dissipating the greenhouse heat entirely so that there will be no increase in temperature to cause global warming. These conclusions are verified by the observed data of cloud, precipitation and temperature changes in the past century and calculations of cloud dissipation based on the ERBE satellite data. The exact cancellation of global warming is not by accident. This is how the invisible hands of thermodynamics work through the ice age thermostats. The study of global warming is thus closely related to the origin of ice ages. The origin of ice ages has been a century-old, top-mystery problem, which I started to examine in 1982, ten years before the IPCC study of greenhouse warming in 1990. I solved the ice age origin problem, from whichxi

xii Foreword

the exact cancellation of greenhouse heat comes as a matter of course, not as a mathematical freak. However official theoretical studies based on stable equilibrium led to widely different warming from 0C to 5C. Scientists want a $1 billion super-computer to resolve the differences in ten years. Experimentally no warming was found and the problem has always been the missing greenhouse heat. The major advocate IPCC, after five years, has found shimmers of greenhouse heat. After ten years (2001) it concluded that there is no warming now due to the cooling effect of the polluted aerosols (actually our clouds) but warming will return when future pollution cleaning would have removed the aerosols. Indeed warming would begin when the increased cloud would have covered the entire Earth (as in Cretaceous). That would take 1200 years in the current ice age Earth. But fossil fuels would be exhausted much earlier, in 300 years. Thus the greenhouse warming is a moor issue; ironically it is due to too little fossil fuel to bring it about. The bitter dispute ends in a bizarre happy finale, with no sour losers, no crisis and no scandal, that deserves a grand celebration. The nuclear issue is the hazard of low-level radiation. By the official doctrine of linear extrapolation without threshold, it is hazardous all the way to zero radiation. Although the amount is small the total added up could be large. It makes nuclear waste disposal a serious problem. Sporadic evidence has generated a new view that there is a threshold below which it becomes benejcial. Then waste disposal will not be serious.

To resolve the low-dose issue we studied the extremely voluminousdeath statistics of leading diseases-heart, cancer, stroke, lung, diabetes-of the

entire population of the 50 states of US separately over the past 50 years. Then we correlated them with the low radiation exposure of the 50 states-natural due to altitude differences and artijcial due to radiation from Nevada nuclear tests at different distances away.

Foreword xiii

We found that eight high mountain states with high radiation have their cancer and other death rates reduced by 25%. The Nevada nuclear tests have reduced Nevadas cancer death rate of 25% after five years of tests. Other states have reduced rates diminishing with distance from Nevada and to zero for Hawaii and Alaska. Since this study has used up all available data, leaving no room for any other studies, the results must be the ultimate truth that cannot be challenged. The beneficial effect of low-level radiation is thus established without doubt and quantitatively in exact proportion. Since all major diseases benefit from low level radiation, we can expect a correlation of longevity with high radiation. In fact, in the Kerala State of India, where the radiation level is 20 times higher than normal (by Th mine), the life expectancy is 10.5 years longer than India as a whole. The unavoidable question is why low level radiation can render health benefits against common sense. There is a reasonable explanation. Since Earth was formed, it has been hit by background radiation, which is hazardous to life. Life then fought back by developing a primitive immune system, just to produce an anti-oxidant molecule to remov

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