greenhouse gases, global warming, climate change and connecticut

Download Greenhouse Gases,  Global Warming, Climate Change  and Connecticut

Post on 23-Feb-2016

58 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Greenhouse Gases, Global Warming, Climate Change and Connecticut. Laurel Kohl Edited by Ms. Mandel Institute for Sustainable Energy Eastern Connecticut State University. D23. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

Slide 1

Greenhouse Gases, Global Warming,Climate Change and ConnecticutLaurel KohlEdited by Ms. MandelInstitute for Sustainable EnergyEastern Connecticut State UniversityThis presentation is designed for teachers and others with an interest in Climate Change and its effects on Connecticut. Many of the slides are data-rich. The presentation should be evaluated for use with other audiences to meet their needs.1D23Explain how the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere increases Earths greenhouse effect and may cause climate changesOr that photo in our minds might be species affected by climate change---like penguins and polar bears.

If you are thinking Climate Change and Connecticut, none of these photos look like my backyard. How about yours?

Does that mean we wont be affected by Climate Change?2Learning TargetsI can explain the Greenhouse EffectI can name the effects of global warmingI can identify strategies to reduce climate change/global warming

Or that photo in our minds might be species affected by climate change---like penguins and polar bears.

If you are thinking Climate Change and Connecticut, none of these photos look like my backyard. How about yours?

Does that mean we wont be affected by Climate Change?3What Do You Think About When Someone Says Global Warming??????

Or that photo in our minds might be species affected by climate change---like penguins and polar bears.

If you are thinking Climate Change and Connecticut, none of these photos look like my backyard. How about yours?

Does that mean we wont be affected by Climate Change?4Greenhouse EffectWhat happens in the greenhouse effect?

Greenhouse EffectIs the greenhouse effect necessary for life on Earth? Why?Yes. Keeps the Earth at a temperature that can sustain life.How do human activities intensify the warming effect?Adds greenhouse gases to the atmosphereGreenhouse EffectWhat gases are considered greenhouse gases?CO2CH4H2ON2OSources of Greenhouse Gas EmissionsSource: http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/climate/causes.htmClimate change is caused by a number of gasses. These include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and chlorinated fluorocarbons.8Sources of Greenhouse Gas EmissionsSource: http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/climate/causes.htmClimate change is caused by a number of gasses. These include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and chlorinated fluorocarbons.9Does CO2 have the Greatest Heat-Trapping Abilities?NoCH420XN2O300X

www.epa.gov Climate change is caused by a number of gasses. These include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and chlorinated fluorocarbons.10What regions of the United States emit the greatest amounts of CO2?Large population of peopleMore industryWhy?Northeast USAreas with large cities

http://news.uns.purdue.edu/images/+2008/gurneyvulcan1.jpgLearning Target CheckpointWhat is the greenhouse effect?Or that photo in our minds might be species affected by climate change---like penguins and polar bears.

If you are thinking Climate Change and Connecticut, none of these photos look like my backyard. How about yours?

Does that mean we wont be affected by Climate Change?12What has been happening to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?IncreasingWhat happens when the amount of GHGs in the atmosphere increases?Accelerated greenhouse effectGlobal Warming

Climate change is caused by a number of gasses. These include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and chlorinated fluorocarbons.13What are the possible effects from Global Warming?Rising sea levelsThreatened culturesIncreased agricultural yieldsDecreased snowpackSevere stormsWater shortagesChanging range of diseasesLoss of biodiversity

Species extinctionChanges in precipitationFloodingReduced tourismHeat waves Reduced growing seasonsReceding glaciersChanging forestsClimate change

What does Climate Change mean in Connecticut?So what does Climate Change mean for Connecticut?

When we think of Connecticut, these are some of the pictures that come to mind.15

Predicted Changes in New England Average Annual Temperature2.5 7F

(from 4-12 F by the end of this century depending on the scenario) http://www.climatechoices.org/ne/impacts_ne/temperatures.htmlAccording to the Union of Concerned Scientists, it is expected that temperatures will rise over the next 90 years. How much will depend on many different factors. These factors are inputted into computer models. The models show us scenarios.These graphics are based on the variations that might be expected with higher emissions---basically business as usual without any downward adjustments to the carbon dioxide and other gasses we emit to the atmosphere. The lower emissions scenarios reflect a case where we do make adjustments.

It is expected that average annual temperature in New England will climb 2 to 7 degrees F by the end of the century. And that is the middle of these scenarios. Models are predicting up to 12 degrees F by end of century if we do not make changes.

So just what does that change mean?16From National Weather Service, Climate Prediction Center http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/regional_monitoring/12cavg0.gif

CT about 50 FAverage Temperature F US temperatures have been mapped and tracked for years.

As an annual average, Connecticut is about 50 degrees F as we were here in 2007.17

Average temp (F)October 2008Average temp (F)Jan-Dec 2007From National Weather Service, Climate Prediction Center http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/regional_monitoring/12cavg0.gifCHANGES IN AVERAGE ANNUAL TEMPERATURE Your average October day, 5 degrees warmer (~55 F) in 2040

5 degrees warmer will shift those temperature bands and we join that light green band in the top map by 2040. 18

Changing Climate

What would Bridgeport feel like if it was more like a Norfolk, VA climate?

Or Savannah, GA??www.climatechoices.org and www.nrcc.cornell.edu The Union of Concerned Scientists developed this graphic of a changing climate in the tri-state area (New York, Connecticut, New Jersey)Remembering the variation in those temperature change scenarios, depending on the low emissions or high emissions versions, that might shift our climate to being more like Norfolk VA or Savannah GA by the end of the century.19

Changing Climate

What would Bridgeport feel like if it was more like a Norfolk, VA climate?Or Savannah, GA??www.climatechoices.org and www.nrcc.cornell.edu Normal Minimum TemperatureNormals 1961-1990JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecAnnualBRIDGEPORT, CT21.923.230.939.850.059.165.765.157.647.138.227.643.9NORFOLK, VA30.932.339.347.156.865.270.069.464.252.943.835.450.6SAVANNAH, GA38.141.148.354.562.969.272.472.267.856.948.141.056.0So what would that feel like?

Average temperature in Connecticut in May or October is a lot like the average for the year about 50 degrees.

Norfolk is about 5 degrees warmer than us. Savannah is about 10-12 degrees warmer.

If you look at what a shift of 5 degrees means across the year, we pretty much lose our winter months, especially in that Savannah-like world.20Sea Level RiseNow rising 8 inches per century

Likely to rise another 22 inches by 2100

Cost to protect Connecticuts coastline from a 20-inch sea level rise could be $0.5-$3 billion

Erosion of coastlines and beachesLoss of habitatsAffects on tourism and industrieshttp://www.nextgenerationearth.org/contents/view/15 and http://www.nature.org/initiatives/climatechange/files/connecticut_factsheet_v2.pdf

From the Connecticut Health Foundation http://data.cthealth.org/Portals/0/documents/env_emergency_mgt.pdf

AquaticEcosystemsFloodCoasts

We see the change in Connecticut with more rainfall. This is especially noticed with more large-volume rain events. This leads to flooding and erosion issues. It affects crop growth and habitats.

This map shows the coastal areas of Connecticut that are in FEMAs Flood Zones and Hurricane Inundation Areas.22

From the Connecticut Health Foundation http://data.cthealth.org/Portals/0/documents/env_airqualityindex.pdf1087321EcosystemHealth

Ecosystems are affected by rainfall, temperature and air quality.This map shows the number of Unhealthy Air Quality days per year by county. Would you expect that to change with increased temperatures?23

Union of Concerned Scientistshttp://www.climatechoices.org/ne/impacts_ne/heat_hartford.html Hartford experiences about 15 days of temperatures over 90, and 2 days over 100.The projections by the Union of Concerned Scientists expects the number of days over 90 to grow to 42 or as high as 78 per year. And days over 100 to as high as 28 per year.

Of the cities on the map Boston to Buffalo to Pittsburgh, which would you expect to have the highest projects for hot days?Yes, We have a winner in Hartford!24Connecticut and Regional Effects

Plants and Animals

We talked about human-related expectations. What will our plants and animals see with climate change?25

May become more vulnerable to pest insects and diseases

May need to compete with invasive non-native

May produce fewer seeds (beechnuts, hickory nuts, and acorns) and fruit (wild cherries) that many animals depend on for food

May change their distribution patterns and species combinations

Subjected to more frequent fires, floods, more erosion

Habitats retreat into Canada and higher altitudeshttp://www.fs.fed.us/nrs/news/review/review-vol01.pdfhttp://www.snefci.org/TreesTrees fac

Recommended

View more >