Green Jobs & the Green Economy in New York City October 28, 2010 NYU School of Law New York City 1.
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Green Jobs & the Green Economyin New York CityOctober 28, 2010NYU School of LawNew York City
11NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibWhat is the New York City Labor Market Information Service (NYCLMIS)? NYCLMIS is a joint endeavor of the New York City Workforce Investment Board (WIB), the Center for Economic Transformation at the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC) and the Center for Urban Research at CUNYs Graduate Center.What are our goals? Provide labor market analysis tools to inform and improve practice within the broader NYC workforce development community Be the portal for cutting-edge, timely labor market data about NYC Raise public awareness about issues affecting NYCs labor marketHow do we accomplish these goals? Framing, distilling, and synthesizing existing labor market data Undertaking original research Providing technical assistance and training22NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibAgendaDefining Green Jobs and the Green Economy
Drivers of Green Job Growth
NYCLMIS Green Jobs Study
Green Jobs Research in other States
3Greening of the World of WorkO*NET-SOC (February 2009)The green economy encompasses the economic activity related to reducing the use of fossil fuels, decreasing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the efficiency or energy usage, recycling materials, and developing and adopting renewable sources of energy.
12 Green Sectors
Renewable Energy GenerationEnergy Efficiency*Energy TradingResearch, Design and ConsultingAgriculture and ForestryRecycling and Waste ReductionTransportationGreen Construction*Energy and Carbon CaptureEnvironment ProtectionManufacturingGovernment and Regulatory4Greening of the World of WorkThe greening of occupations refers to the extent to which green economy activities and technologies increase the demand for existing occupations, shape the work and worker requirements needed for occupational performance, or generate unique work and worker requirements.Three categories:Green Increased Demand Occupations 64 occupations. Work context may change, tasks themselves do not, e.g. bus driver, construction carpenterGreen Enhanced Skills Occupations 60 occupations. Change to the work and worker requirements, e.g. civil engineer, plumber, landscape architectGreen New and Emerging Occupations 95 occupations. New occupation, entirely new or born from an existing occupation, e.g. wind energy engineer, sustainability specialist, solar photovoltaic installer, fuel cell technician, energy auditor, carbon credit traders, recycling coordinator
5Measurement and Analysis of Employment in the Green EconomyWorkforce Information Council (October 2009) A green job is one in which the work is essential to products or services that improve energy efficiency, expand the use of renewable energy, or support environmental sustainability. The job involves work in any of these green economic activity categories:Renewable energy and alternative fuelsEnergy efficiency and conservationPollution, waste and greenhouse gas management, prevention and reductionEnvironmental cleanup and remediation and water clean-up and remediationSustainable Agricultural and natural resource conservationEducation, regulation, compliance, public awareness and training, and energy trading
6Measurement and Analysis of Employment in the Green EconomyWorkforce Information Council (October 2009) Key lessons from state surveys in Washington, Michigan, Oregon, CaliforniaNeed a clear definition of green jobsDefinition should be associated with a set of green economic activitiesDefinition should include a qualifier on the degree of the relationship, i.e. work is essential to products and services.Survey should specify a time periodSurvey instrument should provide clear examples of activities that might be considered green for each green economic activity.Scope of study must be clearly defined.Consider traditional labor market information as well as use of other studies, focus groups and other sources.
7Defining and Collecting Information on Green Jobs Bureau of Labor Statistics (September 2010)Definition of Green jobs: Green jobs are either:Jobs in businesses that produce goods or provide services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources.Jobs in which workers duties involve making their establishments production processes more environmentally friendly or use fewer natural resources.Categories of green jobs:Energy from renewable sourcesEnergy efficiencyPollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and recycling and reuseNatural resources conservationEnvironmental compliance, education and training, and public awareness
89Drivers of Green Job Growth
9NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibTechnological AdvancesSolar/Photovoltaic (electricity)Solar/Thermal (heat, hot water)WindHydroFuel CellsBattery storageSmartGridManufacturing from recycled materialsHybrid/electric cars and busesRecycled construction materialsBuilding management system controlsGraywater systems (using rainwater or water from domestic activities)
10Page 10NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibEconomic FactorsEnergy PricesCost of traditional (fossil) fuels vs. cost of renewable technologies
Economic DownturnConstructionHousingHigher unemployment (less disposable income)
Need for Investment inStart-up companies involved in green economic activitiesRetrofits for existing building and homesGreen new construction
11Page 11NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibMajor Policy Initiatives Affecting New York Citys Green EconomyNew York CityPlaNYC 2030Greener, Greater Buildings Plan Local Law 86 (requirements for large construction projects)Con Edison Smart Grid InitiativeSolar America Cities initiativeNew York StateGreen Jobs, Green New York, funded through Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative45x15 Initiative (Renewable Portfolio Standard)NYPA 100 MW Solar Photovoltaic InitiativeU.S.Green Jobs ActAmerican Recovery and Reinvestment Act Weatherization Assistance Program
12NYCLMIS Green Jobs Study Statewide partnership with NYSDOL, Stony Brook University, University of AlbanyWorking with local organizations involved in green jobs, e.g. STRIVE, CWE, SEIU Local 32BJ, Solar One, Urban Green Council, Urban Agenda Focused on 6 industry clustersConstructionEnergy and Environmental-related ManufacturingElectric power generation, transmission and distributionProfessional ServicesFinancial ServicesBuilding ServicesWill ask employers about demand for green jobs workers Will assess supply of training and education vs. demand
13Employer Survey20,000 employers across New York StateAll employers with 25 employees or moreSample of employers with less than 25 employeesOn-line survey with paper survey optionPreliminary results by February 2011, final report May 2011Asks:How many employees, by occupation, are working on green economic activities?Do occupations require enhanced skills to produce green products and services?What are source(s) of enhanced skill training for employees?Are green credentials preferred for employees? Which credentials?What are the green employment projections one year from now?Having any difficulty recruiting qualified green workers?
1414NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibAdditional Research QuestionsFor each key occupation involved in green economic activity:What are the specific tasks/responsibilities/work activities involved?What are the skill and knowledge requirements?What are the employers education and experience preferences?What credentials are preferred? required?What are the pay and benefits?What are some typical career trajectories/pathways/lattices?What is employee retention/turnover?
1515NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibAdditional Research QuestionsRecruitment/Retention:What are the major sources of recruitment for new employees?What recruitment methods and techniques do employers use to find new employees in key occupations?Which recruitment methods and techniques are effective? Which are not? Why?Are employers having difficulty finding or keeping qualified applicants for key occupations?If so, what are the recruitment/hiring/retention challenges?
1616NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibKey Employer Research QuestionsTraining:What are the methods and sources of training for new hires?What relationships and agreements are employers party to for the training of employees?What is the employer interest in accessing education and training programs, by type, e.g. on-the-job training, internships, apprenticeships, certificate programs, 2-year degree programs, 4-year degree programs, etc.?What employer-sponsored training is provided in key occupations?What methods and sources are used to train existing employees in new skills related to green economic activity?
1717NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibKey Employer Research QuestionsOther:To what extent does the employers green workforce consist of existing workers vs. the need to hire new employees with particular green skills or credentials?What related industries employ people in these green occupations?
1818NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibSupply-Side ResearchNon-degree training/educationCollect information on green training and education programs offered by adult & continuing education programs, private non-profit and community based organizations, private proprietary schools, labor organizations, credentialing organizations, etc.Compare to information collected on employer demandDegree programsCommunity/2-year colleges and University/4-year+ collegesCrosswalk between O*NET-SOC and IPEDS (post-secondary education data maintained by the U.S. Department of Education) by instructional program area (CIP codes).Identify instructional programs in NYC in key green O*NET-SOC occupations.
1919NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibGreen Jobs Research in Other StatesCalifornia (2010)3.8% of all workers are working on green products and servicesThree-quarters of current green workers were trained on the jobLargest numbers of green jobs are in manufacturing, followed by construction, professional, scientific and technical services, administrative, support and waste management and wholesale tradeTop green job was sustainable farmers and farmworkersWashington State (2009)Approximately 100,000 green jobs 3.3% of the States employment.Energy efficiency accounts for over 50% of all green jobs. Most of these jobs (70%) are in construction-related industries and occupations, followed by professional and technical services, such as architecture and engineeringProducing renewable energy accounted for less than 4,000 jobs.No new or unique occupational titles
2020NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibGreen Jobs Research in Other StatesMichigan (2009)109,067 green jobs, or 3% of totalClean transportation and fuels represents 41% of total green jobs, followed by 23% increasing energy efficiency, 13% pollution prevention and environmental clean-up, 13% agriculture and natural resource conservation, and 9% renewable energy production70% of employers said training would be at the workplace, as they look to upgrade current workers knowledge.Oregon (2008)51,402 green jobs, or 3% of employmentSector with largest green employment is construction (17%), followed by wholesale and retail trade (16%), administrative and waste services (14%), natural resources and mining (11%), and professional and technical services (11%).Blue collar occupations have greatest share of green jobs
2121NYC Green Jobs, October 14, 2010NYCLMIS www.urbanresearch.org www.nyc.gov/wibContact Information:Ronnie Kauder: email@example.comLesley Hirsch: firstname.lastname@example.orgNYCLMISCUNY Graduate Center365 Fifth Avenue, Room 6202New York, NY 10016www.urbanresearch.orgTHANK YOU!
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