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Green computingSubmitted By: Abhinav JoshiMCASubmitted To :Mrs. Rajshree
What is GREEN COMPUTING
Green computing, green IT or ICT Sustainability, is the study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing or IT. Includes designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystemssuch as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.Green Computing is Where organizations adopt a policy of ensuring that the setup and operations of Information Technology produces the minimal carbon footprint .HISTORYIn 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star.Its a voluntary labeling program that is designed to promote and recognize energy-efficiency in monitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies.In 2012 alone, American families and businesses have saved $24 billion on utility bills.Prevented greenhouse gas emissions equal to those from 41 million vehicles.
WHY GREEN COMPUTING?Increasing impacts on Nature.toxicityPollutionIncreasing impacts on Human health.SavingsReliability of Power
GOALS OF GREEN COMPUTINGReduce the use of hazardous materials in the manufacturing of the systems.Maximize energy efficiency during the products lifetime, andEncourage recyclability and biodegradability of products that have reached end-of-life
List of examples of devices containing these elementsLead: solder, CRT monitors (Lead in glass), Lead-acid battery Tin: solder Copper: copper wire, printed circuit board tracks Aluminum: nearly all electronic goods using more than a few watts of powerIron: steel chassis, cases & fixingsSilicon: glass, transistors, ICs, Printed circuit boardsLithium: lithium-ion battery Zinc: plating for steel parts
APPROACHESVirtualizationComputer virtualization is the process of running two or more logical computer systems on one set of physical hardware. It, provide the utility of not only running multiple virtual environments on the host system, but also allow creating and configuring the machines as per the requirements.The concept originated with the IBM mainframe operating systems of the 1960s, but was commercialized for x86-compatible computers only in the 1990s.
APPROACHES (contd.)DisplayParameterCRTLCDLEDEnvironmental influencesMagnetic fields may cause distortion or shimmer,earth's magnetic fields may cause distortionLow temperatures can cause slow response, high temperatures can cause poor contrastUV exposure can damage,water can damage organic materialsEnergy consumption and heat generationHighLow with CCFL backlight 30-50% of CRTVaries with brightness but usually lower than LCDAPPROACHES (contd.)Display:- CRT17 inch CRT requires around 90 watts
Display:- LCDLCD monitors are lightweight, compact, occupy less space.Consume low power and are available in a reasonable price.The liquid crystals used in the LCD are twisted at 90o with the surface.17 inch CRT requires around 45 watts.
APPROACHES (contd.)Display:- LEDBasically LED monitors are the LCD monitors with a LED backlight to power up the LCD panel.LED displays consume less powerup to 40% less than LCDLED displays do not use mercury(used in cathode lamps in LCD backlight) so they are environment friendly.
APPROACHES (contd.)StorageIn a recent case study, Fusion-io, manufacturer of solid state storage devices, managed to reduce the energy use and operating costs of Myspace data centers by 80% while increasing performance speed.
APPROACHES (contd.)Solid-State Drive(SSD)Uses semiconductor chips, not magnetic media, to store data.No mechanical parts.Uses NAND flash to provide non-volatile, rewritable memory.If a chain of transistors conducts current, it has the value of 1. If it doesn't conduct current, it's 0.The following bullets compare SSDs and HDDs on these critical activities:Boot-up time (Windows 7): 22 seconds (SSD), 40 seconds (HDD)Data read-write speed: 510-550 megabytes per second (SSD), 50-150 megabytes per second (HDD)Excel file open speed: 4 seconds (SSD), 14 seconds (HDD)Finally, SSDs consume far less power than traditional hard drives, which means they preserve battery life and stay cooler.
APPROACHES (contd.)Material RecyclingIt includes both finding another use for materials (such as donation to charity), and having systems dismantled, in a manner that allows for the safe extraction of the constituent materials for reuse in other products.A hefty criticism often lobbed at reuse based recyclers is that people think that they are recycling their electronic waste, when in reality it is actually being exported to developing countries like China, India, and Nigeria.
APPROACHES (contd.)Refurbished ElectronicsIts the distribution of products that have been returned to a manufacturer or vendor for various reasons.Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold.Main difference between "refurbished" and "used" products is that refurbished products have been tested & verified to function properly, and are thus free of defects, while"used" products may or may not be defective.
APPROACHES (contd.)TelecommunicatingTelecommuting technologies implemented in green computing initiatives have advantages likeIncreased worker satisfactionreduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travelincreased profit margins
APPROACHES (contd.)Green data centerIts a repository for the storage and management of data in which the mechanical, lighting, electrical and computer systems are designed for maximum energy efficiency and minimum environmental impact.Minimizing the footprints of the buildingsThe use of low-emission building materials, carpets and paintsSustainable landscapingWaste recyclingInstallation of catalytic converters on backup generatorsThe use of alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaic, heat pumps, and evaporative coolingThe use of hybrid or electric company vehicles
APPROACHES (contd.)Cloud ComputingIt means outsourcing your companys information technology (IT) needs, from data and storage to software. All the servers and applications sit elsewhere in the Internet cloud.A recent study from Microsoft showed that, compared to running their own applications, by outsourcing companies can reduce the energy use and carbon footprint of computing by up to 90 percent!
PATHWAYS TO GREEN COMPUTINGGreen Design And Manufacturingsocial, economic, and ecological sustainability.A study by Gregg Pitts, director of environmental design at Microelectronics and Computer Technology, found that direct PC-manufacturing processes generate3 pounds of waste for every pound of product.IBM estimates that discarded computers will occupy 2 million tons of US landfill space by 2000.The US Energy Information Administration estimated that in 1995, PCs in US offices alone used 250 trillion BTUs of energy.
PATHWAYS TO GREEN COMPUTING(contd.)Green UseShutdown Your ComputerSave Paper when PrintingTurn Off Peripherals to Kill the VampiresUse print version for printing.Use Power saving modes.
GREEN DISPOSALGreen DisposalSign up for local hazardous waste collection.Dispose of waste in the trash.Develop a hazardous waste policy.Substitute hazardous materials with non-hazardous materials.
GREEN COMPUTING IN INDIAAs of November 2013, India has 12 systems on the Top500 list ranking 44, 84, 100, 107, 131, 226, 316, 367, 390, 427, 428 and 429.
C-DAC developing green tech for PARAM supercomputer
Unveiled on 8 February 2013Cost of Rs.160 million (US$3million).It performs at a peak of 524 teraflop/s.Will consume 35% less energy as compared to the existing facility.Pune-based Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) is designing and developing a green computing technology for running a top end high speed PARAM supercomputer