greece: the beginnings of western civilization

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Greece: The Beginnings of Western Civilization. Impact of Geography. How did geography affect the development of Greece? In central & southern Greece, no one lives more than 40 miles from the sea. Plato wrote: Like frogs around a pond, we have settled around the shores of the sea. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Greece: The Beginnings of Western Civilization

  • Impact of GeographyHow did geography affect the development of Greece?In central & southern Greece, no one lives more than 40 miles from the sea. Plato wrote: Like frogs around a pond, we have settled around the shores of the sea.

  • Pindus Mts.

  • Pindus Mountains at Delphi

  • Olive Groves

  • Delphi

  • Mt. Olympus: Home for the Gods?

  • Gulf of Corinth

  • Acropolis(Parthenon)

  • Athens Acropolis

  • Athens: Past Meets Present

  • Agora at Base of Acropolis

  • Agora

  • Acropolis and Agora

  • Minoans

  • Santorini(Atlantis?)

  • Cliffs at Thira

  • The Kaldeira

  • Fisherman & Boxers at Akrotiri

  • Palace of Knossos

  • Labyrinth

  • Bull Leaping

  • Bull Vase

  • Linear B

  • Mycenae

  • Lions Gate

  • Grave Coverings for Infantby Schliemann

  • Mask of Agamemnon

  • A Wall of Troy (Ilium)

  • SW Gate of Troy

  • Excavation of Troy

  • The TyrantsDracoSolonCleisthenes

  • Vase tells story of Pisistratus fighting for Athenian Democracy

  • Persian Wars

  • Marathon Means Fennel?

  • Persian WarsHerodotus wrote History of the Persian WarsWars began in Ionia about 520 BCEPersians conquered the areaGreeks eventually revolted with help of AthensDarius put down revolt and vows revenge on Athenians

  • 490 BCE Persian fleet landed at MarathonAthenians wonSent Pheidippides back to Athens with message10 years later son Xerxes attacksGreeks lost at Thermopylae Hot Gates but Spartan king Leonidas and 300 soldiers fought to last man

  • Battle of Salamis naval battle won by AthensBattle of Plataea Spartans beat the remains of Persian armyAfter war Athens took all the glory became leader of Delian League

  • Age of PericlesGreek culture reaches peak advances in art and sciencesPericles Athenian general determined to rebuild AthensHas Parthenon built. Hires Phidias to sculpt statue of AthenaMakes a number of contributions to ATHENS

  • Peloponnesian War 431-404 BCEThucydides wrote History of the Peloponnesian WarsBegan as a competition for alliesSpart and Atens went to war fought off and on for 27 yearsPlague swept through Athens killing of the population (including Pericles)4ll BCE Athens suffered internal revolt

  • Persians helped Spartans and they defeated Athens in 405 BCEConsequences of the war: weakened all Greek city-states. Destruction of resources, inept governments. Left vulnerable to invasion

  • Thermopylae & Leonidas 300Decisive Battles: ThermopylaeSpartans Prepare for the Battle of Thermopylae*Herodotus recounted an incident that preceded the Battle of Thermopylae. The Spartan Dienekes was told the Persian archers were so numerous that when they fired their volleys, their arrows would blot out the sun. He responded with So much the better, we'll fight in the shade. [Herodotus The Histories, Book Seven, section 226.]

  • Delian League & Athenian EmpireLeague of Nations/UNProtectionDues

  • Golden Age of Greece(480-430 BCE)Hellenic: pure Greek styleideal beauty, not realism;harmony, order, balance, & proportion

    Sophists: no absolute truth; what people see through their senses is the source of knowledge; Man is the measure of all things

  • Greek DramaHonors DionysusAmphitheatreSophocles & TragediesAristophanes & ComediesAthens: City of Slaves & ArtisansImpact on technological innovation?Focused on philosophy, beauty, nature

  • Discobolos by Myron

  • Phidias

  • Parthenon

  • Peloponnesian War

  • PericlesHow does Pericles Funeral Oration compare to Lincolns Gettysburg Address?

  • Philosophers: Search for Truth & Wisdom!Socrates: The unexamined life is not worth living.Plato: We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light. Ignorance, the root and the stem of every evil.Aristotle: Republics decline into democracies and democracies degenerate into despotisms.

  • Philip of Macedon & Alexander the Great

  • Alexander the Great359 BCE Philip II came to throne of Macedonia337 BCE He temporarily united Greece expect for SpartaAristotle became Alexanders tutor336 BCE Philip assassinated at daughters wedding (Pausanias hired by Olympia/Alexander?)

  • Alexander conquered Persia, Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and as far as the Indus River323 BCE Alexander died in Babylon of a fever at age 33

  • Alexanders Plan to Create a World Empire1. found new cities as cultural centers -Hellenized people, they accepted Greek culture2. Merge Macedonians & Persians into one ruling race3. Be considered a divine monarch a god king

  • Break-up of Empire1. Antigonus ruled Macedonia2. Ptolemy - Egypt 3. Seleucus - Syria

  • Hellenism (323-31 BCE)Cultural diffusionBlend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian culturesRealism and movementBalance, harmony, symmetryAlexandria: cosmopolitan city

  • PhilosophersStoicism: show no emotion; divine power controls universe; virtuous life in harmony with natural law; avoid human desires, power & wealth

    Epicureanism: happiness comes from good conduct and absence of pain; harmony of body & mindRomans: Eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we shall die!

  • Math & ScienceAristarchus: estimated the sun was at least 300x larger than the earth disproving earth being larger than sun; geocentricEratosthenes: estimated earths circumference (24,662miles), latitude/longitudeArchimedes: estimated Pi; Archimedes screw, catapults, laws of levers/pulleysPtolemy: heliocentricEuclid: compiled geometry textbook The Elements

  • Library & Lighthouse of Alexandria

  • Venus di Miloby Alexandros of Antioch?

  • Winged Goddess of Victoryaka- Nike of Samothrace

  • MyMyronron

  • Socrates drinking hemlock

  • Linear A Minoans*Brought democratic reform*Pheidippides: Rejoice, we conquer!*X of Plataea and Salamis; Delian League**Hellenic**Mistaken for Praxiteles workooopsHellenistic*Hellenistic*