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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Greece: Classical Athens 500-430 BCE
  • Slide 3
  • Greek Civilization 1750 BCE 133 BCE Early Minoan civilization the forerunner for Greece - began on the island of Crete, around 1700 BC. Evidence shows extensive trade and a very advanced culture, which was exported to mainland Greece at Mycenaea. Mycenaea Click here for online information about Mycenaean culture. Click here for online information about Mycenaean culture. How did the geography of Greece present obstacles to a unified Greek country?
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  • Minoan Civilization Minoan Civilization was one of the earliest examples of what has come to be called Greek civilization. Minoans were trading at the same time as the Phoenicians, Egyptians and Babylonians. The Minoan Civilization may have been the foundation for the story of Atlantis. The Palace at Knossos. Click here for more pictures of the palace. Click here for more about the Minoans. Click here for more about the Minoans.
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  • Minoan Civilization
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  • 'Prince with the Lilies' or 'Priest King' Fresco (Knossos, Bull Vaulting Fresco
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  • Minoan Civilization
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  • Mycenaeans 1600 BC 1200 BC Sea traders beyond Aegean to Sicily, Italy, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Warriors, living in several city states. The Mycenaean city state became the mainland Greek civilization. Best known for Trojan War. Click here and on the pictures for more information about Mycenaeans and the Trojan War. pictures
  • Slide 9
  • Athens and Sparta Athens and Sparta (Click above for a web chart comparison of Athens and Sparta. Use this website to complete the chart on the next slide.) 1200 1 BCE Greece itself was made up of separate city-states, which were constantly at war. Define city-state City-state definition: Political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands. Two major city-states: Athens and Sparta. Create a chart on your own paper like the one which follows.
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  • Athens Government: Soldiers and the Military: Slaves: Women: Education: Sparta Government: Soldiers and the Military: Slaves: Women: Education:
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  • Athens Government: Limited democracy (only male citizens could participate), Council of 500 which made the laws, voting Assembly. Soldiers and the Military: Citizen soldiers only during wartime. Athens was in charge of the Delian League when Greece was attacked by Persia. Slaves: No political rights or freedoms. Owned by individuals Women: Cared for the home, limited political rights. Education: Upper class boys only. Military training and preparation for government involvement. Knowledge was important for a democratic government. A great importance placed on artistic endeavor and philosophy. Sparta Government: Two kings (military generals) and a council of elders. Citizens were male, native born, over 30. Only they could vote. Soldiers: Military society, all males prepared to be soldiers from birth. Soldiers from age 7 30. Slaves Owned by the State Women: Prepared physically for fighting, right to inherit property, must obey men. Education: Boys only. Military based training from age 7. Taught to fight. Prohibition against trade, travel and mixing with other city-states.
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  • Persian Wars 490 479 BCE The Greek city-states did not unite until faced with a common enemy: Persia
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  • Delian League By 479 BC, the Greeks had defeated the Persians on land in Asia Minor and stopped their advance. Athens emerged from the war as the most powerful city-state in Greece. To continue the struggle against Persia, it organized the Delian League, an alliance with the other Greek city states. Athens dominated the Delian League and used its wealth to create an Athenian empire.
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  • AthensAthens The City Pericles Built Leader: Pericles Direct Democracy Citizen assembly voted directly on laws Huge construction projects Acropolis and Parthenon rebuilt Emphasis on arts, architecture, philosophy and medicine
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  • Democracy of Athens
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  • Healing in Ancient Greece
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  • Hippocrates Lived in about 460 B.C. Most historians believed that he wrote between 60 and 70 medical studies. Taught that disease come from natural causes rest, fresh air, and a proper diet made the best cures Medical treatments should be based on reason rather than magic
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  • Hippocrates Hippocrates is generally credited with turning away from divine notions of medicine and using observation of the body as a basis for medical knowledge. Prayers and sacrifices to the gods did not hold a central place in his theories, but changes in diet, beneficial drugs, and keeping the body "in balance" were the key. Central to his physiology and ideas on illness was the humoral theory of health, whereby the four bodily fluids, or humors, of blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile needed to be kept in balance. Illness was caused when these fluids became out of balance, sometimes requiring the reduction in the body of a humor through bloodletting or purging.
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  • Hippocratic Oath The Hippocratic Oath (OrkoV) is perhaps the most widely known of Greek medical texts. It requires a new physician to swear upon a number of healing gods that he will uphold a number of professional ethical standards. One of the best known prohibitions is, "to do no harm" I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to my greatest ability and judgment, and I will do no harm or injustice to them. I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessary (stone) to cause an abortion. Whatever I see or hear in the lives of my patients, whether in connection with my professional practice or not, which ought not to be spoken of outside, I will keep secret, as considering all such things to be private.
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  • Athens Conquered by Sparta In 404 BC, Sparta attacked and conquered the fading Athenian empire in what came to be know as the Peloponnesian War. For the next century, fighting continued to dominate the Greek city-states. By 359 BC, the Macedonians from the north, under the leadership of Philip II invaded and conquered all of Greece.
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  • Government Direct democracy; citizens rule by majority vote Written code of laws Citizens bring charges of wrongdoing; trail by jury Expansion of citizenship to all free adult males, except foreigners Arts Drama and poetry Sculpture portraying ideals of beauty Painted pottery showing scenes of Greek life Classical Architecture The Legacy of Greece
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  • The Greek Legacy Continued Culture Greek Language Mythology about gods and goddesses Olympic Games Philosophers search for truth Science and Technology Disagreement whether sun or earth was the center of the universe Accurate estimate of the circumference of earth Euclids Geometry text book Development of lever, pulley, pump
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  • Athenian and United States Democracy Both Democracies Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of government Legislative branch passes laws Executive branch carries out laws Judicial branch conducts trials with paid jurors Athenian Democracy Citizens: male; 18 years old; born of citizen parents Laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens Leaders chosen by lot Executive branch composed of a council of 500 men Juries varied in size No attorneys; no appeals; one-day trials United States Democracy Citizens: born in United States or completed citizenship process Representatives elected to propose and vote on laws Elected president Executive branch made up of elected and appointed officials Juries composed of 12 jurors Defendants and plaintiffs have attorneys; long appeals process
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  • Alexanders Empire: Hellenistic Period 338-100 BCE
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  • The World of Alexander the Great 359 BC 323 BC Philip of Macedonia Philip conquered Greece in 359 BC His next conquest was to be the Persian empire. The Macedonian army was the most superbly trained in the world. It made use of the phalanx configuration. Philip was assassinated before he could attack and conquer Persia. His son, Alexander (20) took the throne.
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  • Over the course of the next eleven years, Alexander proceeded to conquer the entire Persian empire. When Darius surrendered, Alexander took over all of his realm and his possessions. Alexander even married Darius daughter! Alexander
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  • Write a short paragraph in which you compare and contrast the extent of Alexanders Empire as opposed to the Persian Empire
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  • Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his empire began to divide and dissolve. However, Alexander left behind a legacy of Greek thought, language and custom that survives in part today.Alexander the Great The Legacy of Alexander Local cultures assimilated Greek ideas and language. They became Hellenic or Greek like The Hellenistic Age is the age of world wide Greek culture after Alexander. Left behind the idea that all people are morally equal. Aided in the spread of Christianity. Encouraged the work of scholars. Bui

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