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  • GRAY PORTLAND CEMENT AND CEMENT CLINKER FROM JAPAN

    Determination of the Commission in Investigation No. 731-TA-461 (Final) Under the Tariff Act of 1930, Together With the Information Obtained in the Investigation

    USITC PUBLICATION 2376

    APRIL 1991

    United States International Trade Commission Washington, DC 20436

  • UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION

    COMMISSIONERS

    Anne E. Brunsdale, Acting Chairman

    Seeley G. Lodwick

    David B. Rohr Don E. Newquist

    Charles Ervin, Director of Operations

    Staff assigned:

    Brian C. Walters, Investigator Linda White, Commodity-Industry Analyst

    Cathy DeFilippo, Economist Chand Mehta, Accountant/Financial Analyst

    Judith Czako, Attorney

    Robert Carpenter, Supervisory Investigator

    Address all communications to Kenneth R. Mason, Secretary to the Commission United States International Trade Commission

    Washington, DC 20436

  • C 0 N T E N T S

    Determination----------------------------------------------------------- Views of Commissioner Seeley G. Lodwick and

    Commissioner Don E. Newquist------------------------------------------ Separate views of Commissioner David B. Rohr---------------------------- Views of Acting Chairman Anne E. Brunsdale------------------------------ Information obtained in the investigation-------------------------------

    Introduction-------------------------------------------------------- Background---------------------------------------------------------- Previous Commission investigations concerning portland cement------- The present investigation------------------------------------------- The product - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

    Description and uses-------------------------------------------- Production process---------------------------------------------- U.S. tariff treatment-------------------------------------------

    The nature and extent of sales at LTFV------------------------------ The domestic market-------------------------------------------------

    The regional character------------------------------------------ Factors affecting demand---------------------------------------- Apparent U.S. consumption---------------------------------------

    Southern California----------------------------------------- State of California-----------------------------------------

    U.S. producers-------------------------------------------------- U.S. importers--------------------------------------------------

    Consideration of alleged material injury to an industry in the United States----------------------------------------------

    U.S. production, capacity, and capacity utilization------------- Southern California----------------------------------------- State of California-----------------------------------------

    U.S. producers' shipments--------------------------------------- Southern California----------------------------------------- State of California-----------------------------------------

    U.S. producers' inventories------------------------------------- Southern California----------------------------------------- State of California---------------·---·---------------------

    U.S. producers' employment and wages---------------------------- Financial experience of U.S. producers------------------·-------

    Southern California----------------------------------------- Portland cement and cement clinker operations----------- Investment in productive facilities--------------------- Capital expenditures------------------------------------ Research and development expenses----------------------- Impact of imports on capital and investment-------------

    State of California----------------------------------------- Portland cement and cement clinker operations----------- Investment in productive facilities--------------------- Capital expenditures------------------------------------ Research and development expenses----------------------- Impact of imports on capital and investment-------------

    1

    3 45 67

    A-1 A-1 A-1 A-2 A-2 A-5 A-5 A- 7 A-9 A-9

    A-11 A-11 A-14 A-15 A-15 A-18 A-18 A-21

    A-22 A-22 A-23 A-23 A-25 A-25 A-25 A-29 A-29 A-29 A-30 A-32 A-32 A-32 A-38 A-39 A-39 A-39 A-39 A-39 A-44 A-44 A-44 A-44

  • ii

    CONTENTS

    Information obtained in the investigation--Continued Consideration of the question of threat of material inJury----------

    U.S. inventories of portland cement and cement clinker from Japan---------------------------------------------------------

    Ability of foreign producers to generate exports and the availability of export markets other than the United States---

    Consideration of the causal relationship between imports of the subject merchandise and the alleged material injury-----------

    U.S. imports---------------------------------------------------- Market penetration by LTFV imports------------------------------

    Southern California----------------------------------------- State of California-----------------------------------------

    Prices---------------------------------------------------------- Price trends and comparisons--------------------------------

    Los Angeles, CA----------------------------------------- Orange County, CA--------------------------------------- Riverside County, CA------------------------------------ San Diego, CA------------------------------------------- San Francisco, CA---------------------------------------

    Purchaser responses--------------------------------------------- Prices------------------------------------------------------

    Lost sales and lost revenues------------------------------------ Exchange rates--------------------------------------------------

    Appendixes A. The Commission's and Commerce's Federal Register notices------------ B. Calendar of hearing------------------------------------------------- C. Trade and financial data, by regions and by plants------------------ 0. Effects of imports on producers' existing development and production

    efforts, growth, investment, and ability to raise capital--------- E. Weighted-average delivered prices reported by U.S. producers and by

    importers of portland cement from Mexico-------------------------- F. Delivered purchase prices and margins of under/(over)-selling for

    U.S.-produced and Japanese cement as reported by U.S. purchasers--

    Figures 1. Portland cement and cement clinker: The Southern California

    region - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2. Steps in the manufacture of portland cement------------------------- 3. New technology in dry-process cement manufacture-------------------- 4. Portland cement and cement clinker: Plant locations of U.S.

    producers in the Southern California region, 1990-----------------

    A-46

    A-47

    A-48

    A-53 A-53 A-53 A-53 A-55 A-62 A-65 A-66 A-66 A-67 A-67 A-68 A-69 A-70 A-71 A-72

    B-1 B-21 B-25

    B-31

    B-35

    B-39

    A-4 A-8

    A-10

    A-19

  • iii

    CONTENTS

    Tables 1. Portland cement and cement clinker: Previous investigations,

    determinations, countries subject to investigation, and geographic scope of domestic industry---------------------------------------- A-3

    2. Portland cement: Shipments from U.S. plants, by types of cement, 1989- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A-6

    3. Portland cement: U.S. producers' shipments as a percentage of total shipments, by types of customers, 1989----------------------

    4. Portland cement: U.S. producers' domestic shipments, imports, and apparent U.S. consumption, 1986-90--------------------------------

    5. Authorizations of construction permits, by regions and by types of permit, 1986-89------------------------------------------------

    6. Portland cement and cement clinker: U.S. shipments, U.S. production, imports, and apparent consumption, 1986-90------------

    7. Portland cement and cement clinker: U.S. capacity, production, and capacity utilization, by products and by regions, 1986-90---------

    8. Portland cement: Shipments of U.S. producers, by regions, 1986-90-- 9. Cement clinker: Shipments of U.S. producers, by regions, 1986-90--- 10. Portland cement and cement clinker: End-of-period inventories of

    U.S. producers, by regions and by products, 1986-90-------------- 11. Average number of production and related workers producing portland

    cement and cement clinker, hours worked, wages and total compensation paid to such employees, and hourly wages, productivity, and unit production costs, by regions, 1986-90-----

    12. Income-and-loss experience of U.S. producers in the Southern California region on their operations producing portland cement and cement clinker, accounting years 1986-90---------------------

    13. Portland cement and cement clinker: U.S. producers' quantity and value of net sales in the Southern California region, by types of sales, accounting years 1986-90----------~-----------------------

    14. Income-and-loss experience (on a per-short-ton basis) of U.S. producers in the Southern California region on their operations producing portland cement and cement clinker, accounting years 1986-90- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

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