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Varun Khanna Jugal Katariya Vikas Harjai Ankit Punjabi Manan Singh Ronnie Bhaumik Kashish Popli Rajnikant Patel

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The London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) is a benchmark interest rate based on the rates at which banks lend unsecured funds to each other on the London interbank market

Each morning, global banks submit their borrowing costs to the Thomson Reuters data collecti on serviceCalculated for fifteen different maturities and ten different currencies, the Libor is considered the most critical global benchmark for short-term interest rates

Many banks worldwide use Libor as a base rate for setting interest rates on consumer and corporate loans. When the Libor rises, rates and payments on loans often increase; they fall when the Libor goes down Used as a base rate on financial markets for a number of derivatives instruments, including futures contracts, options, and swaps Over $800 trillion in securities and loans are linked to the Libor

Setting

Libor and Prime Rate: Libor is an average derived from the rates at which major banks lend to each other in Londons money markets. US Prime Rate is typically set at three percentage points above the federal funds rate. Libor vs US Prime Rate: setting Libor is more complicated than setting US Prime Rate Rate, Floating Rate: Libor is a floating rate it fluctuates continually. US Prime Rate is a fixed rate it typically remains unchanged for extended periods of time. Prime Rate versus Libor: Prime rate is fixed, Libor is floating.Fixed

Users of Libor and Prime Rate: Libor is used by banks it is the interest rate at which banks lend to each other in certain London money markets. (Borrowers, lenders, and investors may use Libor as a reference rate.) US Prime Rate is used by consumers it is the rate at which banks lend to their best customers. (Borrowers, lenders, and investors may use prime rate as a reference rate.) Prime versus Libor: Prime is used primarily by consumers; Libor is used primarily by banks (in theory).Primary

Libor Benchmark Benchmark Prime Lending Rate: Libor is a benchmark interest rate used as a reference in lending and borrowing transactions around the globe. US Prime Rate is a benchmark interest rate used as a reference in lending and borrowing transactions in the United States and elsewhere. Libor versus Prime Rate: both rates are benchmark interest rates with wide global usage. Publication of Libor and Prime Rate: Libor bank rates are published daily at 11:30am GMT by the British Bankers Association. The US Prime Interest Rate, also called the Wall Street Journal Prime Rate, is published in the Wall Street Journal. Prime Rate versus Libor: Prime interest rate is published by the WSJ; Libor is published by the BBA. Variations of Libor and Prime Rate: Libor is published for 10 currencies and 15 maturities, ranging from overnight to one year. Prime lending rates may vary slightly among individual commercial banks. Libor vs Prime Rate: there are many more official versions of Libor than there are official versions of US Prime Rate. Libor vs Euribor Libor and Euribor are conceptually the same. They are both averages of interest rates charged by member banks for loans to each other over a number of different time periods. They are used as benchmarks for interest rates on other financial instruments, such as business loans and mortgages. They differ as to location and somewhat in the way they are computed.

HOW IS IT SETLibor is published daily by the British Bankers' Association (BBA). Every morning global banks submit their borrowing costs to the Thomson Reuters data collection service at 11 am London Time.

The calculation agent throws out the highest and lowest 25 percent of submissions and then averages the remaining rates to determine the Libor.Because LIBOR is an average of quotes and only calculated

However, LIBOR provides a good approximation of the actual being used.

This approximation is normally more accurate for short-term rates and less accurate for long-term LIBOR rates.

Calculated for 15 different maturities and 10 different curren the Libor is considered the most critical global benchmark fo interest rates.

LIBOR rates are provided for periods of up to 12 months. The most common rates are the daily, weekly, one month, six and one year.

LIBOR rates are also provided in ten currencies, including

American dollar - USD LIBOR Australian dollar- AUD LIBOR British pound sterling - GBP LIBOR Canadian dollar- CAD LIBOR Danish krone - DKK LIBOR European euro - EUR LIBOR Japanese yen - JPY LIBOR New Zealand dollar - NZD LIBOR Swedish krona - SEK LIBOR Swiss franc - CHF LIBOR

When the LIBOR spread is high, it shows there is more concer banking sector that not all of the banks are on sound footing is a heightened default risk.

When the LIBOR spread is low, it shows there is less concern banking sector that not all of the banks are on sound footing is a low default risk.

Calculating Interest: Libor is not a compounded rate but is calculated on the basis days in funding period/360*. Therefore, the formula is as fol

*Please note that for GBP the calculation basis is 365 days.

The US Dollar LIBOR (bbalibor) interest rate is the average interbank interest rate at which a large number of banks on the London money market are prepared to lend one another unsecured funds denominated in US Dollars.

The

Euribor and Libor rates at the centre of the

price-rigging scandal hitting Barclays bank are interbank rates at the heart of short-term financing on a world scale.They

act as a reference or benchmark for the

pricing of derivative products which are traded in

massive amountsThey

also indirectly affect loans and mortgages for

households and businesses, and many other

contracts

Libor

is a flagship London instrument used throughout the world. Euribor

is the eurozone equivalent.Transactions

made using Libor and Euribor rates most often last from a

few days up to a year, and the level is fixed once a day, around midday.The

Euribor reference rate is set by 43 eurozone banks, while the Libor

rate is preferred by institutions from English-speaking countries.Separate

reference rates for funds in pounds, dollars and euro are also set

by panels of six to 18 banks.

It

is often used as the base for variable-rate government and corporate loans and derivative-based products such as credit swaps The rate at which the world's most preferred borrowers are able to borrow money. It is also the rate upon which rates for less preferred borrowers are based. For e.g, a multinational corporation with a very good credit rating may be able to borrow money for one year at LIBOR plus four or five points. High LIBOR rates restrict people from getting loans, making a lower Fed discount rate a nonevent for the average person Countries that rely on the LIBOR for a reference rate include the United States,Canada, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

LIBOR is the average interest rate, the benchmark, for short term interest rates worldwide. It is the rate at which a LIBOR bank could borrow funds at a specific moment in time. Affects $800 trillion worth of securities (investments). Various major and minor banks coordinated with one another to artificially create lower interest rates to appear financially healthy. In LIBOR credit-swaps, interest rate hedges were sold to small and medium-sized businesses, and since the interest rates were negotiated by bank representatives, interest owed to customers or interest owed to the bank by customers was manipulated. Barclays and the various other banks who were part of LIBOR collaborated via email to manipulate the LIBOR interest rate, defrauding its customers in the process. If bank representatives could nudge an interest rate up or down a few points they could bring in nice profits. The $450 million fine paid by Barclays to US and UK regulators is just not enough considering the depth of the fraud. LIBOR scandal could be the biggest fraud ever, touching businesses both big and small, as well as households.

LIBOR is supposed to indicate the cost of unsecured lending between banks, but more and more, banks are requiring collateral before they will part with funds. Because of that, the gap between highs and lows has increasingly grown, determining the rate and the others cut out of the process. In 2011, highest and lowest submissions were separated by a mere 0.1% over the four months from June through September; this year, the gap has grown to an average of 0.32%. High lending to the customer and the manipulating with the customer in respect of interest rate and inter corporate deposits with one another banks. High borrowing led to subprime issue in the market and hence the banking sector was struggling to survive in the market. For example, one have a house for 40,000$ but bank had allowed me to take a loan against my property for 1,00,000$. This lead to liquidity crunch in the market and the market was collapsed. Hence lager amount of debt couldnt stabilized the economy for a longer period.

Experts call it the Biggest consumer fraud in the industry. This scandal forced both Barclays chief executive Bob Diamond and chairman Marcus Agius to resignation. As early as 2005 there was evidence Barclays had tried to manipulate dollar Libor and Euribor (the eurozone's equivalent of Libor) rates at the request of its

derivatives traders and other banks.

Misconduct was widespread, involving staff in New York, London and Tokyo as well as external traders. Between January 2005 and June 2009, Barclays derivatives traders made a total of 257 req