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GRAMMATICAL MEANING.GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES. The notion of grammatical meaning Types of grammatical meaningGrammatical categories. The notion of opposition. Transposition and neutralization of morphological forms.
3 fundamental notions of grammar:grammatical form, grammatical meaninggrammatical category
Word is the main expressive unit of human language which ensures the thought-forming function of the language. is also the basic nominative unit of language with the help of which the naming function of language is realized.
Word is the main unit of traditional grammatical theory. is a level unit. In the structure of language it belongs to the upper stage of the morphological level. is a unit of the sphere of language and it exists only through its speech actualization.
Characteristic features of the word
a bilateral entity
The notion of grammatical meaning
The semantic structure of the word Lexical meaning is the individual meaning of the wordGrammatical meaning is the meaning of the whole class or a subclass.
The word tableLexical meaning
Its individual lexical meaning corresponds to a definite piece of furniture Grammatical meaning Its the one of thingness as the meaning of the whole class. The noun table has the grammatical meaning of a subclass countableness.
A verb Verbiality the ability to denote actions or states. An adjective Qualitativeness the ability to denote qualities. Adverbs Adverbiality the ability to denote quality of qualities.
oats and wheat foliage and leaves hair and bull - cow author authoress
pens meaning of plurality; indicator the morpheme has been working the grammatical form indicates continuity and perfection s - The grammatical meaning is here motivated. It shows relations of objects in extra-linguistic world: Peters head (part of a whole) Peters arrival (subjective Genitive relations) Peters arrest (objective Genitive relations)
does, larger, me The book reads well. Reads is read, read are read (the category of voice)
Types of grammatical meaning
GRAMMATICAL MEANING EXPLICIT IMPLICIT GENERAL DEPENDENT
Types of grammatical meaningExplicit The explicit grammatical meaning is always marked morphologically it has its marker. e.g. cats - the grammatical meaning of plurality is shown in the form of the noun with -s; cats the grammatical meaning of possessiveness is shown by the form s;is asked shows the explicit grammatical meaning of passiveness. ImplicitThe implicit grammatical meaning is not expressed formally
e.g. the word table does not contain any hints in its form as to it being inanimate).
Types of the implicit grammatical meaningThe general grammatical meaning is the meaning of the whole word-class, of a part of speech e.g. verbs the general meaning of verbiabilitynouns the general grammatical meaning of thingness. The dependent grammatical meaning is the meaning of a subclass within the same part of speech. e.g. any verb possesses the dependent grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity, terminativeness/non-terminativeness, stativeness/non-stativeness; nouns have the dependent grammatical meaning of contableness/uncountableness and animateness/inanimateness
The dependent grammatical meaning influences the realization of grammatical categories restricting them to a subclass.
e.g. the dependent grammatical meaning of countableness/uncountableness influences the realization of the grammatical category of number
Different modes of expressing grammatical meaning inflexions (work-er-o work-er-s). Homonymy of grammatical morphemes (-ing Gerund and Participle I); sound alternation ( man men, have - has); analytical means (analytical forms). Prof. Barkhudarov: analytical forms are always marked with the help of discontinuous morphemes (have+ -en; be + -ing; be + -en). suppletivity (I me, go went, bad - worse).
Criteria to differentiate analytical forms: The general grammatical meaning of an analytical form comprises all the components of the form. Each component taken separately doesnt render any information about the general meaning of the form.There are no syntactic relations between the components of an analytical form. Originally they developed from free syntactic combinations, mainly from some types of compound predicates.Syntactic relations in the context are possible only for the whole form; the components cant have syntactic relations separately: has never done.
Grammatical categories.Grammatical category is a system of expressing a generalized grammatical meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of grammatical forms.The term category derives from a Greek word which is otherwise translated as predication (in the logical, or philosophical, sense of attributing properties to things).Traditional categories are: the category of gender, number, person, case, tense, mood, voice.
Grammatical categories.Their characteristical featuresA grammatical category is a set of syntactic features that
express meanings from the same conceptual domainoccur in contrast to each other, andare typically expressed in the same fashion
Correlation of grammatical categories Objective reality Objective category
Conceptual reality Lingual reality Conceptual category Grammatical category
Due to dialectal unity of language and thought, grammatical categories correlate, on the one hand, with the conceptual categories and, on the other hand, with the objective reality.
Referential grammatical categories. are those that have references in the objective realitye.g.the objective category of time finds its representation in the grammatical category of tense, the objective category of quantity finds its representation in the grammatical category of number.
Significational grammatical categories are those that do not correspond to anything in the objective reality. Such categories correlate only with conceptual matters.
The notion of opposition.The relation between two grammatical forms differing in meaning and external signs is called opposition e.g. book::books (unmarked member/marked member).
As all grammatical categories find their realization through oppositions, we may define the grammatical category as the opposition between two mutually exclusive form-classes a form-class is a set of words with the same explicit grammatical meaning.
Means of realization of grammatical categories Means of GC realization synthetic analytic (near nearer) (beautiful more beautiful).sound alteration (sing-sang-sung)suppletivity(good-better)
Transposition and neutralization of morphological forms.
Transposition is the use of a linguistic unit in an unusual environment or in the function that is not characteristic of it .
e.g. He is a lion. He is coming tomorrow
Transposition and neutralization of morphological forms.Neutralization is the reduction of the opposition to one of its members
e.g. custom :: customs x :: customs; x :: spectacles.
Unanswered questions concerning the role of grammatical category in language processing What is the role of grammatical category in lexical, phrasal, and sentential processing? How is grammatical category information represented in the brain? Are there distinct neural substrates underlying the representation of nouns and verbs - along semantic, grammatical, or lexical lines? Are grammatical category effects due to an interaction of the internal structure of words and their processing implications?