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URBAN AGE INDIA
LONDON NEW YORK
INTEGRATED CITY MAKING Governance, planning and transport
left The extensive use of street space for multiple activities is common in most Indian cities and has great implications for the movement of people and goods. Chirodeep Chaudhuri
cover Mumbai’s dense urban fabric with JJ flyover Chirodeep Chaudhuri
Urban Age is a worldwide investigation into the future of cities.
Organised by the Cities Programme at the London School of Economics and Political
Science and the Alfred Herrhausen Society, the International Forum of Deutsche Bank.
Urban Age Programme The London School of Economics
and Political Science Houghton Street
London WC2A 2AE United Kingdom
T +44 (0)20 7955 7706 firstname.lastname@example.org
Alfred Herrhausen Society Deutsche Bank
Unter den Linden 13/15 10117 Berlin
T +49 (0)30 3407 4201 email@example.com
INTEGRATED CITY MAKING Governance, planning and transport
Urban Age would like to thank the key stakeholders and experts in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, London, Berlin, New York and Johannesburg who contributed their ideas and time to this report (see list on page 26).
The detailed report and a complete listing of data sources is available at www.urban-age.net.
Research Director Philipp Rode
Research Team Julie Wagner Richard Brown Rit Chandra Jayaraj Sundaresan Christos Konstantinou Natznet Tesfay Priya Shankar
Supported by Stephanie Kotin Caroline Kihato Silke Urschel Miguel Kanai Nirija Shukla Dolan Chatterjee
Mapping and data research Kay Kitazawa Richard Simpson
Advisers Tony Travers, LSE Ricky Burdett, LSE Andy Altman, Brookings Institution Bruce Katz, Brookings Institution
London, June 2008
Integrated City Making is a report by the Urban Age Programme at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Urban Age is a joint initiative of LSE and Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen Society investigating the future of cities. The research for this report was prepared from November 2006 to February 2008 and represents the annual Urban Age research focus 2007, part of the Urban Age India investigation.
This report is intended as a basis for discussion. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the material in this report, the authors and/ or the Urban Age Programme will not be liable for any loss or damage incurred through the use of this report.
Published by the Urban Age Programme, London School of Economics and Political Science, 2008.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Urban India and city growth
1.2 The Urban Age
1.3 India and urban planning
1.4 Future years
2 CONTExT AND CHALLENGES 2.1 India’s cities
2.2 Urban governance
2.3 Urban visions and challenges
3 CITY SHAPING IN PRACTICE 3.1 The Indian experience
3.2 International examples
4 IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY 4.1 Strategic planning
4.2 Management and governance
LIST OF INTERvIEWS
APPENDIx Transport and density
The detailed report is available at www.urban-age.net
2 INTEGRATED CITY MAKING
India’s cities are at the forefront of a global shift to an urban society. In recent decades, their growth has been dramatic, and is set within the context of one of the fastest developing economies in the world.
In 2007, the Urban Age, a joint initiative of the London School of Economics and Political Science and Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen Society, undertook a research programme in four Indian cities (Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Bangalore) followed by a conference in Mumbai, to understand and assess how these cities are responding to the challenges of growth, and to compare these approaches to those adopted in other cities throughout the world.
The four Indian cities studied have a population of almost 35 million people (nearly 78 million including wider metropolitan regions, and Delhi’s National Capital Region), and an economy valued at nearly $360 billion within their agglomerations.
The growth of these cities was explosive in the last decades of the Twentieth Century, largely driven by people moving from the countryside to work in rapidly industrialising cities. This growth has slowed in recent years, but it has left the cities with intense strains on infrastructure. Roads that were not designed for cars are choked with traffic, with consequences that include increased local pollution, reduced economic efficiency, and a contribution to the global challenge of climate change. Drainage and sewage systems are also overloaded, leading to considerable fatality rates from floods and disease (especially as weather patterns change as a result of global warming).
After decades of rapid change, these cities today occupy the cusp between the globalised world economy and the dislocations that follow in its wake: leading IT industries sit alongside low levels of literacy, new condominium developments overlook informal slum developments. Densities vary, but tend to be highest in the poorest areas: in Greater Mumbai, more than fifty per cent of the population lives in slums occupying eight per cent of land.
Cities are rising up India’s political agenda. Recent constitutional reforms seek to codify and standardise patterns of urban governance that in many cases have been handed down from colonial times.
Each of the cities studied by the Urban Age is seeking to use land- use and transport planning to secure a more integrated and efficient form of urban development, but all face systemic and behavioural challenges:
Rapid urban growth has overtaken the planning process, resulting • in reactive and often outdated plans;
Enforcement is weak and the planning profession is seen as lacking • capacity, leading to loss of credibility;
Land-use and transport planning are conducted as separate • exercises, leading to new development without transport, and transport infrastructure that fails to further cities’ long term visions;
Responsibility for land-use and transport planning is fragmented • between different agencies and different tiers of government, despite recent constitutional changes aimed at rationalising local government structures.
Discussions with experts, both from India and from other Urban Age cities, identify some implications for future policy development. These include:
Make sure that plans balance ambition and realism, and • combine a long-term view with the ability to respond to changing circumstances;
Rationalise governance structures, creating a single transport • authority and, where possible, integrating this with land-use planning;
Make sure that integration of land-use and transport planning is • led from the top of organisations, and accorded political as well as managerial priority;
Ensure implementation through balancing enforcement and • negotiation;
Create incentives for better integration through funding and • political systems; and
Use urban design as the glue for creating better buildings, better • neighbourhoods and better cities.
Through harnessing the dynamism of urban development in India, city leaders can make a difference. With organisational reform, and the creation of new governance structures that recognise cities’ role, they can put their cities at the forefront of sustainable growth.
4 INTEGRATED CITY MAKING
1.2 THE URBAN AGE
The Urban Age is an international programme of research projects and conferences investigating the future of cities. The programme, a joint initiative of the London School of Economics and Political Science, and Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen Society, takes an explicitly inter- disciplinary approach to considering the future of cities, and aims to develop and foster dialogue between academics, politicians, policy makers and those responsible for shaping and managing our cities from day to day.
Beginning in New York in 2005, and travelling to Shanghai, London, Johannesburg, Mexico City and Berlin, the Urban Age has explored – through international and interdisciplinary conferences, through data analysis, and through interviews with leading urban experts and city managers – some of the world’s most important cities – both those that have relatively stable populations, and those that are experiencing or dealing with the aftermath of exponential growth.
1.1 URBAN INDIA AND CITY GROWTH
In 2007, the majority of this planet’s residents lived in cities: for the first time, our world became a predominantly urban one. The cities of India, the largest democracy and one of the fastest-growing countries in the world, are at the forefront of this change. This report addresses how Indian cities are responding to this rapid pace of growth, and how civic governments a