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BESTUFSGood Practice Guideon Urban Freight Transport

BESTUFS is funded by the European Commission under the6 th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Demonstration 2007 by the BESTUFS consortium

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BESTUFS administration centre

NEA Transport research and trainingP.O. Box 19692280 DZ RijswijkThe Netherlands

E-mail: bestufs@nea.nl Phone: +31 70 3988 356Fax: +31 70 3988 426

BESTUFS co-ordination

PTVPlanung Transport Verkehr AGStumpfstrae 176131 KarlsruheGermany

E-mail: dieter.wild@ptv.dePhone: +49 721 9651 177Fax: +49 721 9651 696

This Guide reflects only the authors views and the European Community is not liable for any use

that may be made of the information contained therein.

BESTUFS team

Country

GermanyUnited KingdomNetherlandsSwitzerlandHungaryCzech RepublicFranceUnited Kingdom

FranceGermanyFranceUnited KingdomItaly

Company

PTV AGNEWRAILNEARappTransTransmanCDVLET-ISHUniv. of Westminster

Inrets Deutsche PostParisUniv. of WestminsterIVECO

First Name

DieterTomMartinMartinJanosJanaJean-LouisJulian

Laetitia PeterLaurence GarthFrancesco

Last Name

WildZunderQuispelRueschMoniglVranovaRouthierAllen

Dablanc SonnabendDouvinThorneMassa

E-mail

dieter.wild@ptv.defreight@zunder.org.ukmqu@nea.nlmartin.ruesch@rapp.chtransman@transman.hujana.vranova@cdv.czjean-louis.routhier@let.ish-lyon.cnrs.frallenj@westminster.ac.uk

laetitia.dablanc@inrets.frP.Sonnabend@DeutschePost.delaurence.douvin@paris.frGT@garththorne.plus.comFrancesco.massa@iveco.com

Network contacts

Country

Italy Spain Greece DenmarkSweden Finland Belgium Ireland Austria Lithuania Poland Slovenia Bulgaria Slovakia EU EU EU Australia Japan South Africa

Company

CSST PROINCA Trademco NTU CIT Poyry Infra Stratec Trinity ECONSULT VGTU ILIM Uni Maribor Bulfralog VUD POLIS UITP Eurocities University of Melbourne Kyoto University CSIR

First Name

Giovanni Guillermo Iro Lars Stig Veli Eric Hugh Jrgen Algirdas Maciej Stane Vikenti Peter Sylvain Izaskun Valrie Russell Eiichi Hans

Last Name

Ruberti Montero Dimitriadou Bentzen Franzen Himanen Monami Finlay Schrampf Sakalis Tumasz Bozicnik Spassov Zitnansky Haon Arenaza Bnard ThompsonTaniguchi Ittman

E-mail

giovanni.ruberti@csst.itgmontero@proinca.comidimitriadou@trademco.grntu-aalborg@ntu.dkstig.franzen@cit.chalmers.seveli.himanen@kolumbus.finvi@stratec.behugh.finlay@dit.iej.schrampf@econsult.atalgirs@ti.vtu.ltMaciej.Tumasz@ilim.poznan.plstane.bozicnik@uni-mb.sivspassov@vtu.bgzitnansky@vudba.skshaon@polis-online.orgizaskun.arenaza@uitp.comv.benard@eurocities.ber.thompson@civag.unimelb.edu.autaniguchi@kiban.kuciv.kyoto-u.ac.jphittmann@csir.co.za

Updated contact details can be found on: www.bestufs.net

BESTUFS

Good Practice Guideon Urban Freight Transport

Content:

Introduction Page4

PARTI: Goodsvehiclesaccessandloadinginurbanareas Page10

PARTII: Lastmilesolutions Page7

PARTIII: Urbanconsolidationcentres Page59

MoreaboutBESTUFS Page80

Main authors:

Allen,J.,Thorne,G.andBrowne,M.(UniversityofWestminster)

Translated by:

Bulgarian-V.Spassov(Bulfralog&VTUT.Kableshkov),Czech-J.Vranova/P.Nemec(CDV),Danish-L.Bentzen/M.S.Laugesen(NTU),

Dutch-S.BrouwerVertalingen/J.Schoemaker(NEA),Finnish-V.Himanen(PoyryInfra),French-M.Thebert/L.Dablanc(Inrets),German

-C.Eichhorn(PTV),Greek-I.Dimitriadou(TRADEMCO),Hungarian-Cs.Rvsz/J.Monigl(Transman),Italian-G.Ruberti(CSST),

Lithuanian-S. Baiauskien / A. akalys / V. Gibaviius (VGTU),Polish-T.Dowgielewicz(ILiM),Portuguese-J.Lemos(GabLogis)/

J.Jacob,Slovene-S.Bozicnik/J.Cvahte(UniversityofMaribor),Spanish-G.Montero/I.Surez(PROINCA),Swedish-S.Franzen

(Chalmers)

Copyright:

AllrightsreservedbytheBESTUFSconsortium.TheBESTUFSconsortiumallowsafullreproduction,photocopyingorotherwisefornoncom-

mercialpurposes.Nopartsofthispublicationmaybereproduced,photocopiedorotherwiseusedforanycommercialpurposewithouttheprior

permissionoftheBESTUFSco-ordinatorPTVAG.

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Introduction

Urbanfreighttransport

Theurbanfreighttransportproblem

Untilthemid-1990s,researchersandpolicymak-erspaidrelativelylittleattentiontotheincreasinglyseverefreighttransportproblemsfacingurbanareas.Morerecentlythishaschanged,andthereisgrowinginterestinthelogisticsofcollectionanddeliveryser-vicesintownandcitycentresinparticular.SeveralprojectsinEuropeandelsewherehaveattemptedtopinpointthekeyurbanfreighttransportproblemsandidentifypotentialsolutions.

However,thefundamentalurbanfreighttransportdilemmaremains;thefuturesuccessoftownandcitycentresdependsontheireffectivenessindifferent,often conflicting dimensions. On the one hand, urban areasmustbeattractiveplacestolive,work,shopandspendleisuretime.Intheserespectstheyfaceincreasinglyseverecompetition,notablyfromout-of-townretailparks.Ifretailersandotheremployersand

income generators are to retain confidence in town and city centres, efficient logistics systems must be providedsothatcommercialpremisescanbeser-vicedinacosteffectivemanner.Ontheotherhand,urbanplannersareveryconsciousoftheneedtomaintainorimprovethequalityofcitycentreenviron-ments,toattractshoppers,touristsandworkersandperhapstopersuadepeopletolivethere.

Thereisapopularperceptionthatgoodsvehiclesaredetrimentaltotheurbanenvironment,contributingsignificantly to the problems of congestion, pollution, safetyandnoise.Itisnotsurprisingthereforethatconflict can arise between commercial interests and theenvironmentallobbyasfarasurbanlogisticsisconcerned.

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TheEuropeanCo-ordinationActiononBESTUrbanFreightSolutions(BESTUFS)isfundedbytheEu-ropeanCommission(DGTransportandEnergy)andisactivefrom2000until2008.Themainobjectiveistoidentify,describeanddisseminatebestpractices,successcriteriaandbottlenecksofurbanfreighttransportsolutions.Furthermore,BESTUFSaimstomaintainandexpandanopenEuropeannetworkbetweenurbanfreightexperts,usergroups/asso-ciations,ongoingprojects,therelevantEuropeanCommissionDirectoratesandrepresentativesof

national,regionalandlocaltransportadministrationsandtransportoperators.TheprojectteamorganisesregularworkshopsandconferencesalloverEuropeandreportsaboutinterestingurbancommercialtransportrelateddevelopments,demonstrationsandeventsonEuropean,national,regionalandlocallevel.BESTUFSreachedaconsiderableattentionfrompractitionersaswellasfromresearchersandallinformationispubliclyavailableviathewebsitewww.bestufs.net.

WhatisBESTUFS?

BESTUFSHomepage

Whyisurbanfreighttransportimportant?

Urbanfreighttransportisimportantformanyreasonsincluding:

Thetotalcostoffreighttransportandlogisticsissignificantandhasadirectbearingontheef-ficiencyoftheeconomy.Theroleitplaysinservicingandretainingindus-trialandtradingactivitieswhichareessentialformajorwealthgeneratingactivities.Itisamajoremployerinitsownright.Thecontributionthatanefficientfreighttransportsectormakestothecompetitivenessofindustryintheregionconcerned.Itisfundamentaltosustainingourexistinglifestyles.Thenegativesocialandenvironmentaleffectsofurbanfreighttransport.

InmostcasesgoodsmovementswithinanurbanareainEuropearelikelytobemadebyroadbe-causethetripdistancewillberelativelyshortandforreasonsofconnectivity.Forshipmentsintoandoutoftheurbanareathereismorescopeforsomedegreeofmodalchoicebutroadisstillbyfarthedominantmode.Roadfreightvehiclesclearlyplayanimportantroleinthefunctioningoftownsandcities,distributinggoodstonumerouslocationsthatarevitaltourbanlife.Thesevehiclesundertakeanumberoftypesofurbanmovementincludingshipmentsofgoodsintoanurbanareaforconsumption,shipmentsoutofanurbanareaofgoodsproducedandwastemateri-als,andcollectionanddeliveryoperationswithintheurbanarea.Manygoodsarealsotemporarilystoredinwarehousesandstoreroomswithintheurbanareapriortouseorsale.

Urban traffic congestion

Thetypesandpatternsoffreighttransportmovementwithinanurbanareawilldependonawiderangeoffactorsincluding:

Thelocationandtypeofindustriespresent

Thesupplychainstructuresofthecompaniesintheseindustries

Existingtransportinfrastructureincludingwhethertheurbanareacontainsamajorportorairportorrailfreightterminal

Thelocationandextentofwarehousingfacilities

Thesizesandweightsofgoodsvehiclepermittedtooperateintheurbanarea

Accessandloadingregulationsappliedintheurbanarea

Theexistingroadtrafficconditions

Behaviourofcustomers(useofe-commerce,etc.)

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BESTUFSapproachtosustainableurbanfreighttransport

Theaimofasustainabletransportstrategyis,toanswer,asfaraspossible,howsocietyintendstoprovidethemeansofopportunitytomeeteconomic,environmental and social needs efficiently and equi-tably,whileminimisingavoidableorunnecessaryadverseimpactsandtheirassociatedcosts,overrelevantspaceandtimescales(UKRoundTableonSustainableDevelopment,199).

Inadditiontothepositiveimpactsnotedonpage5existingfreighttransportsystemsinurbanareascreateavarietyofnegativeeconomic,environmentalandsocialimpacts.Theseinclude:

Economicimpacts:congestion,inefficiency,andresourcewaste

Environmentalimpacts:pollutantemissionsin-cludingtheprimarygreenhousegascarbondiox-ide,theuseofnon-renewablefossil-fuel,landandaggregates,andwasteproductssuchastyres,oilandothermaterials

Socialimpacts:thephysicalconsequencesofpol-lutantemissionsonpublichealth(death,illness,hazardsetc),theinjuriesanddeathresultingfromtrafficaccidents,noise,visualintrusion,andother

qualityoflifeissues(includingthelossofgreen-fieldsitesandopenspacesinurbanareasasaresultoftransportinfrastructuredevelopments)

Sustainabilitypoliciescan

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