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  • 1. Arcangelo Canitano and Adelaide Chiaravalloti CLA University of Roma Tre 18/07/2013 1

2. Agenda Climate changes and consequences (Arcangelo) Mediterranean Sea level-rise and increase in temperatures (Adelaide) 18/07/2013 2 3. Proof of global warming 18/07/2013 3 4. Climate changes and consequences 18/07/2013 4 Humans are heating the earth. If we dont change the way we live: Polar caps will melt Ocean levels will rise Hurricanes Droughts and floods Malaria will kill many people Extinction of plants and animals 5. Climate changes and consequences Carbon dioxide graph by Robert Simmon, NASA Temperature graph from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies 18/07/2013 5 In the last century there has been an important rise both of carbon dioxine emission both of temperature anomaly. Many scientists deduct that there is a strong correlation between the two phenomena. 6. Climate changes and consequences 18/07/2013 6 In spite of the evidences, there are other scientists who are skeptics. Hurricane Katrina August 28 2005 7. Climate changes and consequences 18/07/2013 7 They said that there are cycles of the Earth and the clima is one more. Accurate temperature satellites read hardly no change in temperature in the lower troposphere in the last 20 years. 3000 years of surface temperature 8. 18/07/2013 8 Antarcticas collapsing ice shelves Alarmists say Skeptic says Antarctica represents the greatest threat to the globe from global warming. Due to natural currents, Antarctic ice is growing, not shrinking. 9. 18/07/2013 9 Alarmist say Skeptics say Proof that human activities are propelling a slide toward climate calamity. Its the wind Polar wind patterns changed and blew sea ice further south to warmer waters than it normally would Arctic = 3 million square KM - shrinking Antarctic = 16 million square KM growing Net change in ice area +5% 10. Global Warming and the Mediterranean Sea (1) The Mediterranean Sea is a unique and valuable natural and cultural heritage, of paramount importance for our economic growth. However, it is threatened by many pressures and human impacts. It hosts an amazing diversity at the biological, cultural, social, political and economic level The Mediterranean region as a global priority place where ecological integrity must be conserved to contribute to a more secure and sustainable future for all 18/07/2013 10 11. Global Warming and the Mediterranean Sea (2) The Mediterranean Sea warming has still determined climatic changes in terms of biodiversity (20-25%) like northward migration of species from the south Mediterranean and entrance of alien species (es. The case of a putter fish in the marine reserve of Isola di Capo Rizzuto in Calabria). A substantial increase of jellyfishes. 18/07/2013 11 12. Global Warming and the Mediterranean sea (3) The abnormal and prolonged increase of summer temperatures (2-3C) caused massive mortality of benthic fauna (es. sponges and gorgonians like Paramuricea clavata, Eunicella singularis and Lophogorgia ceratophyta ) with impact on 28 invetebrate species 18/07/2013 12 13. Principal impacts of climate change on marine systems (1) INCREASE OF VARIABILITY INCREASE OF STRATIFICATION ALTERATION OF LIFE CyCLES INCREASE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION REDUCTION OF NATURAL BARRIER 18/07/2013 13 14. Principal impacts of climate change on marine systems (2) With global warming the seasides become smaller, the marine waters more hot and acid. The coral whiten with the increase of temperature and acid water. 18/07/2013 14 15. Principal impacts of climate change on marine systems (3) The new tropical climate of Mediterranean Sea allows alien species of fishes from the Indo-Pacific Ocean like the flute fish (Fistularia commersonii) and the trigger fish (Stephanolesis diaspor) 18/07/2013 15 16. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION 18/07/2013 16 It would be important to preserve our sea for a more sustainable future