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  • Index

    (1 + 1) ES, 228(GE)2, 184(, (, ))-ES, 229(+ 1)-ES, 228(+ ), 231(+ )-ES, 228(, )-ES, 229(/+ )-ES, 229(/, )-ES, 2292 Distribution, 49015-rule, 229

    (+ ), 102(, ), 102GP, 192-algebra, 469 -EO, 270 , 532 notation, 551Fraglets, 216, 404

    evolution of, 40480x86, 193

    A Search, 296AAAI, 87Abstraction, 549ACO, 245Acquisition

    module, 70, 202Action, 238AdaBoost, 383Adaptive Grammar, 568Adaptive Walk, 297

    fitter dynamics, 297greedy dynamics, 297one-mutant, 297

    ADDO, 392

    Adenine, 42Adequacy

    functional, 222ADF, 167, 168, 193, 196ADG, 199Adjacency, 44, 45adjacent neighbors, 330Adjunction, 570ADL, 198ADM, 168Admissible, 296AG, 565, 566AGA, 310Agents, 105, 160, 231, 254Aggregate, 415Aggregate Function, 415Aggregating

    linear, 29Aggregation, 414, 415

    gossip-based, 415linear, 29proactive, 415reactive, 415

    Aggregation Protocols, 414, 415AI, 373AIM-GP, 193AIMGP, 193195AISB, 88AL, 213Algorithm, 547

    abstraction, 549anytime, 222complexity, 550determined, 550determinism, 550deterministic, 552

    795

  • 796 INDEX

    discrete, 549distributed, 553euclidean, 357evaluate, 219evolutionary, 95evolve, 219finite, 550generational, 102Las Vegas, 552Monte Carlo, 552optimization, 48

    baysian, 70probabilistic, 22, 552randomized, 552termination, 550

    Algorithmic Chemistry, 204ALife, 213All-Or-Nothing, 223, 404Allele, 43Alphabet, 562ANN, 197, 374Ant

    artificial, 27Ant Colony Optimization, 245Antisymmetrie, 463ANTS, 246Anytime Algorithm, 222appleJuice, 558Application Server, 557Applications, 315Architecture

    service oriented, 383Artificial Ant, 27, 354Artificial Chemistry, 213Artificial Embryogeny, 155Artificial Life, 213Asexual Reproduction, 145Assignment

    soft, 206Assimilation

    genetic, 279Asymmetrie, 463Attribute, 565

    inherited, 565synthesized, 565

    Attribute Grammar, 565extended, 567, 568L-attributed, 566reflective, 185S-attributed, 567

    Autoconstructive Evolution, 215Autocorrelation, 63Automatically Defined Functions, 167, 196Automatically Defined Groups, 199Automatically Defined Link, 198Automaton

    cellular, 160, 231Auxiliary Tree, 570

    Average, 416

    Backus-Naur Form, 564extended, 565

    Baldwin, 278effect, 278

    Battery, 559Bayes Classifier

    nave, 374Bayesian Optimization Algorithm, 70BBH, 152bcGP, 194BDP, 304Bee, 235Bernoulli

    distribution, 483experiment, 483trial, 483

    Best-First Search, 295BFS, 291BGP, 172Bias, 499Bibtex, 591Big- notation, 551Big-O notation, 550Bijective, 462Bijectivity, 462BinInt, 58, 59, 337, 338Binomial Distribution, 483, 511Biochemistry, 87, 160, 231, 274, 280, 284Biology, 87, 105, 261BIOMA, 105, 246BIONETS, 404Bird, 235BitCount, 337Bittorrent, 558Black-Box, 23Bloat, 66Block

    building, 152BLUE, 503Bluetooth, 559BNF, 564BOA, 70Boosting, 383Bottleneck, 554Box-Muller, 529

    polar, 529BPEL, 395BPEL4WS, 393Breadth-First Search, 291Broadcast-Distributed Parallel Evolutionary Al-

    gorithm, 304BTNodes, 560Bucket Brigade, 240Building Block, 152Building Block Hypothesis, 152, 334Bus, 555Bypass

  • INDEX 797

    extradimensional, 85

    C, 193, 194CACSD, 34Candidate

    solution, 42Cartesian Genetic Programming, 67, 199, 201,

    202embedded, 201

    Catastrophecomplexity, 331

    Causality, 62, 83, 346CDF, 470

    continous, 471discrete, 471

    CEC, 105, 246Cellular Automaton, 160, 231Cellular Encoding, 174Central Limit Theorem, 489Central Point Of Failure, 554Centroid, 537CFG, 563, 564CGE, 186CGP, 67, 199202

    embedded, 201CGPS, 193Change

    non-synonymous, 66synonymous, 66

    Character String, 562Checking

    model, 221Chemical Engineering, 87, 105, 142, 227, 230,

    231, 251, 265, 284Chemistry, 87, 105, 142, 227, 230, 231, 251, 265,

    284algorithmic, 204artificial, 213

    Chi-square Distribution, 490Chomsky Hierarchy, 563Christiansen

    grammar, 186, 569Christiansen Grammar, 186

    evolution, 186Christiansen Grammars, 569Chromosome, 145Chromosomes

    stringfixed-length, 146variable-length, 148

    tree, 162CI, 109, 503CISC, 193Class

    equivalence, 464Classifier, 238Classifier Systems, 233, 234, 378, 445

    learning, 233, 239, 374non-learning, 239

    Clearing, 134Client, 556Client-Server, 301, 556Closure, 178, 226CLT, 489Clustering, 535k-means, 540nth nearest neighbor, 541algorithm, 536hierarchical, 535leader, 543linkage, 541partitional, 535, 540partitions, 536square error, 540

    Co-Evolution, 269Code Bloat, 399Codons, 172Coefficient

    negative slope, 63Coefficient of Variation, 475Combination, 467Combinatorics, 467Communication, 87, 105, 142, 160, 246, 254, 265,

    271, 274, 280, 291Completeness, 44, 290

    weak, 44Complexity Catastrophe, 331Compress, 201Computational Embryogeny, 155Computational Intelligence, 109Computer

    sciencetheoretical, 547

    Computingamorphous, 413ubiquitous, 411, 413

    Concatenation, 562Condition, 236Confidence

    coefficient, 504interval, 503

    Connection Register, 205Content Sharing, 558Contest, 373Continuous Distributions, 484Contravariance, 386Convergence

    domino, 58, 59, 85, 338premature, 58prevention, 136

    Correlationfitness distance, 62genotype-fitness, 63operator, 62

    Count, 472Covariance, 386, 475CPU, 193, 206

  • 798 INDEX

    Creation, 137, 146, 148, 162, 197Credit Assignment Problem, 239Criterion

    termination, 54Criticality

    self-organized, 269Crossbow, 560Crossover, 98, 138, 147149, 164

    homologous, 148, 195, 404point, 147SAAN, 198simplex, 287single-point, 147, 165SSAAN, 198SSIAN, 198sticky, 195strong context preserving, 165tree, 164

    CS, 233CSG, 563CSP, 87, 105Cumulative Distribution Function, 470Cut, 153Cut & Splice, 148Cytosine, 42

    Dagstuhl Seminar, 106Data Mining, 105, 142, 160, 174, 227, 231, 233,

    254, 284, 373, 535DATA-MINING-CUP, 373, 374Database Server, 557DE, 229, 230, 286Death Penalty, 34Deceptiveness, 63, 69, 333Deceptivity, 63, 69Decile, 478Decision Maker

    external, 37Decision Tree, 374Decreasing, 463

    monotonically, 463Default Hierarchy, 238, 378Defense, 105Defined Length, 150DELB, 230Deme, 301Density Estimation, 506

    crowding distance, 507Kernel, 508nearest neighbor, 506Parzen window, 508

    Deoxyribonucleic acid, 42Deoxyribose, 42Depth-First Search, 292

    iterative deepenining, 294Depth-limited Search, 293Derivation Tree, 563DERL, 230DES, 229

    Design, 87, 105, 230, 271, 280circuit, 105, 142, 160, 174, 202, 230, 231, 251,

    265Detector, 234Determined, 550Determinism, 550DFS, 292Differential Evolution, 229, 230, 286Differential Evolution Strategy, 229Discrete, 549Discrete Distributions, 479Distance

    Euclidian, 538Hamming, 537Manhattan, 537Measure, 537

    Distributed algorithms, 553Distribution, 299, 470, 479, 4842, 490Binomial, 483, 511chi-square, 490continuous, 484discrete, 479exponential, 489, 530normal, 486, 529

    multivariate, 488standard, 486

    Poisson, 480Students t, 494t, 494uniform, 479, 485, 527, 529, 530

    continuous, 485discrete, 479

    Diversification, 60Diversity, 59, 226DMC, 373DNA, 42, 172, 195do not Care, 378, 382DoE, 317Domination, 31Domino

    convergence, 58, 59, 85, 338Dont Care, 150, 236Downhill Simplex, 283DPE, 338Drunkyards Walk, 294Duplication, 137Dust Networks, 560

    E-code, 145EA, 95, 101, 105, 108110, 414EA/AE, 106EAG, 567, 568EARL, 233EBNF, 565ECGP, 201ECJ, 186Economics, 87, 105, 142, 160, 184, 265Edge Encoding, 174

  • INDEX 799

    EDI, 195Editing, 165EDL, 570Effect

    Baldwin, 278hiding, 279

    Effector, 234Efficiency

    Pareto, 31home, 558Elitism, 103Embrogeny, 154

    artificial, 154Embryogenesis, 154Embryogenic, 154Embryogeny

    artificial, 155computational, 155

    EMO, 106EMOO, 96, 109Encapsulation, 166Encoding

    cellular, 174edge, 174

    Endnote, 591Energy Source, 559Engineering, 87, 105, 230, 271, 280

    electrical, 105, 142, 160, 174, 202, 230, 231,251, 265

    Entropy, 478continuous, 478differential, 478information, 478

    Entscheidungsproblem, 220Environment, 234

    protection, 105, 227surveillance, 105, 227

    EO, 269, 271Eoarchean, 97EP, 101, 231, 232Ephemeral Random Constants, 398Epistacy, 68Epistasis, 63, 68, 344, 352, 353

    in Genetic Programming, 202in GPMs, 204positional, 203semantic, 202

    Epistatic Road, 336Epistatic Variance, 63Equilibrium, 269

    punctuated, 65, 269Equivalence

    class, 464relation, 464

    eRBGP, 211, 212ERL, 233Error, 499, 509

    , 509mean square, 499threshold, 62, 338type 1, 509type 2, 509

    Error Threshold, 62, 338ES, 100, 227, 228Estimation Theory, 499Estimator, 499

    best linear unbiased, 503maximum likelihood, 502point, 499unbiased, 499

    Euclidean Algorithm, 357Euclidian Distance, 538EUROGEN, 106, 143, 228, 232EuroGP, 160Evaluation, 53Event

    certain, 467conflicting, 467elementary, 466impossible, 467random, 466

    EvoCOP, 106Evolution

    autoconstructive, 215Baldwinian, 278differential, 229Lamarckian, 278

    Evolution Strategy, 100, 227, 228Evolutionary Algorithm, 95, 105, 108110

    basic, 98broadcast-distributed parallel, 304cycle, 96generational, 102multi-objective, 96parallelization, 300steady state, 102

    Evolutionary Operation, 101, 283randomized, 101

    Evolutionary Programming, 101, 201, 231, 232Evolutionary Reinforcement Learning, 233Evolvability, 62, 65EVOP, 101EvoWeb, 402EvoWorkshops, 107Expand, 201expand, 289Expected value, 473Experiment

    design of, 317factorial, 317

    Exploitation, 60, 62Exploration, 60, 289Exponential Distribution, 489Extended Backus-Naur Form, 565External Decision Maker, 37

  • 800 INDEX

    Extinctive Selection, 102left, 102right, 102

    Extradimensional Bypass, 85Extrema Selection, 67Extremal Optimization, 269271

    generalized, 270

    Factorial, 467False Negative, 509False Positive, 509FDC, 62FDL, 575FEA, 107Fibonacci Path, 341File Sharing, 558Finance, 87, 105, 142, 160, 184, 265Finite, 550Finite State Machine, 158, 231, 355Fishers Exact Test, 524Fitness, 46

    nature, 100optimization, 100

    Fitness Assignment, 111Pareto ranking, 112Prevalence ranking, 112Tournament, 120weighted sum, 112

    Fitness Landscape, 47deceptive, 63ND, 333neutral, 64NK, 329NKp, 332NKq, 332p-Spin, 332rugged, 61technological, 332

    Fly, 234FOCI, 107FOGA, 143home, 558Forma, 62, 80, 81

    analysis, 80Formae, 81Formal Grammar, 563Free Lunch

    no, 76Frequency

    absolute, 468relative, 468

    Frog, 234FSM, 160, 231Full, 163Fully Connected, 556Function, 462

    ADF, 167, 196aggregate, 415automatically defined, 167, 196

    benchmark, 327cumulative distribution, 470gamma, 532monotone, 463objective, 21penalty, 34

    adaptive, 34dynamic, 34

    probability density, 472probability mass, 471synthesis, 160, 174, 191, 202trap, 64, 333zeta, 532

    Functional, 462Functionality, 462FWGA, 143

    G3P, 177GA, 100, 141144

    messy, 152Gads, 179181, 185, 204

    1, 1792, 185

    GAGS, 179GALESIA, 143Game, 105, 160, 231, 254Gamma, 532Gamma System, 216Gauss-Markov Theorem, 503GCD, 357, 358

    problem, 357GCL, 207GE, 181, 182, 184, 204GECCO, 107, 143, 161, 246, 251GEM, 108, 143Gene, 43Gene Expression Programming, 172, 174Generality, 74Generation, 53Generational, 102Generative Grammar, 562Genetic Algorithm, 100, 141144, 242, 287

    cellular, 305cycle, 141for deriving software, 179grammar-based, 179messy, 70, 152

    Genetic Algorithms, 158natural representation, 145real-encoded, 145

    Genetic Assimilation, 279Genetic Network Programming, 199Genetic Programming, 100, 157, 160162

    binary, 172byte code, 194compiling system, 193crossover

    homologous, 195epistasis, 202

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