Global History and Geography Regents 2005 Susan E. Hamilton

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Global History and Geography Regents 2005 Susan E. Hamilton </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Global History &amp; Geography n Introduction &amp; Overview of Program n Test Structure n Study &amp; Test-taking Strategies n Thematic Essay Review n Final Tips </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Test Structure n 50 multiple choice questions on ninth and tenth grade material n One thematic essay on broad topic n Several short answer document-based questions n One essay based on the documents </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> How to Study for the Regents n Identify your strengths and weaknesses and focus on your weaknesses n Know how you learn n Break up study sessions in small chunks of time n make yourself accountable - have someone quiz you </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Multiple choice Questions n General social studies/vocabulary n speaker/quotation n maps/political cartoon/graphs/charts n fact/opinion n cause/effect n trend/global issues n outline/main ideas n chronological order </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Multiple choice strategies n Read the question carefully. If it is unclear translate it (change vocabulary) n Use word association to make connections between key words and what you know n If possible, determine whether the question is asking for a positive or negative answer n Go with what you know n Use process of elimination n Check your answers </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Positive Global Events/Ideas n Pax Romana n Magna Carta n Enlightenment n Renaissance n Scientific Revolution n Universal Declaration of Human Rights n detente n Glasnost </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Negative Global Events/Ideas n Absolutism/ totalitarianism/ fascism n Armenian Massacre/Holocaust/Cambodian genocide/ ethnic cleansing in Bosnia/ Rwandan genocide n Maos Great Leap Forward &amp; Cultural Revolution n collectivization n apartheid </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Vocabulary translations n Westernize=modernize=industrialize n independence=self-determination = nationalism =autonomy= sovereignty n traditional = before industrialization n mercantilism=favorable balance of trade n imperialism = colonialism n imperial power = mother country, colonial power n Marxist socialism = communism/Marxism n bourgeoisie = middle class n capitalism= free market, supply and demand </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Thematic Essay Strategies n Study key global and geography themes n Read the task and be sure you understand what is being asked. n Brainstorm ideas using word association. Think: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? n Make a chart or graphic organizer using the information provided n Write your essay based on your chart n Reread your essay and add any additional relevant information </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Document-based Questions n Always read the question before you read the document. n As you read the document, underline the answer n Answer ALL the document questions using information from the document </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Document-based Essay Tips n Brainstorm using word association. It is VERY IMPORTANT to include information relating to the topic beyond the information found in the documents. Think: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? n Make a chart or graphic organizer using the information provided n Make sure that you use and cite the required number of documents. Keep in mind documents are meant to support your position. n Be sure you have included outside information(you may wish to underline this) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Geography &amp; Its Effects n Natural resources: iron ore &amp; coal in Britain &gt; Industrial Revolution, diamonds in S.Africa, gold in Latin America n Rivers: early civilizations emerge; Nile River in Egypt, Fertile Crescent n Water sources: Middle East and Russia n Island status: Japans isolation &amp; limited natural resources - imperialism &amp; industrialization, Great Britain- strength of navy, ports, WWII </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> n Monsoons: feast or famine of South Asia, Green Revolution n Irregular coastline: Italy has many natural ports, inviting trade &amp; Renaissance, England n Land Bridge: Korea serves as a cultural bridge between Japan and China n Great Eurasian Plain: allowed easy invasions of Poland and USSR (WWII) Geography &amp; Its Effects </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> n Enormous size of Russia: frequent invasion, difficult to conquer, quest for warm-water ports n Harsh winter: Russias General Winter helped defeat Napoleon and Hitler n Smooth(regular) coastlines &amp; unnavigable rivers in Africa: delay European imperialism n Location of Middle East: cultural diffusion and conflict over Holy Land n Oil resources: Iraq takeover of Kuwait, OPEC Geography &amp; Its Effects </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Global Problems n Know location, causes, effects and possible solutions overpopulation deforestation desertification status of women nuclear proliferation pollution/global warming/depletion of resources urbanization famine terrorism </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Turning Points n Just about any revolution can be a turning point in a nations history n Others include: Signing of Magna Carta (1215) Fall of Constantinople (1453) Voyages of Columbus (1492) Collapse of Soviet Union (1990) End of apartheid in South Africa (1990) </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Political Systems n Democracy: govt by the consent of the people, protection of individual rights Direct: Athens Indirect: Rome Parliamentary: Britain &amp; India Word association: Pericles, John Locke, Enlightenment </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> n Communism: government control of economy(command), classless society Russia/Soviet Union, V.I. Lenin, Stalin: 1917-1990 China, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping: 1949 Cuba, Fidel Castro:1959 Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh: 1975 Cambodia: Pol Pot North Korea: Kim Jong Il Political Systems </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> n Totalitarianism/Authoritarian (Stalin) n Fascist (Hitler, Mussolini) n Theocracy/Religious rule (Ayatollah Khomeini:Iran, Taliban/Afghanistan) n Oppressive dictator (Saddam Hussein) n Autocratic (Czars of Russia) n Absolute rule/divine right (King Louis XIV and Louis XVI) n Feudalism: local control/strict social system/lord Political Systems </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Religion &amp; Philosophies n Hinduism India Sacred text: Vedas &amp;Upanishads Basic beliefs: several gods, caste system, reincarnation, karma, dharma, sacred cow Impact: caste system remains strong in rural areas but is weakening in cities, many Hindus are vegetarians (Sepoy Mutiny) </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> n Buddhism Southeast Asia Basic beliefs: reincarnation, nirvana, Four Nobel Truths n life is full of suffering n suffering is caused by a desire for things n suffering can be eliminated by eliminating desire n following the Eightfold Path will help overcome desire (right thinking and action) Religion &amp; Philosophies </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> n Judaism Israel, created in 1948 Holy Book: Torah Three beliefs: monotheistic, God gave Hebrews the land of Canaan (Israel), 10 Commandments Spread throughout world as a result of Diaspora Impact: Zionism (Jewish nationalism), conflict in the Middle East Religion &amp; Philosophies </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> n Christianity Western Europe, Latin America (Catholic) Holy Book: Bible Three beliefs: monotheistic, Jesus Christ as savior, 10 Commandments Spread through Age of Imperialism (White Mans Burden) Impact: Crusades, dominant institution during the Middle Ages, Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther) Religion &amp; Philosophies </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> n Islam Middle East (except Israel), Indonesia Holy Book: Quran (Koran) Three beliefs: monotheistic, Five Pillars (faith, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca), Sharia (Islamic laws) Spread through trade and conquest Impact: Islamic fundementalism in Iran (1979) Religion &amp; Philosophies </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> n Confucianism China Basic beliefs: Five Basic Human Relationships, education should be the road to advancement, filial piety (respect for family) Impact: provides social order and encourages education Religion &amp; Philosophies </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Revolutions n Neolithic Revolution:FROM nomadic tribes TO domestication of animals and farming giving rise to early civilizations n Commercial Revolution:FROM limited trade based on barter TO urban centers and new middle class leading to changes in business practices(mercantilism &amp; capitalism) n Scientific Revolution: FROM medieval thinking TO use of observation and reason </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> n Glorious Revolution: FROM absolutist policies of James II TO William and Mary signing of Bill of Rights limiting power of the monarchy in Great Britain n French Revolution: FROM absolute monarchy of Louis XVI TO democratic ideals of Enlightenment n Industrial Revolution: FROM cottage industry (goods made at home by hand) TO factory system, women working, higher standard of living, reform movement Revolutions </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> n Russian Revolution: FROM Czarist autocratic rule of Nicholas II TO communist rule under Lenin n Chinese Revolution:FROM warlord control and civil war with Nationalists TO communist rule under Mao Zedong (supported by peasants) n Iranian Revolution:FROM western rule of Shah Reza Pahlevi TO Islamic Fundementalist rule of Ayatollah Khomeini n Green Revolution: FROM limited crop yield TO double crop yield in South/Southeast Asia Revolutions </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Chronological Events n EUROPE: Ancient Greece &amp; Roman Empire &gt; Roman Empire fall&gt; splits &gt; east = Byzantine Empire (thrives from trade) and west = Dark Ages/feudalism&gt; Crusades &gt; rise of trade &gt; Renaissance/Reformation &gt;Age of Exploration &gt; Commercial Revolution &gt; Absolute kings &gt; Enlightenment &gt; French Revolution &gt; Industrial Revolution &gt; Age of Imperialism &gt; WWI &amp; WWII &gt; independence movements in colonies &gt; Cold War &gt; fall of USSR&gt; EU </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> More chronological events n Africa:Early kingdoms (Ghana, Mali Songhai) &gt; Transatlantic Slave Trade &gt; scramble for Africa by European nations &gt; demands for independence after WWII (Nkrumah &amp; Kenyatta) &gt; tribalism lingers &gt; trend toward democratic nations n India: Mughal Empire (Akbar) &gt; British rule &gt; Gandhis independence movement &gt; partitioning (India &amp; Pakistan) &gt; lingering tensions </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> More chronological events n Japan: Chinese influence &gt; feudal period (Tokugawa Shogunate) &gt; Mathew Perry visits &gt; Meiji Restoration(westernization) &gt; imperialism (raw materials) &gt; WWII &gt; democratic economic superpower n China: Early dynasties &gt; Opium War &gt; Spheres of Influence &gt; Boxer Rebellion &gt; Civil War&gt; Communist Revolution (1949 - Mao) &gt;Great Leap Forward/ Cultural Revolution &gt; Dengs economic reforms (1980s) &gt; calls for democratic reforms &gt; Tiananmen Square massacre </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> More chronological events n Russia: harsh autocratic rule under czars &gt; 1917 Bolshevik Revolution (Lenin) &gt; Stalins totalitarian rule&gt; WWII &gt; Cold War &gt; Gorbachevs Glasnost &amp; Perestroika &gt; Collapse of Soviet Union&gt; democracy &amp; free market n Latin America: Spanish conquest &gt; harsh rule (encomienda system)&gt; Slave trade &gt; nationalist movements&gt; military dictatorships&gt; democratic trend </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> n Middle East: River Valley Civilizations &gt; Byzantine Empire &gt; Golden Rule of Islamic Rule &gt; Crusades Rise &amp; Fall of Ottoman Empire Turkey modernizes (Ataturk) Arab-Israeli conflict (Zionism &gt; Holocaust &gt; wars &gt; PLO &gt; Camp David Accords &gt; Intifada &gt; conflict continues Shah overthrown&gt; Iranian Revolution (1979) &gt; Islamic fundementalist state&gt; war with Iraq/conflict with US Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait &gt;Gulf War Taliban in Afghanistan overthrown by US More chronological events </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Key People n Nationalists n Communists n Women n Supporters of Westernization n Religious leaders n Ruthless Leaders n Enlightened thinkers n others </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Nationalists n Simon Bolivar, Toussaint LOverture Latin America: Jose de San Martin n Italy: Cavour, Mazzini, Garabaldi n India: Mohandas Gandhi n Africa: Kenyatta(Kenya), Nkruma(Ghana) n China: Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek n Middle East: Arafat (Palestine), Ben-Gurion (Israel - Zionist) </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Communists n Karl Marx (Marxist/ Marxist Socialism/ communism) n V.I. Lenin (Russia/U.S.S.R.) n Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) n Fidel Castro (Cuba) n Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping (China) n Ho Chi Mihn (Vietnam) n Kim Jong Ill (North Korea) </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Women n World Leaders: Indira Gandhi (India), Benazar Bhutto (Pakistan), Golda Meir (Israel), Margaret Thatcher (Great Britain) n Humanitarian Concerns: Mother Tereasa (India), Aung Su (Myanmar), Rigoberta Menchu (Guatamala) n Enlightened thinker: Mary Wollstonecraft </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Supporters of Westernization n Russia: Catherine the Great, Peter the Great n Iran: Shah Rezi Pahlevi n Turkey: Kemel Aturk n Japan: Emperor Meiji </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Religious leaders n Martin Luther Goal: to reform Roman Catholic Church Action: posted 95 Thesis, believed in faith alone for salvation Reformation shattered religious unity in Europe </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Religious leaders n Ayatollah Khomeini Goal: remove Shah Reza Pahlavi and western influence and replace it with an Islamic Fundementalist state Impact: Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979. Government required strict adherence to Islamic law and enacted anti- western policies, held American hostages for over one year, women lost rights </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Ruthless Leaders n Adolf Hitler (Germany) n Pol Pot (Cambodia) n Slobadon Milosevic (Serbia) n Mao Zedong (China) n Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Enlightened Thinkers n John Locke n Rousseau n Voltaire n Mary Wollstonecraft n Montesquieu </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Other Key People n Adam Smith: wrote The Wealth of Nations advocating laissez-faire capitalism (govt leaves businesses alone) n Machiavelli: wrote The Prince, a handbook for rulers, the ends justify the means &amp; it is better to be feared than loved n Nelson Mandela: first black South African president, fought against apartheid </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Economic Systems n Traditional: based on barter (trade) n Manorialism:feudal manors (self-sufficient) n Mercantilism: export more than import, led to imperialism n Free market/ Laissez-faire capitalism: based on profit, private ownership, little govt interference n Command/ communism/ Marxist socialism: govt makes all economic decisions, no private ownership </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Human Rights Violations n Denial of basic political, economic and social rights to which all humans are entitiled Jews in Middle Ages/pogroms in Russia/Holocaust Apartheid: blacks in South Africa Untouchables in India Students in China (Cultural Rev./Tiananmen Square) Dissidents under Stalin &amp; other communist leaders Urban population...</li></ul>