Global Amphibian Decline and The Ecological Restoration of Wetlands

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Global Amphibian Decline and The Ecological Restoration of Wetlands. Causes of Amphibian Decline. Habitat Alteration/Loss Agriculture, Housing Developments, Urban Sprawl Disease Chytridiomycosis , Trematode Worms Climate Change Increased UV Radiation Pollution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>Global Amphibian Decline and the Mitigation Techniques to Stop the Process from Occurring</p> <p>Global Amphibian Decline and The Ecological Restoration of Wetlands</p> <p>Habitat Alteration/LossAgriculture, Housing Developments, Urban SprawlDisease Chytridiomycosis, Trematode WormsClimate ChangeIncreased UV RadiationPollution Herbicides, Insecticides, Fertilizers, Chemical ContaminantsNonindigenous SpeciesPet Trade Tiger salamanders, Axolotls, Pipid Frogs, Poison Dart Frogs, Red-eyed Tree FrogsCauses of Amphibian Declinehttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Red_eyed_tree_frog_edit2.jpghttp://www.wildanimalsonline.com/amphibians/tigersalamander-ambystomatigrinum.jpg</p> <p>They are particularly sensitive to environmental changeImportant bio-indicators of environmental degradationPermeable skin makes them particularly susceptible to contaminantsThey are sensitive to land-use changesLab specimens are used to study genetics, cellular function, and developmentThey are cool animals!</p> <p>32% of amphibian species are threatened with extinction43% of amphibian species are in population declineWhy Are Amphibians Important?</p> <p>http://frogsaregreen.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/BB-Japanese-Giant-Salamander.jpghttp://www.sciencephoto.com/images/showFullWatermarked.html/C0038258-Japanese_Giant_Salamander-SPL.jpg?id=670038258</p> <p>Their breeding-grounds have historically been filled in for more profitable enterprisesDisneyworld, Agriculture, ForestryAmphibians have Complicated LifestylesTypically, the larval phase occurs in water, and the adult the phase occurs terrestriallyLittle protection from Predators in large waterbodiesISOLATED WETLANDS PROVIDE PREDATOR-FREE REPRODUCTIVE GROUNDSChallenges Amphibians Face</p> <p>Small Constructed Isolated Wetlands in Most State ParksEverglades National ParkACE BasinOld rice fields restored into SC DNR managed wetlandsPhinizy Swamp Collects Augustas storm-water and purifies it before it reaches the Savannah RiverTuolumne River Floodplain Meadow CommunitiesInvasion of lodgepole pines into palustrine wetlandsRamsar SitesInternational wetland sites heavily managed for restoration of natural species compositions</p> <p>Restoration Projects</p> <p>http://farm1.static.flickr.com/65/168476907_884fba7cfb.jpghttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3185/2561025467_6dd107fc56.jpgMost state parks create isolated wetlands as breeding-grounds for amphibiansIsolated wetlands are not protected under the Clean Water ActNO FEDERAL PROTECTIONSmall Isolated Wetland Restorations</p> <p>http://www.gltrust.org/admin/i.php?a=ponds-rivers-and-streams&amp;i=DSCN3839.jpg</p> <p>US Forest Service Borrow PitPhoto courtesy of Joanna Hawley, MS Wildlife and Fisheries BiologyAmphibians. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.webspawner.com/users/petcentralamphibians/index.htmlBlaustein, A. R., &amp; Johnson, P. T. (2003). The complexity of deformed amphibians. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1(2)Blaustein, A. R., &amp; Kiesecker, J. M. (2002). Complexity in conservation: lessons from the global decline of amphibian populations. Ecological Letters, (5)Conservation International, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science. (2004). Global amphibian assessment Washington, DC: Conservation International.Flink, S. (2007). Wetlands international: ramsar sites information service. Retrieved from http://ramsar.wetlands.org/RamsarInformationServiceHome/tabid/719/language/en-US/Default.aspx National Geographic: Wild Chronicles, (2009). Giant Japanese Salamanders [Web]. Available from http://www.youtube.com/NationalGeographic#p/search/0/VN60DCHHQ50 Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web]. 2011. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved from http://amphibiaweb.org/ Lips., K. R., Brem, F., Brenes, R., Reeve, J. D., &amp; Alford, R. A. (2006). Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(9), Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30048554 doi: 10.1073Relyea, R. A. (2005). The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities. Ecological Applications, 15(2), Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4543379 Weldon, C., Preez, L. H., Hyatt, A. D., &amp; Speare, R. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Emerging Infectious Diseases. (2004). Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungusWhigham, D. F. (1999). Ecological issues related to wetland preservation, restoration, creation, and assessment. The Science of the Total Environment, (240), Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&amp;_udi=B6V78-3XK0PBH-1P&amp;_user=590719&amp;_coverDate=10%2F18%2F1999&amp;_rdoc=1&amp;_fmt=high&amp;_orig=gateway&amp;_origin=gateway&amp;_sort=d&amp;_docanchor=&amp;view=c&amp;_acct=C000030198&amp;_version=1&amp;_urlVersion=0&amp;_userid=590719&amp;md5=192ecd8a33b92bd3a9675ed339dd90d5&amp;searchtype=a</p> <p>Literature Cited</p>

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