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  • Geomorphology and geology around the

    Fukushima Daiichi NPS

    Principal Scientist at Geological Survey of Japan, AIST

    Atsunao MARUI

    1

  • Contents

    Geomorphology alound Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Outline of the Geological Survey Geology alound Fukushima Daiichi

    Nuclear Power Station Water level and Quality of the Aquifers

    2

  • GeomorphologyJapanese Islands

    3

    Japanese Islands are located in the North-West margin of the Pacific Ocean,

    and its a part of a huge mountain chain. It

    constitutes island arc-trench system with

    some deep trenches. The islands can be

    divided to North-East and South-West by

    the terrain characteristics.

    North-East Japan; the axis of mountains and basins are expands to north-south

    direction, and volcanic front is located in

    the center of Tohoku District.

    South-West Japan; Median Tectonic Lime characterize the terrain of south

    (highly mountain area) and north area

    (smooth area) of MTL,

    by Geographical Survey Institute, MLIT

    http://www.gsi.go.jp/atlas/atlas-etsuran.html

  • 4

    Neogene volcanic rocks of the Izu-Bonin Arc Neogene accretionary complex Tertiary low-P type metamorphic rocks Creraceous to early Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in Chidori Arc Cretaceous to Paleogene accretionary complex Cretaceous high-P type metamorphic rocks Cretaceous low-P type metamorphic rocks Jurassic to Cretaceous accretionary complex and sedimentary rocks Jurassic accretionary complex

    Geology including several categories below Triassic to Jurassic high P-type metamorphic rocks Permian to Triassic sedimentary rocks and mafic to ultramafic rocks Permian accretionary complex Permian to Triassic accretionary complex Carboniferous high-P type metamorphic rocks and mafic to ultramafic rocks Early Carboniferous accretionary complex Ordovician to Triassic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks Proterozoic to Paleozoic metamorphic and granite rocks

    Japanese Islands are located on the margin of the Eurasian Plate, and

    influenced by the sinking of Pacific Plate in

    the long term. Thats why;

    1. Accretionary prism is the feature of the

    geology of Japanese Islands.

    2. Basement of the islands are the older in

    the continental side, and the newer in the

    Pacific side.

    3. Variable volcanic deposits are deposited

    in the whole islands.

    The exact depth and distribution of the basement in the North-East Japan is not

    clear, because of the thickness of the

    accretionary prism and the volcanic

    deposits.

    by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST

    https://www.gsj.jp/geology/geomap/geology-japan/

    Geology Whole Japan

  • Geological Map of the Area

    5

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Pacific Ocean

    Futaba-Fault

    Granites Sediments

    The Futaba fault crushing belt, that is approximatery 80-km long, is located on

    the 8 km west of the NPS. Abukuma

    mountains are composed by plutonic

    rocks like granite, in the west of the

    crushing belt.

    A Neogene, Tomioka function is widely lays on the hills of the eastern side, anti-

    and syn-cline structures are observed in

    some area, however, faults and folda are

    not indicated. The Neogene Functions are

    declined 1- to 2- degree to the east ocean

    side, totally.

  • Geomorphology of the Plant Area

    Fukushima Daiichi-NPS

    The plant is located in the 35-m high table land surrounded by rivers, and the

    plant buildings are standing on the 10-m high developed plane.

    Divide

    River

    River

    River

    River

    Divide

    Ohkura

    Dam

    The Area located higher than

    Fukushima Daiichi-NPS

    6

  • Boring Points

    7

    3-dimensional geological model is constructed by using over than 200 boring data, before and after the earthquake.

    Boring point (Before 11th March 2011) Boring point (After 11th March 2011)

    Legend

    Alluvium/landfill

    Low terrace deposit (L face group)

    Middle terrace deposit (M face group)

    Middle-grained sandstone stratum (Stratum I) Mudstone stratum(stratum II) / alternate

    Submarine landside Strata (stratum III)

    deposit

    Sandy mudstone to

    greywacke

    (Strata IV to VI)

    Ta

    ka

    oka

    str

    atu

    m

  • Geology of the Plant Area

    8

    Neogene layers, so-called Tomioka Strata, are existed under the terrace deposit in the NPS plant area.

    Tomioka Strata is composited by Middle-grained sandstone stratum, Mudstone stratum, Alternate strata and some from the top.

    All layers under the Middle-grained sandstone stratum are deposited parallel and decline to the ocean

    Geological Cross Section of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Mudstone stratum (Stratum II)

    Middle-grained sandstone

    Stratum (Stratum I)

    Alternate strata (Stratum III)

    Mudstone stratum (Stratum IV)

    Original topography

  • Geology Legend Landfill

    Terrace deposit of Quaternary period

    Middle-grained sandstone in T3 member of Tomioka stratum(Stratum I)

    Mudstone stratum in T3 member of Tomioka stratum(Stratum I, II and IV)

    Alternate strata in T3 member of Tomioka stratum(Stratum III)

    Fine-grained sandstone stratum in T3 member of Tomioka stratumStratum IV Coarse-grained sandstone stratum in T3 member of Tomioka stratumStratum IV T2 member of Tomioka stratum

    Tuff Key Bed

    Cross Sectional View (E-W Section)

    Horizontal: Vertical=1:10

    Mudstone stratum contained

    in middle-grained sandstone

    Alternate strata

    (Stratum I)

    Middle-grained sandstone

    (Stratum I)

    Level of water within hole

    and groundwater Section

    Section

    Cross section

    (Current analysis model)

    9

  • Cross Sectional ViewN-S Section

    H:W=1:10 Section

    Geology Legend Landfill

    Terrace deposit of Quaternary period

    Middle-grained sandstone in T3 member of Tomioka stratum(Stratum I)

    Mudstone stratum in T3 member of Tomioka stratum(Stratum I, II and IV)

    Alternate strata in T3 member of Tomioka stratum(Stratum III)

    Fine-grained sandstone stratum in T3 member of Tomioka stratumStratum IV Coarse-grained sandstone stratum in T3 member of Tomioka stratumStratum IV T2 member of Tomioka stratum

    Tuff Key Bed

    Mudstone stratum contained

    in middle-grained sandstone

    Level of water within hole

    and groundwater

    Middle-grained sandstone

    (Stratum I)

    (Current analysis model)

    Alternate strata

    (Stratum I)

    Section

    Section

    Horizontal: Vertical=1:10 Cross section

    10

  • 16.7

    28.0

    29.7

    7.6

    7.8

    9.3

    5.8

    34.6

    34.2

    34.1

    28.1

    32.8

    33.3

    33.8

    34.0

    34.1

    34.5

    34.1

    35.0

    35.1

    35.2

    35.4 35.5

    34.3

    31.7

    34.2

    34.0

    33.0

    31.432.7

    32.4 34.3

    35.2

    35.0 34.4

    4.85.8 5.7 5.8 4.3 3.9 3.7 5.3 4.8

    3.9

    7.7

    7.68.7

    6.86.7

    7.5

    3.0 2.4 2.8

    11.5 11.4 11.411.6

    12.4

    13.0 18.616.0

    21.7

    22.8

    24.9

    10.0

    9.9

    9.9

    7.87.3

    10.0

    30m

    25m

    20m

    15m

    10m

    5m

    35.0

    35.1

    35m

    24.0

    Water Table in the Mid-sand Layer

    Continuous data before 2012 were plotted on the 4-m plane, and new

    observed data from 2013 is used in the

    other area

    Level is described by O.P.m

    O.P.m indicates the mean sea

    level of Onahama bay, before the

    earthquake.

    Boreholes to middle-grained sandstone stratum

    Boreholes to alternate strata

    Boreholes to middle-grained sandstone stratum and alternate strata

    Boreholes to fine-grained sandstone stratum

    Water-quality monitoring holes

    Planning holes

    Grouting area

    Sea-side impermeable walls 11

  • Dose Rate of the Groundwater around Build. #1 to #4

    Monitoring wells

    Sea-side Land-side

    Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 4 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4

    1T-1 1T-2 1T-3 1T-4 1T-5 1T-6 2T-1 2T-2 4T-1 1R-1 2R-1 3R-1 4R-1

    Date of collection 2013

    Sep. 5 Sep. 19 Sep. 5 Sep. 11 Sep. 13 Oct. 1 Dec. 2 Sep. 11 Sep. 11 Sep. 9 Sep. 5 Sep. 3 Sep. 25 Sep. 18

    Time of collection 13:00 12:15 11:00 11:50 10:00 10:45 10:30 13:00 11:35 10:30 12:50 10:00 11:00 9:20

    Cs-134 ND(0.37) ND(0.38) ND(0.54) ND(0.46) 0.64 ND(0.47) ND(0.82) ND(0.36) ND(0.47) ND(0.38) 0.64 ND(0.55) ND(0.43) ND(0.46)

    Cs-137 ND(0.47) ND(0.45) ND(0.52) 0.88 0.90 ND(0.62) ND(0.84) 0.66 ND(0.60) ND(0.44) 1.3 0.97 ND(0.58) ND(0.59)

    Gross ND(21) ND(18) ND(21) 9,500 7,000 3,200 13,000 ND(24) 830 ND(17) ND(21) 36 ND(17) ND(18)

    Tritium (H-3) 200 200 80,000 2,700 4,200 7,500 3,300 20,000 770 1,800 150 311 1,100 ND(7)

    Sr-90 0.90 1.3 1.1 7,500 - 2,900 8,700 0.36 740 ND(0.28) 0.46 2.4 ND(0.26) ND(0.28)

    ND represents a value below the detection limit; values in ( ) represent the detection limit

    Date of collection: Sep. 3 ~ Dec. 2. 2013

    Unit 1 Turbine bldg.

    Unit 2 Turbine bldg.

    Unit 3 Turbine bldg.

    Unit 4 Turbine bldg.

    R/B R/B R/B R/B

    1T-1

    1T-2

    1T-3

    1T-4

    1T-5 1T-6

    2T-1 2T-2 4T-1

    1R-1