geomagnetic three‐hour‐range indices

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  • GEOMAGNETIC THREE-HOUR-RANGE INDICES FOR THE YEARS 1938 AND 1939

    BY J. BARTELS, N.H. HECK, AND H. F. JOHNSTON Abstract--The paper gives three-hour-range indices K for seven observatories for

    July 1, 1938, to December 31, 1939 (Table 1), world-wide three-hour-range indices K for 1938 and 1939 (Table 2, which will be used most often), and, based on Ku,, daily indices B (Table 3) and monthly frequencies and averages (Table 4). Section (1) contains all the information necessary for using these Tables in geophysical or ionospheric work.

    Sections (2) to (5) show how the indices K are standardized by means of keys for transforming/( into reduced indices Kr. The world-wide Kt, is introduced as an aver- age 9 f the reduced indices Kr, in which the Kr from polar stations enter with higher weight than the Kr from equatorial stations. Kw is proposed as a measure of the in- tensity P of solar corpuscular radiation.

    Note--Throughout this paper, a superior cross (X) denotes a half unit, thus, 0x =0.5, lx-- 1.5, etc.

    1. Description of the current tables and diagrams The three-hour-range index K expresses, by an integer between 0

    and 9, the intensity of the magnetic disturbance at an observatory for each of the eight three-hour intervals of the Greenwich day, as described in our first paper, to which the reader is referred for details; the present paper will, however, be self-contained in that the tables and their use will be explained.

    Table/--Original K-indices, for July, 1938, to December, 1939, for the seven observatories Si =Sitka (Alaska), Ni = Niemegk (Potsdam, Germany), Ch=Cheltenham (Maryland), Tu=Tucson (Arizona), SJ = San Juan (Puerto Rico), Hu=Huancayo (Peru), and Wa=Watheroo (Western Australia). The first of the eight indices given for each Green- wich day refers to the interval 00 h to 03 h GMT. The indices for January to June, 1938, were given on pages 434-439 of our first paper, x together with those for Ho = Honolulu.

    In case of incomplete records, indices could easily be estimated from those given by the other observatories for the same intervals. There are again a few cases in which the range was clearly raised by the geo- magnetic effect of a solar flare, that is, by a non-corpuscular solar in- fluence' for these intervals, a "non-flare-K" or K' , , , was also estimated [used for deriving Kr, see section (4)], as follows:

    January 16, 1938, 00h-03 h GMT: Ho K=2, Kt=0; Wa K--5, K'=I. September 20, 1938, !5a-18 GMT: Ch K=2, K'=I; Tu K=2, K'=I; SJ K=2, K'=I; Ho K=3, K=0; Hu K=5, K=2; 18h_21h GMT: Hu K=5, K'=O. September 23, 1938, 15n-18 h GMT: Hu K=4, K =2. December 7, 1938, 18a-21 GMT: Si K--I, K =0; Ch K=4, K'=I; Tu K=5, K'=i; SJ K=3, K'=O; Ho K=2, K'=O; Hu K=2, K'=I. August 29, 1939, 18t'-21 GMT: Hu K=2, K'=I.

    Table 2mWorld-wide indices K, and their daily sums, 1938-39, are given in Table 2. Eight indices are given for each Greenwich day, the first referring to the interval 00 h to 03 h GMT. K is given to half a unit; for econom in printing, half-units are indicated by crosses (x). The new Table supersedes the previous Tables for 2Kin for the first half of 1938.

    Terr. Mag., 44, 411-454 (1939). Since February 1, 1940, the K-indices for Cheltenham are broadcast daily in the cosmic-dam Ursi.gram (see Note in Terr. Mag., 45, 112, 1940), and since April 1, 1940, the weekly "Cosmic-data" Bulletins issued by Science Service, Washington, D.C., contain the K-indices for seven American-operated observatories.

    309

  • 310 J. BARTELS, N.H. HECK, AND tt. F. JOHNSTON [Vot.. 45, No. 31

    Table !--Three-hour-rae indices, K, July 1058 to December 1939 July 1958

    232 4324 3423 3210 02!0 0110 1110 5555 4323 4231 2212 3421 1100 21 221

    3 22 1200 01 0111 11 46 44 4 $ 31 1110 2212

    ' 3 !0 0100 ,0000 2111 43 41 4210, ,2 3110 11 2121,,20

    20 0133 4t4 4 31 0011 2100 2111 1111 a 5512 33 24 5568' 43 2112 14 54 4211 1111 1211 11 12 34 5412 32 1453 5566 532 lOlO 1 5 3 3211 02 2211 21 5412 3244 2445 5567 53

    2010 15 54 2111 2122 2221 2 4412 33 1444 5656 543 43 !1! 2 22 53 12 2 1211 22 12 3 12 3243 4 43 4244 10 12 4322 53 2101 11 3331 1113 5 11 4331 14 6664 43

    111 03 43 3 10,00 2121 1!,01 ,1,21 1123 4322 32 24 5665 4.3 !7 18 !9 2q, . 21 22 23

    2 11 ill 22 312 3122 21 12 31 22i 32 211 21 122 3001 11 0110 0101 231 4122 2121 1211 2 2111 2211 111I 1321 100 2323 2112 12!2 01 011 131 3122 1212 20 23 221 2212 01 0111 1120 1 I0 1 101 0011 12 31 2112 2221 1 2 2212 0131 0211 20 1112 2011 2012 1 0010 01 211 3012 011 12 3212 1111 1111 0221 1120 1110 1222 1102 1112

    1210 1110 001 21 3012 2221 0 10 1111 11 0221 1430 110 2421 10

    10,,,,00 0100 0100 2123 1100 1111 1112 2121 ,111 0111 0110 11 212 1 121! .... 26 27 2B 29 30

    200 o i mo 02 100 00 02 a 4788 524 32o2 000 20 0 000 no 00 20 000 mo m2 a an 00 20m oom o oreo mo 22 oreo 0 om m os 4m 4m 000 00 0 om oom mo 02 00 om 2 a6s 4 42m 0000 2ira oho moo 0 mo 2 oom 00 om 4 4 320 00 2 020 oom 00 moo 22 00 ,0 m2 2 42 sa ao 00

    alg00 00 0,,200 mO 0 00 q!2 2 54,,42 n 00 ..... August 19118

    ! .... 2 $ "4 s ....... 7 s $1 1224 4434 4731 2334 3310 0226 45'97 6333 5542 5443 3344 3322 2442 3320 1221 2011 N1 1133 3534 4522 345 4210 0337 5554 4544 4532 5443 3322 1333 1211 4422 1112 1032 Ch 12;33 2435 4622 2234 4320 0336 5566 3436 5532 3343 5321 0222 0440 2222 1222 002 Tu 2243 3435 4633 2334 4320 0337 5565 43. 4542 2343 4322 1212 1441 2332 1222 1111 SJ 1142 4522 02,33 '3220 0327 5444 2334 4432 1242 3311 0211 1331 2222 ,1222 1122 Hu 1!32 3544 4431 333 2210 1436 4443 453 3432 3542 3311 2431 1322 4422 1121 2121 Wa 1142 2523 3432 1334 31.2,,9 0225 3554 4431 21 3321 3221 1311 0221 1321 0122 1011

    ,9, 10 !! !2,, 13 14 15 16 Si 2020 2021 2433 2222 235? 77s $33z z231 3320 101! looo 2120 oool 0110 0000 0000

    C'n 1000 2012 1322 2333 3436 5434 23.32 3430 1011 1100 2111 0000 0110 0000 0001 Tu 1000 2112 03,. 2332 3446 5445 3333 2323 3441 2011 1101 3110 0000 1101 1110 0100 SJ 1101 2111 0322 23322436 2343 2333 2322 3411 2121 1101 2110 0000 0100 0010 0111 Itu 1000 3310 0323 4532 2325 5554 232.4 4342 3331 3220 1101 4320 0000 1210 OOlO 0010

    W& 1110 2000 1322 2111 1246 6432 2333 2222 3331,1010 !100 2110 0000 0100 0000 0000 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

    51 0012 3110 2000 0111 0002 1111 0001 0000 0000 3231 1200 3,342 3337 4221 2001 2123 N1 0001 3311 1100 1111 1100 1221 1110 0111 0011 3322 1211 5443 3335 52 !022 245 h 0010 0202 2000 0011 0100 0021 0011 0011 0111 2221 1300 5464 5232 1011 2244 Tu 0011 2111 2001 0011 0110 0112 0100 0011 0100 3231 1200 5454 4445 42,. 2122 2134 SJ 0011 1100 1001 0011 0101 0111 0001 1111 0100 2321 2200 Z353 421 2011 l 0010 2410 2000 1211 1110 1210 0110 1211 0101 330 1100 6662 334 6432 1112 4334

    Wa 0010,,,,,,2.100 1000 ,,0010, 0010 0100 0000 0001 0000 1331 1100 4322 3345 4221 1111 2132 .... 20 , Z7 .... 2 2e SO 31

    '$! 3i00 0220 0000 0010 0002 0010 1001 0321 2232 2132 3413 2121 2323 3000 Nl 4,.R20 1231 1110 1022 1101 1112 0101 1333 2_'/ 1142 3422 3121 2212 2110 /21 4210 1221 0110 0021 0011 0000 1100 0333 .23 0132 3412 2232 2221 0000 Tu 3210 0121 1100 0021 101! 0010 1000 0243 233 1133 3413 2121 2.%21 1100 SJ 2210 0221 0110 0021 0010 0110 1000 0343 3333 00,%2 2411 0111 1320 0100 u 3100 1310 0100 1210 0001 1210 1000 2542 22.32 2.342 2402 4310 1221 2210 Wa 2110 0021 0110 0001 0000 0100 0100 123 2232 0031 2211 1120 1112 2000

  • THREE-HOUR-RANGE INDICES, 1938 AND 1939

    Table 1--Three-hour-range Indices, K, July 1938 to December 1939--contlnued September 1938

    1 2 3 4 5, e 7 8 oisi iin oo20 oooi 223s 42ii io22 22i ii23 33io oooo ooo2 iisi i32i 22i2

    m oz oon oo , oo o oooo o, n m

    oho om no on z oooz z oo oo o s zz oo oon ,z oooo 4, o so ooo n ono oin oioi OlOZ iz ii oi ii iiiz oo oioo ,iooz Zmi mio,,zin iii

    23 3220 i3 412i 11 3131 2i32 3121 22 0243 4624 5755 6788 87 32 0122 2332; 2i22 3222 i2 i2 2i 23 i4i2 1 55il 55 64 65 33ii 0122 22 1222 2211 33 22 31 11 1421 1155 44 55 6665 e554 5i oi i2 i i 23 lis4 ss 4 eee 5453 53 2123 1121 22 1222 2111 2202 21 1222 1022 142i 1155 4523 44 5455 64 4322 2i32 0i12 41 !211 30 0! 10 31 2311 2455 4421 4e54 44 5553 3212 0! 21 !113 11 2101 1 1111,21 i2 !4 4411 57 7554 12,

    17 18 19 20 21 2 4 . 32 3310 101 1101 1110 0121 2032 1110 0021 1131 4 2210 1 1120 00 1011 11 10 1112 03 1011 0112 2122 2110 0122 11 3210 2432 1112 !001 1113

    11 2120 21 1101 1110 21 210 0111 0143 33 2221 21 1112 0000 0111 21 1121 2131 1001 1110 O 2131 0 0121 01 4 2122 2432 1111 1000 11 31 1121 21 1210 1110 1212 2121 0 0121 1033 3 12 2331 0111 0100 0110 1311 4310 11 11 0111 1321 2021 35 1111 33 33 21 2332 241 !0 11 3210 1111 110! 1110 0.!01 2!31.. .2100 1121 132 23 1.!10 1 110! 0100 1101

    26 27 28 29

    00 01 34 53 3 73 33 23 32 2214 5 01 0 45 4 13 1 7633 22 2214 64 01 13 4653 1333 26 6633 5652 13 3321 111 4

    :01 2111 5 1131 32 5 2 3311 !114 4254 October 1938

    47o5 3s. ssz4232 433 ss3 i5 5ii0002 0000 oni 3i20 o??s76 466z 4 ss i i 4 OOli 0000 s i 4 34 s 4 s 4s 0s4 os sii 00 0000 0 os ss 4v 2iss'4332 ssss sE2 ssis 41 0001 0000 i2 21 04 6s s6 4

    633 22 3322 4212 33 0S S131 00 00 1132 S1 0 633 68 SS 23 3221 S1 3201 1332 12 31 0000 2210 2 1 0S 84 S

    4744 12 S322 2 1 1333 12 32! 01 0000 3 $ 0144 66 S6 ,9 io 11 1 i3 i4 is

    2iss isi2 22i2 33i2 2 so oi ooo'oo oo oooo ooo0 Ooo2 sio os sizz is 33i2 sizs 3sii 22o oon oiz3oii2 mss iooo oooi ni2 3 4is2 ii 3o ins 32 2000 ooio oooi oo ooil noo oioi oon ii 2i si2z iii3 oi iiss 2i sioo oi oon oooo ii2z oioo oooo oon 2oio izzz si iz 2oo 2is2 i iooo oon oooo OOli i22i noi oooo Oil2 ioi 22 2i22 moo 2 0 oon i oi 1331 1000 20 0012 1 21is

    33 1312 2111 3122 2212 3120 0111 0010 0010 Qlll 11,,0 0111 022 1142

    2013 !2 00 2 1312 3231 1122 1 11'0 01 1120 043 21 6522 Sl12 3210 1122 1233 s321 s223 33 s2 2112

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