Geography & History Including Pre-history & Civilizations

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Geography &amp; History Including Pre-history &amp; Civilizations </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Geography &amp; History Geography is the study of people, their environments, and the resources available to them. History uses written evidence to tell us how people lived in the past. Today, historians study such evidence as photographs, film, &amp; written documents such as letters and tax records. (Primary Sources) </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Place Five Themes of Geography Region The Human Story Human- environment interaction Location Movement 1 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Anthropology &amp; Archaeology Anthropology is the study of the origins and development of people and their societies. Some anthropologists study the origins of human life. Others focus on the variety of human cultures. Archaeology is a specialized branch of anthropology. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Anthropology &amp; Archaeology Archaeologists study artifacts, objects made by human beings. By analyzing artifacts, archaeologists learn about the beliefs, values, and activities of early people. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Skeletal remains at an archaeological site. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The age of artifacts can be determined by measuring the amount of radioactive element remaining in the artifact. Artifacts are objects left by earlier peoples. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> made simple tools and weapons out of stone, bone, or wood; developed a spoken language; invented clothing; used caves and rocky overhangs for shelter; learned to build fires for warmth and cooking. Old Stone Age = people lived as nomads, in small hunting and food gathering groups. The Dawn of History 2 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Paleolithic Age The Dawn of History 2 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Land bridges permitted movement from Asia into the Americas. The Ice Ages cut the land bridges, leaving water in the cuts and cutting off movement. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Dawn of History 2 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 2 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Early Spiritual beliefs Animism =belief that the world Is full of spirits &amp; forces that reside in animals, objects, or dreams. ( Cave paintings) Stone statues of pregnant women = worshiped earth- mother goddesses. Early people began burying their dead with care, suggesting a belief in life after death. Buried with tools &amp; weapons for the afterlife. The Dawn of History 2 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The change from nomadic to farming life led to changes in the way people lived and to the emergence of civilizations. Neolithic Revolution PEOPLE BEFOREPEOPLE AFTER Learned to farm and were able to produce their own food. Settled into permanent villages. Learned to domesticate, or tame, animals. Relied on hunting and gathering. Nomads lived in small hunting and food-gathering groups. Waited for migrating animals to return each year. 2 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Economy Hunters and gatherers Nomadic Developments Simple tools and weapons Spoken language Use of fire Burial of dead Belief in afterlife Creation of cave paintings Economy Work as farmers Live in permanent villages Use domesticated animals Developments Population growth Community interaction Decline in status of women Personal possessions Development of calendar Economy Artisans Merchants Soldiers Government workers Developments Rise of cities Organized governments Job specialization Growth of social classes System of writing Trade Social classes Complex religion The First People </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> The development of agriculture occurred at various times in different parts of the world. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Farmers began cultivating lands along river valleys and producing surplus, or extra, food. Surpluses helped populations expand. As populations grew, some villages swelled into cities. Basic Features of Civilizations 3 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 8. Writing 7. Public works 6. Arts and architecture 5. Social classes 4. Job specialization 3. Complex religions 2. Central governments 1. Cities A civilization is a complex, highly organized social order. Historians distinguish eight basic features found in most early civilizations: 3 Basic Features of Civilizations </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> *Culture is a peoples way of life and includes their diet, religious beliefs, artistic achievements and language. 3 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Civilizations spread when ancient rulers gained more power &amp; conquered territories beyond the boundaries of their cities. Powerful rulers created city-states &amp; empires. Civilizations change when the physical environment changes. Civilizations Spread &amp; Change 3 An empire is a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler. City-state included a city &amp; its surrounding lands &amp; villages. Ex: A tremendous volcano may have wiped out Minoan civilization. *Cultural diffusion = spread of ideas, customs, &amp; technologies from one people to another. Cultural diffusion occurred through migration, trade, &amp; warfare. </li> </ul>