genetics (ppt from mrs. brenda lee)

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  • 1. Genetics 101 (1)Your body is made up of ______ trillion cells (2)Nucleus has ________ % of your genes. (3)Mitochondria has ________ % of your genes. (4)You have nearly ______ thousand genes (5)Genes are small parts _______________________________________ (6)Deoxyribonucleic acid measures ________ feet long (7)DNA is a ________ stranded molecule composed of (a) _____ (b) _______(c) ________
  • 2. Genetics 101 (8)Four bases (a) ________ (b) ________ (c) ________ (d) ________ (9)These bases spell out the language known as the ________ ________ (10)Genes are ________ for making specific proteins, passed on from one ________ to another. (11)Genes ________ a cell how to function and what traits to ________. (12)Gene ________ turn different genes on and off in different cells to ________ cell function.
  • 3. Genetics 101 (13)The long molecules of ________ containing your genes are organized into pieces called ________. (14)Humans have ________ pairs chromosomes. (15)Chimpanzees have ________ pairs chromosomes. (16)Rhesus monkeys ________ pairs chromosomes. (17)Cows________ pairs chromosomes.
  • 4. Genetics 101 (18)Chickens________ pairs chromosomes. (19)Fruit flies________ pairs chromosomes. (20)Bananas________ pairs chromosomes. (21)What percentage of the DNA in your chromosome do you share with other species? (22)You share ________% of your DNA with rhesus monkey (23)You share ________% of your DNA with chimpanzee
  • 5. Genetics 101 (24)You share ________% of your DNA with other humans (25) With the above information describe why the nucleus is the control center of the cell.
  • 6. What isGenetics?
  • 7. What is Genetics? the study of inheritance. (heritable characteristics) It can predict how genes may be passed on to future generations.
  • 8. GENES units of genetic material that CODES for a SPECIFIC TRAIT
  • 10. DNA NucleotidePhosphate Group O 5 O=P-O CH2 O O N Nitrogenous base C4 C1 (A, G, C, or T) Sugar (deoxyribose) C3 C2
  • 11. Nitrogenous Bases PURINES 1. Adenine (A) 2. Guanine (G) A or G PYRIMIDINES 3. Thymine (T) 4. Cytosine (C) T or C
  • 12. DNA vs RNA
  • 13. DNA vs RNA
  • 14. DNA vs RNA
  • 15. WATSON & CRICK 1953; described the DNA molecule
  • 16. Watson & Crick proposedDNA had specific pairing between the nitrogen bases: ADENINE THYMINE CYTOSINE GUANINEDNA was made of 2 stands of nucleotidesarranged in pairs Complementary Rule
  • 17. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (1970) Flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein and is descriptive of all organisms. Translation of a protein follows a chain of molecular command, where DNA acts as a template for both its replication and for transcription to RNA (mRNA) , which then serve as a template for translation into protein.
  • 18. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (1970) The flow of genetic information via the three fundamental processes of replication, transcription, and translation States that DNA makes RNA, which makes protein. DNA RNA - Protein
  • 19. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
  • 20. REPLICATION (nucleus)The process of copying a DNA molecule STEPS 1. Unwinding of parental DNA molecule 2. Complementary base pairing Adenine = Thymine Guanine = Cytosine
  • 21. REPLICATION (nucleus)3. Joining - The complementary nucleotides join to form new strands. Semiconservative each daughter DNA molecule contains an old strand and a new strand; one of the old strands is conserved.
  • 22. Semiconservative Model DNA TemplateParental DNA New DNA
  • 23. REPLICATION (nucleus) The DNA molecule produces 2 IDENTICAL complementary strands following the rule of base.
  • 24. REPLICATION (nucleus)
  • 25. Replication Recitation1. Why is replication necessary? A---? G---?2. When & where does replication occur? C---?3. Describe how replication works. T---?4. Use the complementary rule to A---? create the complementary strand: G---? A---? G---? C---? A---? G---? T---?
  • 26. Replication Recitation 1. Why is replication necessary? A---TFor both new cells to have the correct G---Ccopy of the same DNA C---G 2. When & where does replication occur? T---A During interphase (S phase); nucleus A---T G---C 3. Describe how replication works. A---T Enzymes unzip DNA and complementary G---C nucleotides join each original strand. C---G 4. Use the complementary rule to A---T create the complementary strand: G---C T---A
  • 27. TRANSCRIPTION (nucleus)STEPS 1. DNA will unzip itself and RNA nucleotides match up to the DNA strand. 2. After an RNA polymerase has passed by, the DNA strands rejoin and the mRNA is released.
  • 28. TRANSCRIPTION (nucleus)
  • 29. TRANSCRIPTION (nucleus)Transcription makes messenger RNA (mRNA) to carry the code for proteins out of the nucleus (via the nuclear pore) to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.


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