genetics. gregor mendel (1822- 1884)

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GENETICS Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 GREGOR MENDEL (1822- 1884) Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 Self Fertilization Offspring= Purebred Slide 10 Cross Fertilization Offspring = Hybrid Slide 11 CROSS POLLINATION Slide 12 Slide 13 HYBRID COCKAPOO COCKER SPANIEL + POODLE Slide 14 HYBRID PUG + BEAGLE PUGGLE Slide 15 HYBRID DOG AND WOLF DOG AND WOLF Slide 16 male lion and a female tiger Liger Slide 17 Peas! Slide 18 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY DominantDominant RecessiveRecessive HomozygousHomozygous HeterozygousHeterozygous GenotypeGenotype PhenotypePhenotype TraitTrait AlleleAllele Slide 19 Dominant allele- trait is always expressed if present - Written as capital letter - Ex. Tall= T Recessive allele- only expressed if no dominant allele is present (Dominant allele masks this one) - For a particular trait written as the same letter but lower case - Ex. Short= t Dominant and Recessive Alleles Slide 20 Genotype- the genes you get from your parents Two letters represent the two alleles One from mom one from dad TT, Tt, tt Phenotype- the physical trait, what you look like Tall short, yellow or green TT, tt what is the phenotype?? Slide 21 Homozygous - the same alleles for a gene TT, tt Heterozygous - having different alleles for a gene Tt Slide 22 Trait = Height TALL SHORT alleles Slide 23 Slide 24 Flower Color Trait Gene- unit of inherited information in DNA Allele- alternative form of a gene ( white purple) Slide 25 Test Cross- mate an unknown genotype ( TT or Tt) with homozygous recessive (tt) Slide 26 Reginald Punnett Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 In Starfish being red is dominant over being pink. What would Patrick s phenotype be? What would his genotype be? What would Patrick s phenotype be? What would his genotype be? Slide 30 PINK Because Patrick is pink his phenotype is PINK rr And since pink is recessive his genotype would be rr Slide 31 Red pink Red is dominant over pink red Suppose we had a HETEROZYGOUS red starfish what would the genotype be? Slide 32 Rr Slide 33 Lets do some MONOHYBRID CROSSES! Monohybrid means we are only using ONE TRAIT Slide 34 STEP by STEP 1.Select a good letter to use 2.Write down your givens 3.Determine parents and record 4.Set up Punnett Square 5.Determine genotypes & phenotypes of offspring (use percentages or fractions) (use percentages or fractions) Slide 35 In pea plants being Tall is dominant over being short Cross a Heterozygous Tall plant with a Homozygous Tall plant Slide 36 Aa x AA Geno = 50% AA 50% Aa Pheno = 100% Tall A A A Slide 37 In sponges, being blue is dominant over being yellow. Cross a heterozygous blue sponge with a yellow one. Slide 38 Heterozygous Blue = Bb Recessive Yellow = bb so we cross Bb x bb Slide 39 Time for some Monohybrid Crosses on your own! Time for some LOONEY Monohybrid Crosses on your own! Slide 40 Red is dominant over Blue Slide 41 T TTEST EST CCRROOSSSSTTEST EST CCRROOSSSSCROSS Slide 42 MENDELS LAWS 1. Dominance & Recessiveness 2.Segregation 3. Independent Assortment Slide 43 PEDIGREE male female


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