generalised substitution box

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brief about cryptography


AMINI PROJECT REPORTONGENERALIZED SUBSTITUTION BOXSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree ofBACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY InELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERINGByK.SAKETH REDDY A.HARI KRISHNA S.SUPRIYA B.HAREESHCH.MOUNIKA [11QK1A0433] [11QK1A0413] [11QK1A0454] [11QK1A0412][11QK1A0417]Under the esteemed guidance of Mr. P.V.N SWAMY Assoc. Professor & HOD E.C.E Dept DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING JYOTHISHMATHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES (Recognized by AICTE & Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad) RAMAKRISHNA COLONY, KARIMNAGAR-505481JYOTHISHMATHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES RAMAKRISHNA COLONY, KARIMNAGAR-505481DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERINGCERTIFICATEThis is to certify that this project work entitled GENERALIZEDSUBSTITUTION-BOX is a bonafide work carried out by K.SAKETH REDDY(11QK1A0408), A.HARI KRISHNA (11QK1A0413), S.SUPRIYA (11QK1A0454),B.HAREESH (11QK1A0412), CH.MOUNIKA (11QK1A0417) in partial fulfillment ofthe requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics andCommunication Engineering during the period of 2013-2014 under the guidance andsupervision.Internal GuideMr. P.V.N SWAMY Assoc. Professor Dept. of ECEJMTK, Karimnagar. Head of the Dept Mr. P.V.N.SWAMYAssoc. Professor Dept. of E.C.EJMTK ,Karimnagar.DECLARATIONWe, K.SAKETH REDDY (11QK1A0408), A.HARI KRISHNA (11QK1A0413),S.SUPRIYA(11QK1A0454),B.HAREESH(11QK1A0412),CH.MOUNIKA(11QK1A0417)herebydeclarethattheprojectentitledGENERALIZEDSUBSTITUTION-BOX, submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements forthe award of B.Tech., in Electronics and Communication Engineering toJyothishmathi Institute of Technological Sciences, Ramakrishna Colony, Affiliatedto JNTU, Hyderabad is a authentic work and has not been submitted to any otheruniversity or institute for award of the Under Graduation.K.SAKETH REDDY A.HARI KRISHNA S.SUPRIYA B.HAREESHCH.MOUNIKA [11QK1A0433] [11QK1A0413] [11QK1A0454] [11QK1A0412][11QK1A0417]iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTBehind every success of work there is a good guidance, suggestions and motivations. We think it is our duty to convey our heart full thanks to those whose contribution made this project success.The completion of this project would be incomplete without naming the people who made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement made this project work.It is a great pleasure to express our deepest sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Dr. V. POORNA CHANDRA RAO, Principal, Jyothishmathi Institute of Technological Sciences, Karimnagar for providing the college facilities for the completion of the project.We wish to express our sincere thanks to our mini project guide Mr.P.V.N.SWAMY, Assoc.Prof.,& Head of Dept ECE, Jyothishmathi Institute of Technological Sciences, Karimnagar for giving their valuable suggestions and for having been a source of constant inspiration, precious guidance and generous assistance during the project work. We deem it as a privilege to have worked under his able guidance. Without his close monitoring and valuable suggestions this work wouldnt have taken this shape. We feel that this help is un-substitutable and unforgettable.Finally, we thank all the faculty members, management and supporting staff of ECE Dept. and friends for their kind co-operation and valuable help for completing the project.K.SAKETH REDDY A.HARI KRISHNA S.SUPRIYA B.HAREESHCH.MOUNIKA [11QK1A0433] [11QK1A0413] [11QK1A0454] [11QK1A0412][11QK1A0417]ABSTRACTIn Cryptography,an S-Box (Substitution-box) is a basic component symmetric key algorithms which performs substitution. In the block ciphers, they are typically used toobscure the relationship between the key and the cipher text Shannon's property of ConfusionIn general,an S-Box takes some number of input bits, m,and transforms them into some number of output bits, n,where n is not necessarily equal to m.An mxn S-Box canbe implemented as a lookup table with 2m words of n bits each.Given a 6-bit input, the 4-bit output is found by selecting the row using the outer two bits (the first and the last bits), and the column using the inner four bits. For example, an input "011011" has outer bits "01" and inner bits "1101"; the corresponding output would be "1001.The main design features of the proposed system are the configurability and flexibility. The proposed system is design using VHDL and is implemented by using the Modelsim software and also in Active HDL 4.2 SE version.vINDEXTOPICABSTRACT CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURESLIST OF TABLES PAGE NOS(v) (vi) (viii)(ix)CONTENTSTOPICCHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.1 Motivation and History 1.2 CryptographyCHAPTER 2 VLSI & FPGA 2.1 VLSI Technology 2.2 What are FPGAS 2.3 Types of FPGAS2.3.1 History of FPGA2.4 Basic FPGA Architecture 2.5 FPGA Design flow2.6 General View of FPGA 2.7 FPGAS Vs CPLDS 2.8 How FPGAS work2.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of FPGA2.10Hardware Description Languages PAGE NOS01-030102-0304-19 04 06 06 07 07 08 13 14 16 1819CHAPTER 321-26INTRODUCTION TO VLSI3.1 Overview21 3.2 What is VLSI?22 3.3 History of Scale Integration23 3.4 VLSI and Systems24 3.5 Applications25CHAPTER 427-47VHDL4.1 History of VHDL 27 4.2 Levels of Abstraction 30 4.3Need for VHDL 32 4.4Advantages of VHDL 33 4.5DesignMethodology using VHDL 34 4.6Elementsof VHDL 35 4.7VHDL Language Features 36 4.8DataTypes 45CHAPTER 547-51 VERILOG HDL5.1 History47 5.2 Major Capabilities48 5.3 Synthesis49CHAPTER 652-56 S-BOX6.1 Cryptography52 6.2Substitution Box 54CHAPTER 7RESULTS AND CONCLUSION57REFERENCES58LIST OF FIGURESfig 2.2 Basic FPGA Architecture07 fig 2.3 FPGA Design flow09 fig 4.1 Levels of Abstraction30 fig 5.1 Mixed Level Modeling49 fig 5.2 Synthesis Process50 fig 5.3 Typical Design Process51 fig 6.1 Information Box diagram53 fig 6.2 Public Key Cryptography54LIST OF TABLESTable 2.1 Comparision between CPLD & FPGA14Table 6.1.An example of 6x4 bit S-Box55INTRODUCTIONCHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION1.1 Motivation and History:Cryptography has roots that began around 2000 B.C. in Egypt when thehieroglyphics were used to decorate tombs to tell the story of the life of the deceased. Thepractice was not as much to hide the messages themselves, but to make them seem morenoble, ceremonial and majestic. Encryption methods evolved from being mainly for theshow into practical applications used to hide the information from others. A Hebrewcryptographic method required the alphabet to be flipped so that each letter in the originalalphabet is mapped to a different letter in the flipped alphabet. The encryption methodwas called at bash. An example of an encryption key used in the at bash encryption is as shown in following:ABCDEFGHI JK LMNOPQ R STU VW XYZ ZYXWVUTSR QP ONMLKJ I HGF ED CBAAround 400 B.C., the Spartans used a system of encrypting information by writing a message on a sheet of papyrus, which was wrapped around a staff. (This would look like a piece of paper wrapped around a stick or wooden rod.) The message was only readable if it was around the correct staff, which allowed the letters to properly matchup. This is referred to as the scytale cipher.When the papyrus was removed from the staff, the the writing appeared as just a bunch of random characters. The Greek government had carriers run these pieces of papyrus to different groups of soldiers.During World War II, simplistic encryption devices were used for tactical communication, which drastically improved with the mechanical and electromechanical technology that provided the world with telegraphic and radio communication. The rotor cipher machine, which is a device that substitutes letters using different rotors within the machine, was a huge breakthrough in military cryptography that provided complexity that proved difficult to break. This work gave way to the most famous cipher1INTRODUCTIONmachine in history to date: Germanys enigma machine. The Enigma machine had three rotors, a plug board, and a reflecting rotor.As computers came to be, the possibilities for encryption methods and the devices advanced, and cryptography efforts expanded exponentially. This era brought an unprecedented opportunity for cryptographic designers and encryption techniques. The most well-known and successful project was Lucifer, which was developed at IBM. Lucifer introduced complex mathematical equations and functions that were later adopted and modified by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) to come up with the U.S.Encryption is used in the hardware devices and software to protect data, Banking transactions, corporate extranets, e-mail, Web transactions, faxes and wireless communications, storing of confidential information, and phone calls. The code breakers and cryptanalysis efforts and the amazing amount of number crunching capabilities of the microprocessors hitting the market each year quickened the evolution of cryptography so the Cryptanalysis is a science of studying and breaking the secrecy of the encryption algorithms and their necessary pieces. Different types of cryptography have been used throughout civilization, but today it is deeply rooted in every part o


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