general chemistry, 5 th ed. whitten, davis & peck

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General Chemistry, 5 th ed. Whitten, Davis & Peck. Chapter 1 Definitions Left click your mouse to continue. DIRECTIONS. This slide show presentation is designed to function like flash cards. To check your answer, and/or to move on to the next slide, simply left click your mouse. ACCURACY. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • General Chemistry, 5th ed.Whitten, Davis & PeckChapter 1 DefinitionsLeft click your mouse to continue.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • DIRECTIONSThis slide show presentation is designed to function like flash cards.To check your answer, and/or to move on to the next slide, simply left click your mouse.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • ACCURACYHow closely a measured value agrees with the correct value

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • CALORIEExactly 4.184 joules.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • CHEMICAL CHANGEA change in which one or more new substances are formed. One or more substances are used up (at least partially). Energy is absorbed or released.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • CHEMICAL PROPERTYProperties exhibited by matter as it undergoes changes in composition.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • COMPOUNDA substance composed of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • DENSITYMass per unit volume; D = m/V

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  • ELEMENTA substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

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  • ENDOTHERMICDescribes processes that absorb heat energy.Ex: The absorption of heat is required to turn water into steam, therefore the process is endothermic

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • ENERGYThe capacity to do work or transfer heat.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • EXOTHERMICDescribes processes that release heat energy.Ex: Freezing water to make ice requires the release of heat, therefore the process is exothermic.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • EXTENSIVE PROPERTYA property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • HEATA form of energy that flows between two samples, always flows spontaneously from a hotter body to a colder body

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  • HEAT CAPACITYThe amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of whatever mass) one degree Celsius.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • HETEROGENEOUS MIXTUREA mixture that has uniform composition and properties throughout.Ex: A mixture of salt and charcoal; foggy air; vegetable soup

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  • HOMOGENEOUS MIXTUREA mixture that has a uniform composition and properties throughout; also called a solution.Ex: Saltwater; air (free of particulate matter or mists); alloys

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  • INTENSIVE PROPERTYA property that is independent of the amount of material in a sample.All chemical properties are intensive properties.Ex: Color, Melting Point

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  • JOULEA unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg*m2/s2, which is also 0.2390 calorie

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  • KINETIC ENERGYEnergy that matter possess by virtue of its motion.

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  • LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGYEnergy cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction or in a physical change; it may be changed from one form to another.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTERThere is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or during a physical change.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER AND ENERGYThe combined amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONSDifferent samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass; also known as the Law of Constant Composition

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • MASSA measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

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  • MATTERAnything that has mass and occupies space.

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  • MIXTUREA sample of matter composed of variable amounts of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • PHYSICAL CHANGEA change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another, but no substances with different compositions are formed.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • POTENTIAL ENERGYEnergy that matter possess by virtue of its position, condition, or composition.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • PHYSICAL PROPERTIESCan be observed in the absence of any change in composition.Ex: color, density, hardness, melting point, boiling point, and electrical and thermal conductivities

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • PRECISIONHow closely repeated measurements of the same quantity agree with each other.

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  • PROPERTIESCharacteristics that describe samples of matter. Chemical properties are exhibited as matter undergoes chemical changes. Physical properties are exhibited by matter with no changes in chemical composition.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • SCIENTIFIC (NATURAL) LAWA general statement based on the observed behavior of matter, to which no exceptions are known.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • SIGNIFICANT FIGURESDigits that indicate the precision of measurements- digits of a measured number that have uncertainty only in the last digit.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • SPECIFIC GRAVITYThe ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water at the same temperature. Dimensionless number (I.e., no units).

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • SPEFIC HEATThe amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • SUBSTANCEAny kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

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  • SYMBOLA letter or group of letters that represent (identifies) an element.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • TEMPERATUREA measure of the intensity of heat

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  • UNIT FACTORA factor in which the numerator and denominator are expressed in different units but represent the same or equivalent amounts. Multiplying by a unit factor is the same as multiplying by one.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • WEIGHTA measure of the gravitational attraction of the earth for a body.

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • Equation for converting F to CF = 1.8(C ) + 32

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • Equation for converting C to FC = (F 32)/1.8

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • Equation for converting C to KK = C + 273

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • Equation for converting K to CC = K - 273

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC

  • Equation for Specific HeatSpecific Heat = (amount of HEAT in Joules) (MASS in Grams)(T2 T1 in Celsius)

    Created by Tara L. Moore, MGCCC