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  • Gas Detection

    GAS BOOK 1

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  • 2

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  • 3www.honeywellsafety.com

    Introduction A diverse variety of applications and processes increasingly

    involve the use and manufacture of highly dangerous

    substances, particularly flammable, toxic and Oxygen

    gases. Inevitably, occasional escapes of gas occur,

    which create a potential hazard to the industrial plants,

    their employees and people living nearby. Worldwide

    incidents, involving asphyxiation, explosions and loss

    of life, are a constant reminder of this problem.

    In most industries, one of the key parts of any safety plan for reducing

    risks to personnel and plant is the use of early warning devices such

    as gas detectors. These can help to provide more time in which to take

    remedial or protective action. They can also be used as part of a total,

    integrated monitoring and safety system which may include various

    other safety aspects including fire detection and emergency process

    shutdown.

    Gas detection can be divided into two overriding categories; fixed gas

    detection and portable gas detection. As the name might suggest,

    fixed gas detection represents a static type of detection system for

    flammable, toxic and Oxygen gas hazards and is designed to monitor

    processes, and protect plant and assets as well as personnel on-site.

    Portable gas detection is designed specifically to protect personnel from

    the threat of flammable, toxic or Oxygen gas hazards and is typically a

    small device worn by an operator to monitor the breathing zone.

    Many sites incorporate a mix of both fixed and portable gas detection as

    part of their safety philosophy, but the suitability of which type to use will

    depend on several factors, including how often the area is accessed by

    personnel.

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  • 4

    What is Gas? The name gas comes from the

    word chaos. Gas is a swarm of

    molecules moving randomly

    and chaotically, constantly

    colliding with each other and

    anything else around them.

    Gases fill any available volume

    and due to the very high speed

    at which they move will mix

    rapidly into any atmosphere

    in which they are released.

    Vehicle engines combust fuel and

    Oxygen and produce exhaust gases

    that include Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon

    onoxide and Carbon Dioxide.Different gases are all around

    us in everyday life. The air we

    breathe is made up of several

    different gases including

    Oxygen and Nitrogen.

    NAME SYMBOL PERCENT BY VOLUME

    NITROGEN N₂ 78.084%

    OXYGEN O₂ 20.9476%

    ARGON Ar 0.934%

    CARBON DIOXIDE CO₂ 0.0314%

    NEON Ne 0.001818%

    METHANE CH₄ 0.0002%

    HELIUM He 0.000524%

    KRYPTON Kr 0.000114%

    HYDROGEN H₂ 0.00005%

    XENON Xe 0.0000087%

    Air Composition The table gives the sea-level composition of air

    (in percent by volume at the temperature of 15°C

    and the pressure of 101325 Pa).

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  • 5www.honeywellsafety.com

    SO2

    HCN

    HCN CH4

    CH4

    CH4

    C2H6

    ClO2

    O2

    PH3 H2S

    CH3COCH3 C6H14

    H2S

    NO2 C4H10

    H2S

    C3H8

    SO2

    SO2

    WF6 NH3

    SO2 SO2

    CO2

    CO2

    NH3

    H2C:CH2

    NH3

    CO

    CO

    CO

    CO2

    CO2

    B2H6

    NO

    NO2

    CH4

    C4H6

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    NO2

    NO2

    HCN

    C4H10

    C2H6

    H2S

    H2S

    ClO2 PH3

    ClO2

    HCN

    O2

    O3 CH3CH2OH

    BF3

    HCN

    Cl2

    C3H8

    C6H14 COCl2 PH3

    PH3

    HCN

    NH3

    NH3 CO CO

    SO2

    SiH2Cl2

    HCN

    CH2-CH2-O

    Cl2

    C6H12

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2 SiH2Cl2

    CO2

    CO2

    CO

    CO CO

    Si(OCH2CH3)4

    BF3

    CO2C6H6

    CO2

    CO2

    BF3

    N2C:CH2

    NO2

    NO2

    CH4

    C6H4(CH3)2

    SO2 SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    O2

    SO2 SiH2Cl2

    H2S H2S

    H2S

    PH3

    PH3

    PH3

    PH3

    ClO2

    C6H5CH=CH2

    WF6

    HCN

    CH3(CH2)CH3

    H2S

    NO2

    C3H8 C3H8

    ClO2 CH3(CH2)6CH3

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2 O2

    CH4

    CH4

    CH4

    CH4

    CO

    O2

    HCON(CH3)2

    O2

    CH3[CH2]5CH3

    O2

    O3

    O3

    WF6

    O3

    NH3

    NH3

    CO

    CO2 C6H6

    NO2

    NO2

    NO2

    H2S

    HCl

    TEOS

    NO2

    CO

    PH3

    ClO2

    ClO2

    ClO2

    PH3

    CO2

    CO2

    NH3

    CH2-CH2-O

    CH4

    Cl2

    Cl2 ClO2

    PH3

    CO

    CO

    HCN

    CH4

    CH4

    ClO2

    PH3PH3

    CIO2 H2

    Cl2 Cl2SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2 NO

    B2H6

    B2H6

    SO2 NO2

    H2C:CH2

    C4H10

    C4H10

    C2H6

    H2S

    H2S

    H2S

    H2S HCl

    HCN

    O2

    C4H10 HCN

    HCl

    HCN

    C6H5CH3

    SO2

    CO2

    CH4

    B2H6

    C3H8

    CH4

    WF6

    CH4 POCl2

    BF3

    PH3

    PH3ClO2

    HCN

    CO2

    B2H6

    C6H6

    CO2

    COCl2

    SO2SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    CO2 CH3COCH3

    CH3[CH2]5CH3 CH3COCH3

    CO2

    NO2

    NO2

    CH4CO2

    SO2

    SO2

    SO2

    H2S

    PH3

    PH3

    PH3

    PH3

    O2

    O2

    CO2

    C4H10

    C4H10

    TEOS

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    C6H14

    H2S NH3

    CH3COO[CH2]3CH3

    TEOS

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    CH3(CH2)6CH3 CO

    C3H8

    C3H8

    SO2

    NH3CH3COCH3

    CH4

    H2S

    PH3

    CIO2

    O2

    C6H5CH3

    CO2

    C6H12

    HCN

    HCl

    CH3:CHCH3

    COCl2

    H2S

    NH3

    Si(OCH2CH3)4

    CH2-CH2-O

    C3H8

    O2

    O2

    NH3

    NO2 NO

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    SO2

    HCN

    CH2(CH2)3CH3

    C4H10

    CH4

    H2S

    C3H10

    C3H8

    C3H8

    Cl2 CH3CH2OH

    CH3:CHCH3NO2

    WF6

    B2H6

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    CH3CH2OH CH3(CH2)6CH3

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    CH3:CHCH3

    H2

    SiH4

    Si2H6

    HF

    AsH3

    H2Se

    H2 HBr

    H2

    Si2H6

    HF

    GeH4

    GeH4

    Si2H6

    F2

    F2

    H2Se

    SiH4 GeH4

    HF

    H2

    BCl3

    BCl3

    H2HBr

    HBr

    BR2

    GeH4

    BR2

    Br2

    PH3

    CH3COO[CH2]3CH3

    CH3COO[CH2]3CH3

    C6H12

    C6H12

    C6H12

    C6H5CH3

    C6H5CH=CH2

    C6H5CH=CH2

    C6H4(CH3)2

    C6H4(CH3)2

    CH3[CH2]5CH3

    CH3[CH2]5CH3

    CH3[CH2]5CH3

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    CH3(CH2)6CH3

    C2H5OC2H5 C2H5OC2H5

    HCON(CH3)2

    HCON(CH3)2

    HCON(CH3)2

    POCl2

    POCl2

    POCl2

    Gases can be lighter, heavier or

    about the same density as air.

    Gases can have an odour or be

    odourless. Gases can have colour

    or be colourless. If you can’t see it,

    smell it or touch it, it doesn’t mean

    that it is not there.

    Natural Gas (Methane) is used in many

    homes for heating and cooking.

    Gas Hazards There are three main types of

    gas hazard:

    Flammable Risk of fire and/or explosion

    e.g. Methane,

    Butane, Propane

    Toxic Risk of Poisoning

    e.g. Carbon Monoxide,

    Hydrogen, Chlorine

    Asphyxiant Risk of suffocation

    e.g. Oxygen deficiency.

    Oxygen can

    beconsumed or

    displaced by

    another gas !

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  • Toxic Gas Hazards Some gases are poisonous and

    can be dangerous to life at very low

    concentrations. Some toxic gases

    have strong smells like the distinctive

    ‘rotten eggs’ smell of Hydrogen

    Sulphide (H₂S). The measurements

    most often used for the concentration

    of toxic gases are parts per million

    (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb). For

    example 1ppm would be equivalent to

    a room filled with a total of 1 million

    balls an

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