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PHILOSOPHY PAPER - I
July, 2012, F.Y.B.A. Philosophy, Paper-I, Moral Philosophy
Dr. Rajan Welukar Dr. Naresh Chandra Vice Chancellor Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Mumbai University of Mumbai
Fort, Mumbai-400032. Fort, Mumbai-400032.
Dr . Dhaneshwar Harichandan Professor-cum-Director
Institute of Distance and Open Learning
University of Mumbai
DTP Composed by : Pace Computronics
"Samridhi" Paranjpe 'B' Scheme, Road No. 4.,
Vile Parle (E), Mumbai - 400 057.
Published by : Professor cum Director
Institute of Distance and Open Learning
University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari,
Mumbai - 400 098.
Programme Co-ordinator: Shri. Anil Bankar
Asst. Prof.-Cum-Asstt. Director
IDOL, University of Mumbai.
Editor & Course Writer : Dr. S. G. Nigal
Rtd. Professor in Philosophy
Apna Bazar, Thane (W).
Course Writers : 1) Dr. Namita Nimbalkar
Birla College of Arts, Sc. & Com.
2) Shri N. H. Phapale
Head, Department of Philosophy,
B.N.N. College, Bhiwandi.
3) Mrs. Suchitra Naik,Asstt. Professor,
Joshi Bedekar College, Thane.
4) Mrs. Saraswati Dube, Asstt.Professor
Ismail Yusuf College,
Jogeshwari, Mumbai 60.
Sr. No. Title Page No.
1. Introduction to Moral Philosophy 1
2. Relativism and objectivism. 20
3. The Good Life : Greek Ethics 34
4. Morality in the Indian Philosophical context I 42
5. Morality in the Indian philosophical context II 61
6. Morality of self Interest 78 (Thomas Hobbes and Ayn Rand)
7. Modern Moral Theory 86
8. Alternative Ethical Theories 104
(A) Feminist Ethics : Carol Gilligan
(B) Existentialist Ethics : Jean Paul Sartre
9. Theories of Punishment 115
10. Professional Ethics 135
F.Y.B.A. MORAL PHILOSOPHY PAPER I
SECTION - I UNIT I Chapter 1 : Introduction to Moral philosophy (a) Definition, nature and scope (branches) of philosophy. (b) Nature of Moral Philosophy (Facts and Values, intrinsic and
extrinsic Values) and areas of ethics Descriptive ethics, Normative ethics, Meta-ethics and Applied ethic.
(c) Development of moral Reasoning : Lawence Kohlberg.
Chapter 2 : Relativism and objectivism (a) Ethical Relativism (b) Ethical Objectivism Chapter 3 : The Good Life : Greek Ethics (a) Four Cardinal Virtues : Plato (b) Ethics of Character : Aristotle UNIT II Chapter 4 : Morality in the Indian Philosophical Context. (a) The concept of Dharma with reference to Rta, Rna and
Purushartha (b) The idea of Nishkama Karma in the Bhagawad Gita. Chapter 5 : Morality in the Indian (Heterodox) Philosophical Context (a) Buddhist Ethics (b) Jaina Ethics (c) Carvaka Ethics
UNIT III Chapter 6 : Morality of self interest (a) Psychological Egoism : Thomas Hobbes. (b) Ethical Egoism : Ayn Rand.
Chapter 7 : Modern Moral Theory (a) Immanuel Kant : Categorical Imperative : formula of
universal law and formula of End-in-itself, critical appraisal. (b) John Stuart Mill : Critique of Jeremy Benthams View,
Greatest Happiness principle, higher and lower pleasure, two sanctions of morality, critical appraisal.
Chapter 8 : Alternative Ethical Theories (a) Feminist Ethics : Ethics of care : Carol Gilligan (b) Existential Ethics : Jean Paul Sartre. UNIT - IV Chapter 9 : Theories of Punishment (a) Retributive Theory of punishment. (b) Deterrent Theory of Punishment (c) Reformative approach to punishment. Chapter 10 : Professional Ethics (a) Significance of professional codes of conduct. (b) Business ethics : Corporate Social Responsibility : Argument
for and against.
F.Y.B.A. MORAL PHILOSOPHY PAPER I
Reference and reading list For Section I & II 1. Damien Keown Buddhist Ethics : A very short introduction.
2. Debiprasad chattopadhyaya Lokayat : Astudy in Ancient Indian Materialism.
3. J. C. Sharma Ethical Philosophies of India.
4. James Fieser and Norman Lillegard Philosophical Questions : Reading and Interactive Guides.
5. Jacques Thiroux Ethics : Theory and Practice.
6. John Koller The Indian Way.
7. Kedar Nath Tiwari Classical Indian Ethical Thought
8. Lawrence kohlberg Moral Stages and Moralization : The Cognitive Development approach in Thomas Lickona (ed.)
9. M. M. Agrawal Philosophy of Non attachment.
10. P. Billimoria, I Prabhu & R Sharma (ed.) Indian Ethics : Classical Tradition & Contemporary Challenges.
11. Padmanabh S. Jaini The Jaina Path of Purification
12. Rupert Gethin The Foundations of Buddism.
13. William Frankena Ethics.
14. Ayn Rand The Virtue of selfshness.
15. Ethical Albert, Theodore Denise & Sheldon Peterfreund Great Traditions in Ethics : An Introduction.
16. H. B. Action (ed.) The Philosophy of punishment
17. James Fieser and Norman Lillegard Philosophical Questions : Reading and Interactive Guides.
18. James Mc Glynn & Jules Toner _ Modern Ethical Theories.
19. Jean Paul Sartre : - Existentialism is a Humanisms in walter Kaufman (ed.) Existentialism from Dostoyevsky to sartre.
20. Jeffery olen and Vincent Barry Applying Ethics
21. Neil Lery Sartre.
22. Norman Bowie & patricia Werhane Management Ethics.
23. Ted Honderich Punishment : The supposed Justifications.
24. Willian Lawhead The Philosophical Journey : An Interactive Approach.
25. Verma Ashok Kumar Nitishastra Ki Ruprekha
26. Bakhale S. W. Adarshi Nitishastra.
27. Dr. G. N. Joshi Bharatiya Tattvadnyanaca Bruhad Itihas (Vol. 1 to 12)
28. Dr. J. V. Joshi Dharmache Tattvadhyana
29. Prof. S. H. Dixit Nitimimansa
30. Dr. G. N. Joshi Pashchatya Tattvadnyanaca Itihasa (Vol. 1 to 3)
31. Dr. S. G. Nigal : Introduction to philosophy of Dharma, Nasik, 2009.
1 INTRODUCTION TO MORAL PHILOSOPHY
1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Definitions of Philosophy 1.2.1. Definition of Philosophy
1.2.2. Branches of Philosophy 1.3 Ethics Definition and Nature 1.3.1 Definition of Ethics
1.3.2 Nature of Ethics 1.4 Areas of Ethics 1.5 Development of Moral Reasoning: Lawrence Kohlberg 1.6 Kolebergs Levels and Stages of Morality 1.7 Social Perspective of Three Levels of Morality 1.8 Evaluation 1.9 Summary 1.10 Broad Questions
To understand the meaning and the subject matter of philosophy
To know the branches of philosophy
To understand the meaning and the subject matter of moral philosophy.
To know the areas of moral philosophy.
To understand how moral reasoning develops.
Man is a rational animal. He cannot live in the chaos of unexplained, isolated events. The whole world then becomes alien to him. Man has instinctively intense desire to reflect upon ultimate truth. The search into the nature of reality has two aspects understanding and practicing.
Philosophy arises from the speculative and critical search of ultimate reality. It gives rational account of the facts, events in this world. Philosophy seeks the explanation of the forces operative in this universe. So theoretically philosophy is a methodical work of thought.
The search into the nature of reality has practical aspect. Human intelligence has practical application. The very existence of man depends upon his ability to apprehend and to respond the world around him. Here arises the need of practical utility of his reasoning. Wisdom, the maturity to judge the external factors is essential in the maintenance of mans existence. This gives rise to Ethics.
Ethics is concerned with the practical problems of man, initially in the survival and then those in the moral, organized, harmonious life. Man is a rational animal-the animal that lives on a higher plane. He apprehends Truth, realizes Good and creates Beauty. The practical aspect of reason shows the progress in morality. In the longing for higher levels, man has developed from instinctive morality to reflective morality. Man was governed by nature and then by laws. Now he is governed by his own autonomous moral will. The self conscious rational being, feels the urge of the unity of Truth, Beauty and Good. The rational animal, human being is preparing himself to realize the Supreme End.
1.2 DEFINITIONS OF PHILOSOPHY : BRANCHES OF
Philosophy is the methodical work of thoughts. It is an art of life. It tries to understand the meaning and the value of life. It is an attempt to understand the ultimate Reality. Philosophy is the study of the principles which underlie all knowledge. Philosophy tries to discover ultimate truth. It is an attempt of rational interpretation and unification of all our experiences. It tries to give a rational picture of the whole universe.
The word `philosophy is derived from the Greek word `philosophia which means striving after wisdom. Philosophy is love of knowledge and philosopher is a person who seeks knowledge. Philosopher is an impartial spectator of the eternal universe. Initially philosophy was the intellectual movement. It was simply the search of knowledge without any specialization. In India, Philosophy is called Darshan which means Vision and also the means or instruments of Vision. Indian philosophy ar