Funding for local authority transport and land-use schemes in the UK

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    evealed that the funding system is failing to meet the needs of the current




    Identifying and obtaining appropriate finvestment and for operation is a reco

    ion ofue hasand Im, Transd Physeeksch susnd delning a


    focused on the barriers to cross-cutting sustainable transport


    Contents lists availabl

    journal homepage: www.els


    & Transport Research Laboratory 2008. The information contained herein is

    Transport Policy 15 (2008) 379386Specic barriers were also identied which affect other sectorsCurrent address: AEA, The Gemini Building, Fermi Avenue, Harwell

    International Business Park, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QR, UK.2solutions and methods of cross-sector working.The research revealed a number of issues that were identied to

    be impeding local authorities progress towards the implementationof more sustainable urban transport systems (Hull et al., 2006).

    abilities to engage in policy formulation and with the implementa-tion of transport schemes at the local level. Uncertainty and barriers

    the property of TRL Limited. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the

    matter presented in this paper is relevant, accurate and up-to-date at the time of

    publication, TRL Limited cannot accept any liability for any error or omission. Corresponding author. Tel.: +44134 4773131; fax: +44134 4770356.E-mail address: (N. Paulley).1

    DISTILLATE ConsortiumMembers include ITS (Leeds), SEI (York), Heriot-Watt

    University (Edinburgh), UCL (London) and TRL.0967-07

    doi:10.1and their counterparts in public health, environmental strategy,land-use planning and local authority corporate policy units, and

    $Fig. 1 provides an overview of the projects structure.This paper focuses on one project within this programme, Project

    E: Improved Mechanisms for Funding and Phasing of Implementation.

    local authority partners on the barriers to the delivery of transolutions (Hull and Tricker, 2004). Interviews and a second swere undertaken in 2006, addressed to local transport plaand projects will enhance the sustainability of urban areas and thequality of life of people who live in them.

    DISTILLATE consists of seven projects looking at OrganisationalBehaviour and Barriers, Option Generation, Indicators, Organisa-tional Delivery, Funding, Analytical Support Tools and Appraisal.

    interviews with local authority practitioners. The results from thisresearch have been used within DISTILLATE projects for identify-ing issues and for monitoring changes in local authorityperspectives as a result of the study.

    A questionnaire was developed and administered amongst UKeffective planning and implementatschemes by local authorities. This issthe UK DISTILLATE2 project (DesignTools for Integrated Local Land usement), a UK EPSRC (Engineering anCouncil) funded project, whichimprovements in the ways in whiland-use strategies are developed aeffective and efcient selection, plan0X/$ - see front matter & 2009 N. Paulley. Pu

    016/j.tranpol.2008.12.006unding for both capitalgnised barrier for thetransport and land-usebeen addressed withinplementation Supportport and the Environ-sical Sciences Researchto enable signicanttainable transport andivered in the UK. Morend delivery of schemes

    transport and land-use projects and how these procedures affectimplementation. The paper describes the ndings of the researchactivities undertaken to date, and discusses the planned outputs.

    2. Background

    The DISTILATE Organisational Behaviour project (the corepart of Fig. 1) acts as an overarching project, dealing with theidentication of barriers to the implementation of sustainableurban transport systems at the local authority level. Part of themethodology involved a number of questionnaires and in-depth1. Introduction The project seeks to understand the funding procedures which affectFunding for local authority transport an

    Charlotte Brannigan 1, Neil Paulley

    TRL, Crowthorne House, Nine Mile Ride, Wokingham, Berkshire, UK

    a r t i c l e i n f o

    Available online 8 February 2009


    Sustainable transport


    Local transport planning


    Local transport schemes

    a b s t r a c t

    This paper focuses on the

    funded DISTILLATE (Desig

    and the Environment) pro

    have included a literature

    The research identied an

    difculties in obtaining fu

    issues. The research also r

    transport policy focus on

    project outputs are descri

    funding bodies regardingblished by Elsevier Ltd. All rightsnaging travel demand, rather than being a supply-led process. The key

    , which include a funding toolkit for local authorities, and guidance for

    barriers faced.

    & 2009 N. Paulley. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights schemes in the UK$

    earch activities, ndings and planned products of one of the UK EPSRC-

    d Implementation Support Tools for Integrated Local Land use, Transport

    s on the funding of transport and land-use schemes. Research activities

    iew, dialogue with local authority case studies and a funding workshop.

    plored a range of barriers to funding, including lack of revenue funding,

    ng for soft schemes, the formation of partnerships and timing-related

    e at ScienceDirect



    nspoC. Brannigan, N. Paulley / Tra380associated with funding have been identied in both surveys. Thesebarriers have been summarised in Table 1 where barriers have beengrouped in terms of institutional, technical, political and funding-specic barriers. The majority of barriers to identifying andobtaining funding for transport schemes appear to be related topolitical and institutional aspects, rather than the funding sourcesthemselves.

    Therefore these and other funding barriers have been moreclosely examined within the Funding Project, as part of the overallaim of DISTILLATE to develop tools and products which will aidlocal authorities in overcoming barriers.

    3. Methodology

    A number of research activities have been undertaken withinthe DISTILLATE Funding Project. An extensive literature review wascompleted (Burke et al, 2005), which identied a variety of fundingsources used within the UK to nance local transport projects.

    The review included wide-ranging literature from the UK andfurther aeld, identifying the various funding mechanismsavailable for transport projects. In the UK, public, private andpublicprivate funding is obtained by local authorities and theGovernment to implement and maintain transport projects. Themain public source of funding is the Local Transport Plan (LTP)settlement awarded to local authorities to implement schemes inthe local area, although additional sources of funding are oftenrequired to full all needs.

    A number of studies stood out as important in understandingthe funding of transport in the UK and the implications of using

    Fig. 1. DISTILLATE prt Policy 15 (2008) 379386various sources. The Commission for Integrated Transport (CfIT,2005) undertook research into public funding of LTP projects,which identied that revenue funding is a key issue for localauthorities. Revenue funding, as referred to in this paper, isfunding used for the ongoing operational or maintenance elementof schemes. Transport consultancy Atkins recently reviewed theLTP process, and included a section on funding. This study for theDepartment for Transport (DfT, 2005a) revealed that localauthorities are using a wide variety of funding sources tosupplement the LTP capital allocation. However, the use ofalternating funding streams has its drawbacks, such as theirtime-consuming nature (particularly during the bidding pro-cesses), and local authorities should ensure that this does notdetract from effective delivery.

    Like the CfIT, the Atkins study (DfT, 2005a) identies revenuefunding, or lack of it, as a key barrier to delivery, especially forthe funding of infrastructure maintenance. Increasing costsfor existing transport services, internal inefciency exercises, aswell as funding pressures in other services and local politicalissues may further exacerbate the problem of low revenuefunding.

    In addition to these traditional sources of funding, a number ofinnovative funding mechanisms were identied in the literaturereview, including applying a Land Value Tax, Work Place ParkingLevies, Road User Charging (RUC), Developer Levies and TransportDevelopment Areas (TDAs). Some of these methods are beginningto be used in the UK, such as Road User Charging, whereasothers are still in the early stages of development. However, thereare some positive opportunities for alternative funding mechan-isms to assist in the funding of transport schemes in the UK.

    roject structure.





















    C. Brannigan, N. Paulley / TranspoFunding-specic Strength of focus on narrow transport priorities

    Funding for sustainable urban transport solutions

    Other Physical characteristics of local areasSuband




    National government unwillingness to use its

    own executive actions to support transport


    Politicssustainable strategiesPolitical Societal constraints on the development ofBarriers to funding (adapted from Hull et al., 2006).

    Type of barrier Progress towards more sustainable urban

    transport systems


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