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FUNDAMENTALS OF METEOROLOGY
Meteorology is the study of atmosphericphenomena. This study consists of physics, chemistry,and dynamics of the atmosphere. It also includes manyof the direct effects the atmosphere has upon Earthssurface, the oceans, and life in general. In this manualwe will study the overall fundamentals of meteorology,a thorough description of atmospheric physics andcirculation, air masses, fronts, and meteorologicalelements. This information supplies the necessarybackground for you to understand chart analysis,tropical analysis, satellite analysis, and chartinterpretation.
SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize theunits of measure used in the Metric System andthe English System and how these systems ofmeasurement are used in Meteorology.
To work in the field of meteorology, you must havea basic understanding of the science of measurement(metrology). When you can measure what you aretalking about and express it in numerical values, youthen have knowledge of your subject. To measure howfar something is moved, or how heavy it is, or how fastit travels; you may use a specific measurement system.There are many such systems throughout the worldtoday. The Metric System (CGS,centimeter-gram-second) has been recognized for usein science and research. Therefore, that system isdiscussed in the paragraphs that follow, with briefpoints of comparison to the English System (FPS,foot-pound-second). The metric units measure length,weight, and time, respectively. The derivation of thoseunits is described briefly.
To familiarize you with the conventional units ofmetric length, start with the meter. The meter is slightlylarger than the English yard (39.36 inches vs. 36inches). Prefixes are used in conjunction with the meterto denote smaller or larger units of the meter. Eachlarger unit is ten times larger than the next smaller unit.(See table 1-1.).
Table 1-1.Common Prefixes in the Metric System
Kilo K 1000 103
Hecto H 100 102
Deka D 10 101
Deci d .1 10-1
Centi c .01 10-2
Milli m .001 10-3
1These prefixes are used with all metric units such asmeters, grams, liters, and seconds (eg., kilometers,hectometers, centiliters, milliseconds).
Since the C in CGS represents centimeters (cm)you should see from table 1-1 that the centimeter isone-hundredth of a meter, .O1M, or 10-2 M.Conversely, 1 M equals 100 cm. To describe a gram,the G in the CGS system, you must first have afamiliarization with area and volume.
AREA AND VOLUME
A square has four equal sides and it is a one-planefigurelike a sheet of paper. To determine how muchsurface area is enclosed within the square you multiplythe length of one side by the length of the other equalside. If the sides were 1 centimeter (cm) in length thearea of the square would be 1 cm 1 cm = 1 square cm,or 1 cm2. If squares having an area of 1 cm2 werestacked on top of each other until the stack was 1 cmtall, you would end up with a cube whose sides wereeach 1-cm in length. To determine the volume of thecube you simply multiply the length by the width andheight. Because each side is 1 cm you end up with avolume of 1 cubic centimeter (cm3) (1 cm 1 cm 1cm = 1 cm3). More simply stated, multiply the area ofone side of the cube by the height of the cube. Once youunderstand how the volume of a cube is determined,you are now ready to review the G in the CGS system.
The conventional unit of weight in the metricsystem is the gram (gm). You could use table 1-1 andsubstitute the word gram for meter and the symbol (gm)for the symbol (M). You would then have a table formetric weight. The gram is the weight of 1 cm3 of purewater at 4C. At this point it may be useful to comparethe weight of an object to its mass. The weight of the 1cm3 of water is 1 gin. Weight and mass are proportionalto each other. However, the weight of the 1 cm3 of waterchanges as you move away from the gravitationalcenter of Earth. In space the 1 cm3 of water isweightless, but it is still a mass. Mass is expressed as afunction of inertia/acceleration, while weight is afunction of gravitational force. When we express themovement of an object we use the terms mass andacceleration.
Time is measured in hours, minutes, and seconds inboth systems. Hence, the second need not be explainedin the CGS system. With knowledge of how the CGSsystem can be used to express physical entities, younow have all the background to express such things asdensity and force.
With the previous explanation of grams andcentimeters, you should be able to understand howphysical factors can be measured and described. Forexample, density is the weight something has per unitof volume. The density of water is given as 1 gram percubic centimeter or 1 gm/cm. By comparison, thedensity of water in the English system is 62.4 poundsper cubic foot or 62.4 lb/ft3.
Force is measured in dynes. A dyne is the force thatmoves a mass of 1 gram, 1 centimeter per squaresecond. This is commonly written as gin cm per sec2,gin cm/sec/sec or gm/cm/sec2. The force necessary fora gram to be accelerated at 980.665 cm/sec2 at 45latitude is 980.665 dynes. For more detailed conversionfactors commonly used in meteorology andoceanography, refer to Smithsonian MeteorologyTables.
Q1-1. What units does the metric (CGS) systemmeasure?
Q1-2. What is the difference between weight andmass?
Q1-3. What does a dyne measure?
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe howradiation and insolation are affected by theEarth-Sun relationship.
The Sun is a great thermonuclear reactor about 93million miles from Earth. It is the original source ofenergy for the atmosphere and life itself. The Sunsenergy is efficiently stored on Earth in such things asoil, coal, and wood. Each of these was produced bysome biological means when the Sun acted upon livingorganisms. Our existence depends on the Sun becausewithout the Sun there would be no warmth on Earth, noplants to feed animal life, and no animal life to feedman.
The Sun is important in meteorology because allnatural phenomena can be traced, directly or indirectly,to the energy received from the Sun. Although the Sunradiates its energy in all directions, only a small portionreaches our atmosphere. This relatively small portion ofthe Suns total energy represents a large portion of theheat energy for our Earth. It is of such importance inmeteorology that every Aerographers Mate shouldhave at least a basic knowledge about the Sun and theeffects it has on Earths weather.
The Sun may be regarded as the only source of heatenergy that is supplied to earths surface and theatmosphere. All weather and motions in the atmosphereare due to the energy radiated from the Sun.
The Suns core has a temperature of 15,000,000Kand a surface temperature of about 6,000K (10,300F).The Sun radiates electromagnetic energy in alldirections. However, Earth intercepts only a smallfraction of this energy. Most of the electromagneticenergy radiated by the Sun is in the form of light waves.Only a tiny fraction is in the form of heat waves. Evenso, better than 99.9 percent of Earths heat is derivedfrom the Sun in the form of radiant energy.
The Sun may be described as a globe of gas heatedto incandescence by thermonuclear reactions fromwithin the central core.
The main body of the Sun, although composed ofgases, is opaque and has several distinct layers. (See fig.1-1.) The first of these layers beyond the radiative zoneis the convective zone. This zone extends very nearly tothe Suns surface. Here, heated gases are raisedbuoyantly upwards with some cooling occurring andsubsequent convective action similar to that, whichoccurs within Earths atmosphere. The next layer is awell-defined visible surface layer referred to as thephotosphere. The bottom of the photosphere is the solarsurface. In this layer the temperature has cooled to asurface temperature of 6,000K at the bottom to4,300K at the top of the layer. All the light and heat of
the Sun is radiated from the photosphere. Above thephotosphere is a more transparent gaseous layerreferred to as the chromosphere with a thickness ofabout 1,800 miles (3,000 km). It is hotter than thephotosphere. Above the chromosphere is the corona, alow-density high temperature region. It is extended farout into interplanetary space by the solar windasteady outward streaming of the coronal material.Much of the electromagnetic radiation emissionsconsisting of gamma rays through x-rays, ultraviolet,visible and radio waves, originate in the corona.
Within the solar atmosphere we see the occurrenceof transient phenomena (referred to as solar activity),just as cyclones, frontal systems, and thunderstormsoccur within the atmosphere of Earth. This solaractivity may consist of the phenomena discussed in thefollowing paragraphs that collectively describe thefeatures of the solar disk (the visual image of the outer
SEVERALSOLARDIAMETERSIN DEPTH 3,000Km
SOLAR SURFACETEMPERATUREAPPROX. 6,000 K
CENTRAL CORE(THERMONUCLEARREACTIONS) APPROX.15,000,000 KO
Figure 1-1.One-quarter cross-section depicting the solar structure.
surface of the sun as observed from outside regions).(See fig. 1-2).
Solar prominences/filaments are injections of gasesfrom the chromosphere into the corona. They appear asgreat clouds of gas, sometimes resting on the Sunssurface and at other