FRP Lamella ACI User Manual

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    FRP

    Lamella

    user manual

    software version 4.x

    flexural and shear

    strengtheningusing S&P FRP systems

    Wiebke vom Berg

    bow ingenieure gmbhbraunschweig hamburg (germany)

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    FRP Lamella

    design software

    for f lexural and shear strengthening with FRP materials

    according to ACI 318 and ACI 440

    User Manual

    version 4.x

    Peter Onken, Wiebke vom Berg, Dirk Matzdorff

    bow ingenieure gmbh braunschweig / hamburg germany

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    Contents

    1. Program user interface 41.1 Start of the program 41.2

    Settings 4

    1.3 Basic information about the FRP Lamellauser interface 41.4 Data input 51.5 Output of results6

    2. Input and output windows 72.1 Input window project 72.2 Input window code 82.3 Input window geometry 92.4 Output window cross-section 102.5 Input window concrete 112.6 Input window steel 122.7 Input window main flexural reinforcement 132.8 rebar tables for the selection of reinforcement cross-sectional area 142.9 Input window loads in unstrengthened state 152.10 Input window loads in strengthened state 162.11 Input window FRP system 182.12 Input window FRP cross-section 192.13 Output window design 212.14 Output window strains in ultimate limit state 222.15 Output window strains / stresses in service state 232.16 Input window FRP system 252.17 Input window shear reinforcement 262.18 Output window shear strengthening 27

    3. Program menu and tool bar 283.1 Menu bar items 283.2 Tool bar symbols 30

    4. Installation instruc tions 31Appendix 32

    bow engineers experts for strengthening design

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    1.1

    1.2

    1.3

    1. Program user interface

    Start of the program

    The software is developed for the following Windows operating systems: Win 9x, 2000, NT.

    After successful installation of FRP Lamella you start the program by either clicking the FRP Lamella

    icon on the Desktop or choosing the option FRP Lamellain the Windows start menu of your computer.

    First the disclaimer will appear. In the menu language, you can select the language of the program

    window. Please carefully read the displayed agreement. You have to accept to start the FRP Lamella

    main window.

    To exit the program FRP Lamellaand close the window, click the cross in the title bar at the upper

    right corner of the program window. Instead you can either choose the option exitof the filemenu.

    Settings

    To ensure optimum display performance of the FRP Lamella program on your screen a minimum

    screen resolutionof 800 x 600 pixels is assumed.

    The display font size is also essential for a proper display of the program window. In the Windows

    menu Startpoint to Settings, click Control Panel, and then double click Display. On the Settingstab,

    clickAdvanced, then you will find the Font Size list on the Generaltab. Small fonts (standard) should

    be selected, otherwise several items might not be completely displayed.

    Basic information about the FRP Lamellauser interface

    You will find general information about Windows user interfaces in your Windows manual or in the

    online help function of your Windows operating system.

    Title bar The uppermost line of the FRP Lamella program window shows information

    about program, data file and path.

    Menu bar The items File, Calculation, Extrasand Infoon the menu bar lead to different

    submenus. You will find a detailed list of all menu items in chapter 3.1.

    Tool bar The most frequently required functions can easily be called from the toolbar by

    clicking one of the symbols. You will find a detailed list of all tool bar symbols

    in chapter 3.2.

    Tree view The tree views in the left part of the program window enable you to call the

    different input and output windows directly. Click the + symbol in front of a

    heading to display the subordinated items. A click on the symbol hides the

    subordinated items again.

    Quick info Positioning the mouse pointer on one of the input or output fields an

    explanation (tooltiptext) will appear after a few seconds. Proceed in the same

    way to get explanations for the functions of the tool bar.

    Language You can change the language of the user interface and the print. A selection

    of the available languages can be found in the menu Extras (see chap. 3.1).

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    1.4 Data input

    The required data is entered on several input windows shown in the upper part of the program user

    interface. The titles of the different windows are listed in the opposite tree view. They are classified

    according to the topics general information, cross-section, loads, flexural and shear strengthening.

    Every input window shows a graphic to illustrate the essential data.

    To show the different input windows click the related title in the tree view. If one heading includes

    several subordinated windows, the first window will be displayed automatically. Input windows that

    are not accessible yet are displayed in light grey.

    Use the button on the right below the picture box of each input window to display the next

    window. It is recommended to follow the sequence of the windows to make sure that no window is

    left out. The button on the left below the picture box leads to the previous input window.

    Enter the required data in the provided text boxes of each window. If necessary overwrite the

    entry 0. Text boxes with a grey font are locked and cannot be modified. Disabled text boxes

    having a dark background are not considered in the calculations.

    The key buttonin the toolbar enables you to unlock input fields having a grey font and modify the

    preselected values.

    For some items you can choose from a list of different values.

    After you have entered all required data you can start the calculation either by clicking the button

    calculation below the graphic of the input window FRP cross-section or by clicking the

    calculator symbolin the toolbar.

    Start the proofs of anchorage and shear capacity by clicking thebutton proof below the graphic

    of the corresponding input window. A click on the tick symbol in the toolbar will carry out all

    proofs successively. This function is useful after reopening an existing input data file.

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    1.5 Output of results

    The results are displayed in additional windows located in the lower part of the program user interface.

    The titles of the different windows are listed in the opposite tree view. They are classified according to

    the topics general information, strengtheningand proofs.

    To show the different output windows click the related title in the tree view. If one heading

    includes several subordinated windows, the first window will be displayed automatically. Output

    windows that are not accessible yet are displayed in light grey

    The result values are displayed in text fieldshaving a light grey or coloured background. These

    values cannot be modified.

    Pay attention to the output fields highlighted in blue or red colour. They will show you if the proof

    conditions are met and if special details of construction have to be followed.

    The output windows of strains in ultimate limit stateand strains in service stateadditionally show agraphical representationof the strain distribution (s. chap. 2.14 and 2.15). You can change the

    scale by clicking the picture.

    The performed calculations can be printed on any printer installed under Windows operating systems.

    You can modify the content of the heading line in the menu Extras >> company letterhead. It is

    possible to print each page individually.

    pages 1 4 design of flexural strengthening

    page 5 design of shear strengthening

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    2. Input and output windows

    7

    2.1 Input window project

    When you start the program the first window project opens. It offers the possibility to enter some

    general project and structural element data. This information appears on each page of the printout and

    will help you administrating your projects.

    Enter the project numberand the project name.

    For each structu ral element you can enter a numberand an appropriate description .

    tip

    Use the button on the right below the picture box to display the next window

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    2.2 Input window code

    In this window you can choose the underlying code and guideline for the design. Additionally you

    determine the material properties as well as the unit measurement for the input and output. These

    adjustments are saved on your computer so that they are reloaded at the next start of the software.

    Choose the code according to which standard you want to perform the design of the

    strengthening measure simply by clicking the related option button (not every version offers the

    possibility to choose the code).

    Afterwards choose the guidelineon which the design of FRP strengthening shall base. But only

    certain combinations of concrete design code and FRP guideline are possible.

    Select a country for the available steel and concrete grades as well as the FRP products. The

    national material properties will then appear in the relevant input windows. The appropriate

    national flag appears next to the selection box.

    You have the choice from different unitsof measurement: the unit of lengths and forces as well as

    the unit of strains.

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    2.3 Input window geometry

    FRP Lamella offers the possibility to strengthen the most frequent types of cross-section: slabs,

    rectangular beams, T-beams and I-beams. According to your choice FRP Lamella will present the

    appropriate illustrating graphic.

    Click the geometry lis tand choose the type of cross-section.

    Enter the dimensionsof the cross-section in the corresponding data fields.

    note

    After entering all data the graphic turns into a true to scale graphic to allow a visual control of the

    values.

    Please indicate whether you want to strengthen an exterior or interior structural member.

    According to ACI 440 the software will preselect the environmental reduction factor CEdepending

    on the exposure condition.

    For slabs please indicate the span or thecantilever length. This input data field will be displayed

    when you select a slab. The length is required to calculate the maximum spacing of FRP strips.

    (s. chap. 2.12).

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    2.4 Output window cross-section

    After entering the size of the structural member the cross-section values are calculated and shown in

    the lower part of the user interface.

    The upper field shows the gross cross-sectional areaAgof the structural member.

    The gravity axis zcgof the cross-section is related to the top of the member.

    Furthermore the moment of inertia Iyof the cross-section is given.

    The section modulus Stopand Sbottomapply to the top and the button of the cross-section.

    note

    The cross-section values are related to the gross cross-section of the member.

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    2.5 Input window concrete

    The window concrete indicates the material properties of the concrete. You can select the concrete

    classes according to the chosen code.

    Define the characteristic compressive strengthfcof the existing concrete.

    The concrete maximum strain cu is limited to 0.003 according to ACI 318 (see FRP Lamella

    design basics).

    The strain at the axis of the parabolic curve c2 is assumed to be 0.002 according to ACI 318

    (see FRP Lamella design basics).

    The modulus of elasticityof concrete Ecis necessary for the calculation of the uncracked state

    of the structural member.

    The tensile strength of the concrete fr defines the transition between the uncracked and the

    cracked state of the cross-section.

    The strength reduction factor flexure for the reinforced concrete member is preselected as

    flexure= 0.9 according to ACI 318 (see FRP Lamella design basics).

    note

    If the steel strain in ultimate limit strain is less than 0.005, the software will calculate a modified

    strength reduction factor flexure< 0.9 to compensate low ductility of the section and restart the

    design calculation automatically (see FRP Lamella design basics).

    note

    You can modify the proposed values by using the key button in the tool bar.

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    2.6 Input window steel

    The material properties of the reinforcing steel are entered in the window steel. The software offers the

    possibility to define 2 types of reinforcing steel as well as 2 types of prestressing steel. The graphic

    shows both stress-strain diagrams.

    Select the steel grade of the reinforcing steel and of the prestressing steel from the steel list. The

    appropriate specified yield stress fy and the appropriate specified tensile strength fpuof the

    prestressing steel will be displayed in the field next to the steel list. If the required steel grade is

    not available in the list, select the entry other, which enables you to define the characteristic

    strength.

    note

    The available steel grades in the list depend on the country selected in the window code.

    For rebars select between plain and ribbed sections, for prestressing steel it is to distinguish

    between strandsand wires. The choice has an effect on the bond of the rebars or the modulus of

    elasticity of the prestressing steel, respectively.

    The modulus of elasticity Es for reinforcing steel is preselected as Es = 29.000 [ksi] in

    accordance to ACI 318. For prestressing steel the modulus of elasticity Ep is preselecteddepending on the chosen section in accordance to ACI 318.

    The maximum steel strainsuand puis assumed as 0.03. It is only needed for the termination ofthe iteration. Before this strain limit will be reached, the design will be controlled by the strain limit

    of the FRP material.

    note

    You can modify the proposed values by using the key button in the tool bar.

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    2.7 Input window main flexural reinforcement

    Details about the existing rebars of the concrete member at the position of the maximum bending

    moment can be entered in the window main flexural reinforcement. FRP Lamella allows the input of

    six reinforcement layers in the tension or compression zone. You must at least enter one layer of

    internal reinforcement since the software does not design unreinforced members.

    Enter the cross-sectional areaAsof the existing tension rebars.

    tip

    Click the number button at the beginning of each line and an additional window shows a table of

    rebars diameters. You can select the number and the cross-section for groups of rebars and copy

    the total sum of the cross-sectional area of reinforcement to the input window (s. chap. 2.8).

    The position of the reinforcement is given by the depth zs measured from the top edge of the

    structural member to the axis of the rebars.

    Afterwards you choose the steel grade. The list shows the four grades defined in the previous

    window steel. For unclassified steel grades the defined yield strength or tensile strength will be

    displayed.

    For prestressed steel you have to enter the effective prestress f...

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