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PRESENTATION BY VEDANT RAWAT
CLASS - IX
TITLE -FRENCH REVOLUTION
CAUSES OF FRENCH. REVOLUTION.MAJOR EVENTS.ITS EFFECTS.INDIA AND THE REVOLUTION.ROLE OF NAPOLEAN BONAPARTE.
CAUSESOF FRENCH REVOLUTION
POLITICAL CAUSES :
LOUISE XIV WAS AN ABSOLUTE MONARCH.
HE DIDNT CARED MUCH FOR PEOPLE OF HIS COUNTRY.
HE WAS A KING OF MEDIOCRE INTELLEGENCE.
ECONOMIC CAUSESLUXURY SPENDING AND WAR DEBT:ABSOLUTE RULERS SPENT MORE THAN COUNTRES PRODUCED.
THE QUEEN MARIE ANTOINIETTE WAS A SYMBOL OF OVERSPENDING AND WAS EXTREMLY HATED.
THE COUNTRY(FRANCE) SPENT TO MUCH MONEY IN WARS:AMARICAN REVOLUTION,SEVEN YEARS WAR (vs. BRITISH FOR NORTH AMARICAN LAND).
DIVISION OF SOCIETY IN THREE ESTATESTHE FRENCH SOCIETY WAS DIVIDED IN THREE ESTATES :FIRST ESTATE WHICH CONSISTED OF CLERGY,BISHOPSAND CARDINALS .PAID NO TAXES.SECOND ESTATE2. WHICH CONSISTED OF ROYALITY AND NOBILITY.PAID NO TAXES. THIRD ESTATE3. CONSISTED OF COMMON PEOPLE OF THE SOCIETY. PAID ALL TAXES
MEETING OF ESTATE GENERALSThe Estates General were reluctantly summoned by King Louis XVI in May of 1789 with an aim to solve the monarchys financial crisis. There were three classes represented by the Estates General: the nobles, clergy and the rest of the population or the so-called Third Estate. Each estate had only one vote. As a result, the nobility and clergy could always overrule the Third Estate. Fearing they would be forced to bear the burden of the financial crisis, the members of the Third Estate decided to form their own National Assembly. After being locked out of the meeting of the Estates General, they moved to an indoor tennis court where they pledged the so-called Tennis Court Oath, vowing to remain there until a new constitution had been written.
2. Fall of BastilleOn July 14, 1789, an angry crowd marched on the Bastille, a medieval fortress in east Paris that was mostly housing political prisoners. To many people in France, it was considered as a symbol of the much hated Louis regime. Angry, unemployed and hungry Parisians saw it as a place to vent their frustrations.
MARCH TO VERSAILLES
MANY PEOPLE IN PARIS AND THE REST OF FRANCE WERE HUNGRY, UNEMPLOYED AND RESTLESS. IN OCTOBER, A LARGE CROWD OF PROTESTERS, MOSTLY WOMEN, MARCHED FROM PARIS TO THE PALACE OF VERSAILLES, CONVINCED THAT THE ROYAL FAMILY AND NOBILITY THERE LIVED IN LUXURY, OBLIVIOUS TO THE HARDSHIPS OF THE FRENCH PEOPLE. THEY BROKE INTO THE QUARTERS OF QUEEN MARIE ANTOINETTE WHO AS AN AUSTRIAN WAS PARTICULARLY DESPISED. THE CROWD DEMANDED BREAD AND WANTED TO BRING THE KING AND HIS FAMILY BACK TO PARIS TO LIVE AMONG THE PEOPLE. LOUIS CONCEDED TO THEIR DEMANDS AND AGREED TO GO TO PARIS WITH THE MOB, BELIEVING IT WOULD ONLY BE A TEMPORARY INCONVENIENCE. AS THEY LEFT VERSAILLES THE CROWD CHANTED THAT IT WAS BRINGING BACK THE BAKER, THE BAKERS WIFE AND THE LITTLE BAKERS APPRENTICE!
EFFECTS OF FRENCH REVOLUTION
THE REIGN OF TERRORWHILE THE GOAL OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION WAS IN FACT TO ESTABLISH A MORE DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT THAT REPRESENTS ALL PEOPLE AS OPPOSED TO JUST THE WEALTHY AND THE ARISTOCRACY, THE RESULT REALLY ENDED UP BEING RELATIVE CHAOS. THEREIGN OF TERROR, LARGELY ADMINISTRATED BY DANTON AND ROBESPIERRE, SAW THE BEHEADING OF MANY MEMBERS OF THE ROYALTY, INCLUDINGMARIE ANNONIETAND COUNTLESS OTHERS WHO WERE MEMBERS OF THE FRENCH COURT OR IN SOME WAY CONSIDERED A THREAT TO THE NEW GOVERNMENT.NAPOLEON BONAPARTEAS FRANCE STRUGGLED UNDER INEFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP THAT CHANGED VERY LITTLE IN THE COURSE OF THE DAILY LIVES OF THE PEASANTS, NAPOLEON WAS ABLE TO RETURN FROM A CAMPAIGN IN EGYPT AND, RELATIVELY EASILY, SEIZE POWER WITH MILITARY HELP. NAPOLEON ESTABLISHED WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE NAPOLEONIC CODE. PERHAPS THE MOST FAR-REACHING CONSEQUENCE OF THIS WAS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NAPOLEONIC CODE ORCODE CIVIL DES FRANOIS.ESSENTIALLY, THE CODE MADE THE LEGAL SYSTEM MORE FAIR TO ALL IN FRANCE REGARDLESS OF RELIGION OR WEALTH.AN EMERGING MIDDLE CLASSSINCE THE REVOLUTION ESSENTIALLY ENDED THE FEUDAL SYSTEM IN FRANCE, ONE EFFECT THAT WOULD GREATLY INFLUENCE FRENCH CULTURE WAS THE EMERGENCE OF A MIDDLE CLASS OR BOURGEOISIE.CAUSE AND EFFECT IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONAN ENTIRE HISTORY BOOK COULD BE FILLED WITH THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTION; HOWEVER, UNDERSTANDING THE GIST OF THE MENTALITY OF THE TIME AS WELL AS EXAMINING SOME OF THE FAR-REACHING CONSEQUENCES CAN GIVE STUDENTS A WINDOW INTO SOME OF THE THINKING PREVALENT AT THE TIME.
INDIA AND THE REVOLUTION
INDIA AND THE REVOLUTION
The French Revolution was a major influence on India s independence struggle. The Nation was first created in the French Revolution such things as the tricolor flag, the national anthem and revolutionary festivals and the like were consciously echoed in India s development of its national symbols (and in national struggles across the world I must say).
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a huge admirer of the French Revolution. On a general note, Tipu Sultan who was an ally of the French colonies against the English even joined the Mysore Jacobin Club (The French said, "We hate all kings except Tipu").
The Indian independent struggle by the way is older than Gandhi. It began in 1857 (which was violent bear in mind and among Indians is as significant as the Bastille). And while it s unlikely 1857 was inspired by the Revolution, later commentators would signal its importance as similar to the Bastille in our consciousness. Gandhi was not the only Indian leader bear in mind nor was he the sole voice of Indian unity and ideology. Violence played a major role at several times across India s struggle for freedom, and Gandhi's non-violent program played a part in only four major general boycotts and agitations in the final thirty year period.
ROLE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
ROLE OF NAPOLEAN BONAPARTE IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONIN 1789 NAPOLEON INVADED EYGPT BECAUSE IT WAS A VITAL LIFELINE TO BRITISH OUTPOSTS IN INDIA NAPOLEON QUICKELY DEFEATED THE EYGPTIAN ARMY . HOWEVER ,THE BRITISH FLEET ,UNDER ADMIRAL HORATIO NELSON ,DESTROYED THE FRENCH FLEET IN THE BATTLE OF NILE AND FINALLY CROWNED HIMSELF THE EMPEROR OF FRANCE IN 1804