fourth annual conference on carbon capture & .fourth annual conference on carbon capture &...

Download Fourth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & .Fourth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration

Post on 12-Jun-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Fourth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration

    Developing Potential Paths Forward Based on the Knowledge, Science and Experience to Date

    Geologic - Frio Brine Field Project (1)

    Geochemistry of Water and Gases in the Frio Brine Pilot Test: Baseline Data and Changes During

    and Post CO2 InjectionYousif Kharaka* (USGS), David Cole (ONL), William Gunter (ARC),

    Kevin Knauss (LLNL), Seay Nance (BEG)Financial support from DOE-NETL (Sheila Hedges)

    May 2-5, 2005, Hilton Alexandria Mark Center, Alexandria Virginia

  • Frio Brine Pilot Research Team Funded by US DOE National Energy Technology Lab: Sheila Hedges, Karen Cohen Bureau of Economic Geology, Jackson School, The University of Texas at Austin:

    Susan Hovorka, Mark Holtz, Shinichi Sakurai, Seay Nance, Joseph Yeh, Paul Knox, Khaled Faoud

    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, (Geo-Seq): Larry Myer, Tom Daley, Barry Freifeld, Rob Trautz, Christine Doughty, Sally Benson, Karsten Pruess, Curt Oldenburg, Jennifer Lewicki, Ernie Major, Mike Hoversten, Mac Kennedy, Don Lippert

    Oak Ridge National Lab: Dave Cole, Tommy Phelps Lawrence Livermore National Lab: Kevin Knauss, Jim Johnson Alberta Research Council: Bill Gunter, B. Kadatz, John Robinson Texas American Resources: Don Charbula, David Hargiss Sandia Technologies: Dan Collins, Spud Miller, David Freeman; Phil Papadeau BP: Charles Christopher, Mike Chambers Schlumberger: T. S. Ramakrishna and others SEQUIRE National Energy Technology Lab: Curt White, Rod Diehl, Grant Bromhall,

    Brian Stratizar, Art Wells University of West Virginia: Henry Rausch USGS: Yousif Kharaka, Bill Evans, Evangelos Kakauros, Jim Thordsen, Bob Rosenbauer Praxair: Joe Shine, Dan Dalton Australian CO2CRC (CSRIO): Kevin Dodds Core Labs: Paul Martin and others Hovorka et al., 2004

  • Topics Discussed Composition of water and gases in the Frio

    Baseline, during and post injection results. How are such data obtained and why are they

    important to CO2 sequestration? Water-mineral-CO2 interactions in the Frio. Environmental implications of post injection

    results. Future plans and concluding remarks.

  • Frio CO2 Field samplingDrilling & test water tagged with dye tracers

    Date Site Sampling info Sample series

    June 3, 2004 injection well MDT tool 04FCO2-100

    Jul 23-Aug 2, 2004 injection well, monitoring well& gw wells

    surface sampling (N2), Kuster, submers.pump

    04FCO2-200

    Oct 4-7, 2004 monitoring well U-tube 04FCO2-300

    Oct 29-Nov 3, 2004 monitoring well U-tube 04FCO2-400

    April 4-6, 2005 injection well& monitoring well

    surface sampling (N2) & Kuster

    05FCO2-100

  • A national produced-water geochemistry database

    James K. OttonGeorge N. Breit

    Yousif K. KharakaCynthia A. Rice

    internet at:http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/prov/prodwat/intro.htm

    http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/prov/prodwat/intro.htm

  • Use of water isotopes and chemistry to determine mixing with drilling water

    0

    20,000

    40,000

    60,000

    80,000

    100,000

    120,000

    140,000

    -5.00 -4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00

    18O (permil)

    Ele

    ctric

    al C

    ondu

    ctan

    ce (

    S/cm

    )

    101,102

    shallowmonitoring wells

    Frio brines

  • Open Hole logs

    Injection well Observation well

    Top A ss

    Top B ss

    Top C ssProposedinjection zone

    Hovorka et al., 2004

  • Salinity and normalized conc. of major cations and anions

    100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100

    04-FCO2-208 (injection well)

    100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100

    04FCO2-218 (monitoring well, C-sand)

    100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100

    [milliequivalents/liter, normalized to 100%]

    pH = 6.7; TDS = 93,800 mg/L

    pH = 8.2; TDS = 36,900 mg/LpH = 6.03; TDS = 92,600 mg/L

    pH = 6.86; TDS = 91,500 mg/L

    Cl Cl

    Cl Cl

    SO4

    SO4SO4

    HCO3

    HCO3

    HCO3

    Mg

    HCO3

    SO4

    MgMg

    Mg

    Ca

    CaCa

    Na

    Na

    Na

    Ca

    Na

    04FCO2-337 (monitoring well; post injection)100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100

    seawater

  • Selected chemical data from monitoring well during CO2 injection

    5.5

    5.7

    5.9

    6.1

    6.3

    6.5

    6.7

    6.9

    4-Oct-04 5-Oct-04 6-Oct-04 7-Oct-04 8-Oct-04

    pH

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    Alk

    alin

    ity H

    CO

    3 (m

    g/L)

    ; EC

    (x10

    mS/

    cm)

    pHHCO3EC

  • Frio CO2 (6/04-4/05)

    5.0

    5.5

    6.0

    6.5

    7.0

    7.5

    Jun-04 Aug-04 Oct-04 Dec-04 Feb-05 Apr-05

    pH

    pH injection w ell

    pH Shlumberger injection w ell

    pH monitoring w ell C-sand

    pH monitoring w ell B-sand

  • Frio CO2 (6/04-4/05)

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    Jun-04 Aug-04 Oct-04 Dec-04 Feb-05 Apr-05

    HC

    O3 (

    mg/

    L)

    0

    20000

    40000

    60000

    80000

    100000

    120000

    140000

    E. C

    ondu

    ctan

    ce (

    S/cm

    )

    HCO3 injection w ellHCO3 Schlumberger injection w ellHCO3 monitoring w ell C-sandHCO3 monitoring w ell B-sandEC injection w ellEC Shlumberger injection w ellEC monitoring w ell C-sandEC monitoring w ell B-sand

  • Frio Cl & Ca (6/04-11/04)

    0

    10000

    20000

    30000

    40000

    50000

    60000

    Jun-04 Jul-04 Aug-04 Sep-04 Oct-04 Nov-04 Dec-04

    Cl (

    mg/

    L)

    1800

    2200

    2600

    3000

    3400

    Ca

    (mg/

    L)

    Cl injection wellCl MDT injection wellCl monitoring well C-sandCa injection wellCa MDT injection wellCa monitoring well C-sand

    2600

    2800

    3000

    3200

    3400

    10/5 10/6 10/7 10/8

    Ca

    (mg/

    L)

  • Frio CO2 (6/04-11/04)

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    Jun-04 Jul-04 Aug-04 Sep-04 Oct-04 Nov-04 Dec-04

    Mg

    (mg/

    L), C

    l (x

    10-2

    mg/

    L)

    1800

    2200

    2600

    3000

    3400

    Ca

    (mg/

    L)

    Mg injection w ellMg MDT injection w ellMg monitoring w ell C-sandCl injection w ellCl MDT injection w ellCl monitoring w ell C-sandCa injection w ellCa MDT injection w ellCa monitoring w ell C-sand

  • Frio CO2 (6/04-11/04)

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    Jun-04 Jul-04 Aug-04 Sep-04 Oct-04 Nov-04 Dec-04

    Fe (m

    g/L)

    0

    4

    8

    12

    16

    20

    Mn

    (mg/

    L), Z

    n (m

    g/L)

    Fe injection wellFe MDT injection wellFe monitoring well C-sandMn injection wellMn MDT injection wellMn monitoring well C-sandZn monitoring well C-sand

  • Frio CO2 (10/5/04-10/7/04)

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    10/5/04 10/6/04 10/7/04 10/8/04

    Fe (m

    g/L)

    0

    4

    8

    12

    16

    20

    24

    Mn

    (mg/

    L), Z

    n (m

    g/L)

    Fe monitoring well C-sandMn monitoring well C-sandZn monitoring well C-sand

  • Br-Cl as indicator of origin

    of solutes

    (* Frio value)

    Kharaka & Hanor, 2004

  • Frio Brine Pilot

    Injection interval: 24-m-thick, mineralogically complex Oligocene reworked fluvial sandstone, porosity 24%, Permeability 2-3 Darcys

    Seals numerous thick shales, small fault block

    Depth 1,500 m Brine-rock system, no

    hydrocarbons 67C; 150 bar

    Hovorka et al., 2004

    Injection interval

    Oil production

  • 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1602

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    pH

    pCO2 (bars)

    pH

    -12

    -10

    -8

    -6

    -4

    -2

    0

    2

    4

    6 ### albite, low ### ### ###

    G (kcal/m

    ole)

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1602

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    pH

    pCO2 (bars)

    pH

    -12

    -10

    -8

    -6

    -4

    -2

    0

    2

    4

    6 calcite albite, low dolomite goethite siderite

    G (kcal/m

    ole)Surface

    T & P

    Eq. calcite

  • Computed pH and saturated states of selected minerals at T & P

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1602

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    pH

    pCO2 (bars)

    pH

    -12

    -10

    -8

    -6

    -4

    -2

    0

    2

    4

    6 calcite albite, low dolomite goethite siderite

    G (kcal/m

    ole)

  • Idealized carbonate speciation

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    1 102

    4 6 8 10 12 14

    %

    pH

    H2 CO3 HCO3- CO3

    -2

  • Chemical Composition of Frio GasesFrio formation water at saturation with CH4

  • Solubility of CH4 in Aqueous Solutions

    Duan et al., 1992

  • Solubility of CO2 in water as f (t, P & chemical composition)Drummond (1981); Rosenbauer et al., 2003

    CO

    2(w

    t %)

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    5.5

    0 100 200 300 400 500 600 70

    Pressure (bar)

    NaCl (10%)

    CaCl2 (7%)

    (50C)

    CO

    2(w

    t %)

  • Isotope data- H2O, CH4 & DICDissolved Inorganic Carbon

    Days After CO2 Injection

    0 10 20 30

    13 C

    DIC

    (per

    mil)

    -35

    -30

    -25

    -20

    -15

    -10

    -5

    0

    Base line DICPost-injection DIC

    10/5

    10/6 (after breakthrough)11/3

Recommended

View more >