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DESCRIPTIONThe founding of this nation was based on five key principles.
- 1. The Founding PrinciplesJames D. Best
2. The infant periods of most nations are buried in silence, or veiled in fable,and perhaps the world has lost little it should regret. But the origins of theAmerican Republic contain lessons of which posterity ought not to bedeprived. James Madison 3. Historical NovelsNonfiction 4. Tempest at Dawn Twelve year project Novelization of Constitutional Convention Inside ChamberTrue to Madisons notes Outside Chamberevents historical orbased on circumstantial evidence Accurate character presentation Alternating Points of View 5. Agenda1. Why are the Founding Principles important?2. Why is the United States unique?We did not evolve or arise from warStudy, thought, debate, and decision3. How these principles became embedded in Constitution4. How theyve been eroded 6. 5 Years Since End of Revolution Articles of Confederation not working National government couldnt collect taxes War Debts not being paid No common or sound money States negotiating with foreign powers Commerce, states taxing each other Shays Revolt Political leaders feared mob rule 7. What Are The Founding Principles? Rights come from God, not government All political power emanates from the people Limited representative republic Written Constitution Private property rightsWhat the Founders would agree on prior to Constitutional Convention. 8. Founding Principles disavowed Divine Right and Mercantilism Declaration, sermons, debates, newspapers, pamphlets Common education EnlightenmentAristotle, Montesquieu, Locke, Hume, Adam Smith Differing opinions on details of governmentState vs. National governmentSlaveryStrong legislature vs. balanced powerPower of executiveWestern landsAgrarian vs. industrialEnfranchisement 9. Rights Come From God, Not GovernmentWhen in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people todissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and toassume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station towhich the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle themWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that theyare endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among theseare Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness 10. Governments did not protect rights Governments threatened rights Limiting government power protects rights 11. All Political Power Emanates From The PeopleThat to secure these rights, Governments are instituted amongMen, deriving their just powers from the consent of thegoverned Declaration of IndependenceWhat is a Constitution? It is the form of government, delineated by the mightyhand of the people, in which certain first principles of fundamental law areestablished. The Constitution is certain and fixed; it contains the permanent willof the people, and is the supreme law of the land and can be revoked oraltered only by the authority that made it. William Paterson, Delegate to theFederal ConventionA Revolt Against Divine Right of Kings 12. Limited Representative RepublicJames Madison, Delegate to the Federal ConventionWe may define a republic to be a governmentwhich derives all its powers directly or indirectly fromthe great body of the people and is administered bypersons holding their offices during pleasure for alimited period.If Congress can do whatever in their discretioncan be done by money, and will promote theGeneral Welfare, the Government is no longer alimited oneThe Founders believed that liberty depends on each part of thegovernment acting as an effective check on all the other parts 13. Written ConstitutionSince the Mayflower Compact, Americans have wanted therules of government written down.A social contract based on reason, where the peoplehold political power, must be in writing, so everyonecan study, debate, and approve it.An unwritten constitution is not a constitution at allThomas Paine (?) 14. Private Property RightsThe pillars of our prosperity are the mostthriving when left most free to individualenterprise. Thomas Jefferson Influenced by Adam Smith Free markets build wealth The Founders believed private property rights and liberty were intertwined. Property defined broadly If government allows bullies to take what they want, anarchy reigns. If government gathers up property unto itself, oppression reigns. Few restraints on the industrious, the inventive, and the entrepreneurial 15. United States Constitution Consistent with Founding Principles Ratified by conventions of the people Limited representative republic1. Enumerated Powers2. Separation of Power3. Checks and Balances4. States Check National Government5. Leaders Selected by Different Means6. Varying Terms7. Restricted taxing authority8. Separation of church and state 16. Ratification not easy or a given Subject of discussion and argument Taverns Sermons Town meetings Federalist and Anti-Federalist Ratification Debates 17. An entire nation collectivelyapproved the Constitution 18. Original Constitution had no Bill Of Rights Government did not bestow rights Enumerated powerslimited authority Government not an agency to protect rights Bill of Rights added by First Congress Bill of Rights remains consistent with Founding Principles Not a list of rightsgovernment restrictionsCongress shall make no lawshall not be infringedshall not be violatednor be deprivedshall not be required 19. 9th AmendmentThe enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny ordisparage others retained by the people.10th AmendmentThe powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by itto the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 20. Erosion started almost immediately 21. Hamilton/Jefferson rivalry Alien and Sedition ActsJohn Adams Louisiana PurchaseJefferson Foreign Entanglements/WarMadison Leader of the New WorldMonroe Huge New Federal ProgramsJohn Quincy Adams Populism and ProgressivismJackson Supreme Court Rulings 22. Erosion Was Not With Consent of the PeopleGeorge WashingtonIf in the opinion of the people the distribution ormodification of the constitutional powers be in anyparticular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment inthe way which the Constitution designates. But let there beno change by usurpation. 23. The Founding Principles Unalienable rights come from God, not government All political power emanates from the people Limited representative republic Written Constitution Private property rights 24. A republic, if you can keep it.Benjamin Franklin 25. Thank You