foundations of western civilization: greece and rome

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  • Slide 1
  • Foundations of Western Civilization: Greece and Rome
  • Slide 2
  • Why Start Here? Our civilization stretches back nearly 3,000 years.Our civilization stretches back nearly 3,000 years. If this was not the case, we would have to invent technologies and ideas over and over. We benefit from the works of countless ancestors.We benefit from the works of countless ancestors.
  • Slide 3
  • DO NOW! What is the difference between a myth and a legend?What is the difference between a myth and a legend?
  • Slide 4
  • Myth A myth is a traditional story of gods or godlike beings.A myth is a traditional story of gods or godlike beings. Is used to relate the worldview of a people or to explain a practice, a belief or a natural phenomenon. Is thought to contain very little truth There are many ways to interpret or understand myths.There are many ways to interpret or understand myths.
  • Slide 5
  • Legend A legend is a traditional story of ostensibly historical events and mortal or semi-divine heroes, often interacting with gods.A legend is a traditional story of ostensibly historical events and mortal or semi-divine heroes, often interacting with gods. Many legends, like myths, reflect the social or political world view of a people Most legends were originally oral tales; their transformation into written literature often occurred several hundred years after the events they describe.Most legends were originally oral tales; their transformation into written literature often occurred several hundred years after the events they describe.
  • Slide 6
  • Folk Tale Folk tales, like fairy tales, are traditional stories told usually about common people that reflect the worldview of a rural or village population.Folk tales, like fairy tales, are traditional stories told usually about common people that reflect the worldview of a rural or village population. History is usually absent in these stories; they are typically set in an unspecified time and place.History is usually absent in these stories; they are typically set in an unspecified time and place.
  • Slide 7
  • A saga is a tale originally recounted orally but later preserved in written prose.A saga is a tale originally recounted orally but later preserved in written prose. We think of them as Scandinavian, but really they are common to Indo-Europeans. Is the story of Troy a saga? Saga
  • Slide 8
  • Bronze Age Greece
  • Slide 9
  • Migrations in the Aegean Region
  • Slide 10
  • Dorian Greek Invaders Came to inhabit much of mainland Greece, having driven the Achean Greeks onto the islands of the Aegean Sea.Came to inhabit much of mainland Greece, having driven the Achean Greeks onto the islands of the Aegean Sea. Main cities were Corinth and Sparta.Main cities were Corinth and Sparta. Known for their fair hair and complexion.Known for their fair hair and complexion. Famous heroes include:Famous heroes include: Helen of Troy (originally from Sparta) Leonidas, King of Sparta Possibly Achilles (described as being blonde)
  • Slide 11
  • Common Indo-European Religious Heritage The term for "a god" was deiwosThe term for "a god" was deiwos Latin, deus Sanskrit, deva deva Persian, divs Welsh, duw Irish, dia Lithuanian, Dievas Dievas Latvian, Dievs.
  • Slide 12
  • Dyus Phatr is the god of the day-lit sky and the chief god.Dyus Phatr is the god of the day-lit sky and the chief god.Dyus PhatrDyus Phatr The name survives in Greek Zeus with a vocative form Zeu pater (pater = father) Zeus Latin Jpiter Jpiter *Perkwunos, known as "the striker, or the thunderer, is known as Slavic Perun, and Norse Thor.*Perkwunos, known as "the striker, or the thunderer, is known as Slavic Perun, and Norse Thor.PerkwunosPerunPerkwunosPerun *H 2 eus(os), is believed to have been the goddess of dawn, [9]*H 2 eus(os), is believed to have been the goddess of dawn, [9] [9] Greek Eos, in Rome as Aurora, Gallic Esus, a god of hearths; Greek, Hestia, goddess of the hearth; Latin Vesta, goddess of the hearth; possibly also in Germanic mythology as ostre EosAuroraEsusHestiaVestaostreEosAuroraEsusHestiaVestaostre
  • Slide 13
  • Common Trends They believed in living life to the fullest, because death was going to happen whether you wanted it to or not.They believed in living life to the fullest, because death was going to happen whether you wanted it to or not. The only response to death was to make a mark on the world. Become a legend.The only response to death was to make a mark on the world. Become a legend. This is in sharp contrast to Christian beliefs, which stressed rewards in the next life.This is in sharp contrast to Christian beliefs, which stressed rewards in the next life.
  • Slide 14
  • Zeus Killed his own father (who deserved it)Killed his own father (who deserved it) Zeus is the father of Hercules and many other gods (see later slide).Zeus is the father of Hercules and many other gods (see later slide). He is the most powerful of the Gods.He is the most powerful of the Gods. He appears in many stories.He appears in many stories. Unfaithful.Unfaithful.
  • Slide 15
  • All of Zeus children Zeus had eight children on OlympusZeus had eight children on Olympus The twins: Apollo and Artemis Athena (born fully armored out of Zeuss head when he had a bad headache) Hephaestus Hermes Ares Dionysus Aphrodite (adopted)
  • Slide 16
  • Wife of ZeusWife of Zeus Goddess of marriage, protector of childbirth & heroesGoddess of marriage, protector of childbirth & heroes Portrayed as extremely jealous and vindictivePortrayed as extremely jealous and vindictive Tries to kill Hercules.Tries to kill Hercules.
  • Slide 17
  • God of the sea, horses and earthquakesGod of the sea, horses and earthquakes Lives in a palace beneath the oceanLives in a palace beneath the ocean Carries a three-pronged tridentCarries a three-pronged trident Gave people the horseGave people the horse Married a sea nymph named AmphitriteMarried a sea nymph named Amphitrite Like his brother, he fathered many children.Like his brother, he fathered many children. Very fond of his sister DemeterVery fond of his sister Demeter
  • Slide 18
  • god of the underworld and the deadgod of the underworld and the dead god of wealth (owned all precious metal)god of wealth (owned all precious metal) Wore a cap that made him invisibleWore a cap that made him invisible Kidnapped Persephone and made her his wifeKidnapped Persephone and made her his wife
  • Slide 19
  • The Underworld Is not the same thing as HELL. All people went to the Underworld when they died.Is not the same thing as HELL. All people went to the Underworld when they died. Hades is NOT the devil. Hes as noble as the other gods.Hades is NOT the devil. Hes as noble as the other gods. Charon: the boatman who would ferry people/spirits across the river Styx so they could make it to the Underworld. He wanted to get a tip, so people were buried with coins on their eyes so they could pay him.Charon: the boatman who would ferry people/spirits across the river Styx so they could make it to the Underworld. He wanted to get a tip, so people were buried with coins on their eyes so they could pay him. Cerberus: 3-headed dog who guards the gate.Cerberus: 3-headed dog who guards the gate. 3 Levels: Tartarus: Place of pain and suffering. Asphodel Fields: Where spirits roam like shadows. Elysian Fields: Where Heroes go paradise.
  • Slide 20
  • Demeter means Barley- motherDemeter means Barley- mother Another name for her is Ceres, from the word cerealAnother name for her is Ceres, from the word cereal Goddess of the cornfield, mistress of planting and harvesting, lady of growing thingsGoddess of the cornfield, mistress of planting and harvesting, lady of growing things She had a son and a daughter. Her daughters name was Persephone.She had a son and a daughter. Her daughters name was Persephone. Her daughter was kidnapped by Hades. (reasons for the seasons)Her daughter was kidnapped by Hades. (reasons for the seasons)
  • Slide 21
  • god of light, music and poetrygod of light, music and poetry most beautiful godmost beautiful god also the god of medicinealso the god of medicine taught people the art of healingtaught people the art of healing fine marksmanfine marksman could predict the futurecould predict the future
  • Slide 22
  • goddess of hunting, wild things, unmarried girls and the moongoddess of hunting, wild things, unmarried girls and the moon She decided never to marryShe decided never to marry Once when she was bathing under the moonlight a human was watching her. She threw rain drops on him and changed him into a stag. Then she had him killed by his own dogs.Once when she was bathing under the moonlight a human was watching her. She threw rain drops on him and changed him into a stag. Then she had him killed by his own dogs.
  • Slide 23
  • Zeus favoriteZeus favorite goddess of wisdom, strategy, protector of cities and civilizationsgoddess of wisdom, strategy, protector of cities and civilizations goddess of handicrafts and artgoddess of handicrafts and art She sprang from her fathers head fully clothed and in armor. Hephaestus, Zeus son, had to release Athena by cutting his head open with an axe.
  • Slide 24
  • god of firegod of fire The only ugly god, but he was peaceful, loving and popular.The only ugly god, but he