Fortress Europe: dispatches from a gated continent

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [University of Hong Kong Libraries]On: 09 October 2014, At: 22:53Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,UK</p><p>Ethnic and Racial StudiesPublication details, including instructions for authorsand subscription information:</p><p>Fortress Europe: dispatchesfrom a gated continentOlga Jubanyaa Department of Social Anthropology University ofBarcelona, Barcelona, SpainPublished online: 14 Oct 2013.</p><p>To cite this article: Olga Jubany (2014) Fortress Europe: dispatchesfrom a gated continent, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37:5, 899-901, DOI:10.1080/01419870.2013.847194</p><p>To link to this article:</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all theinformation (the Content) contained in the publications on our platform.However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, orsuitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressedin this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not theviews of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content shouldnot be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions,claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilitieswhatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connectionwith, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes.Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly</p><p></p></li><li><p>forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f H</p><p>ong </p><p>Kon</p><p>g L</p><p>ibra</p><p>ries</p><p>] at</p><p> 22:</p><p>53 0</p><p>9 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p><p></p></li><li><p>Chebel dAppollonia ranges impressively widely in her sources and on a number ofoccasions, especially in her Chapter 5 on the war on terror, she draws on opinion-pollevidence of public attitudes - e.g., on whether the war on terror has weakened orstrengthened Al-Qaeda (p. 158). As she concedes, this can measure only publicperceptions, largely as filtered selectively through media reports - the objective truth onsuch a topic is a matter of contention among security experts, who do not necessarilyeven agree at any particular time on the strength, and sometimes the structure, of Al-Qaeda; thus, even the premise of such a question may be faulty. Expecting the public toknow the correct answer to this is unrealistic, but fears of being thought nave bygiving the optimistic answer invariably skew the publics distribution of responses tosuch questions towards the more pessimistic alternative. A similar stricture might bemade with respect to the opinion data on worry about a personal terrorist attack (p. 161).Such data should always be interpreted with that qualification in mind, though ChebeldAppollonia does recognize that these publics did usually give higher priority to verydifferent issues of concern (such as global warming or unemployment). The principallesson to be drawn from Chebel dAppollonias data series between 2001 and 2006 onpublic concerns on terrorism is how generally stable they were, with minor variationsbeing apparently undetermined by any seemingly relevant contemporary events.</p><p>Chebel dAppollonias book then is an important analysis of the interconnectedness ofa number of those phenomena thrown up by an increasingly globalized world. One canthus forgive her wide use of the ugly neologism securitization, a word hitherto moreused by bankers and ideally best left with them - though admittedly one is hard put tothink of a better single-word alternative for the political developments being described byher.</p><p>Christopher T. HusbandsLondon School of Economics and Political Science</p><p> 2013, Christopher T. Husbands</p><p></p><p>Fortress Europe: dispatches from a gated continent, by Matthew Carr, London,C. Hurst &amp; Co Publishers Ltd, 2012, xi + 295 pp., 20 (hardcover), ISBN 978-1849042536</p><p>Fortress Europe is a vivid term coined by the media and political discourses to conjure upimages of a region besieged by waves of migrants arriving in Europe, as the economicgap between the worlds rich and poor states has grown ever wider. Mathew Carrsoriginal and timely book of this title adopts a unique approach to bring into sharp reliefthe dramatic impact this fortress has on real peoples lives, revealing with empiricalevidence the stark contrast between current approaches to border controls and Europescommitment to human rights and social integration.</p><p>Opening with a poignant portrayal of Spains southern borders, as a main Africangateway to Europe, the authors ethnographic approach immediately engages the readerwith the crude reality of the daily border war, as he refers to it. In this analysis, theessence of living the borders is grasped and exposed through the voices of those that aretoo often hidden from the public eye and ignored by academic debate.</p><p>Book reviews 899</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f H</p><p>ong </p><p>Kon</p><p>g L</p><p>ibra</p><p>ries</p><p>] at</p><p> 22:</p><p>53 0</p><p>9 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p><p></p></li><li><p>Divided into Hard Borders and Border Crossings, the book distinguishes between thereality of border control and the experience of attempting to cross. In an initial chapter onthe renewed emphasis on borders in recent decades, Carr convincingly argues how thesehave evolved from being divisions between political states into blunt instruments ofcontrol and exploitation. It is not, however, this passing contribution to the academicdebate on identities and boundaries that provides the outstanding value of this book, butits capacity to transport the reader to the quotidian experiences of the people caught up inthis war. In Postcards from Schengenland (II), the author surprises us with an unusualdescription of the village of Schengen that draws the reader into the mundane realismbehind this wide-ranging Treaty. Enriching conversations follow with front line actors,such as Captain Braej, commander of the Polish Terespol Border Guards, now convertedinto the enforcers of Schengen priorities.</p><p>Following this, the Spanish case is presented as a depiction of the brutal reality ofEuropes borders (III) through devastating accounts of migrants arriving from NorthAfrica, that vividly illustrate the impact of the Frontex border agency in implementingcontrols, particularly in naval operations. Carr demonstrates how Melilla and Ceutascolonial roots and political relations have transformed these enclaves into disturbingsettings where peoples lives are placed in constant risk. In the wider geopolitical contextof the Mediterranean area (IV) the recurrence of tragedies with migrants packed intoovercrowded boats show the transformation of the cohesive Mediterranean culture intoone of indifference that affects every border. Carr views Malta as a small replica of theobsessive wider European patterns of control. This is convincingly evidenced throughfirst-hand accounts from the police, journalists and NGO workers, enriched with refugeesaccounts, to show how this island too often functions as a de facto detention centre.Likewise Greece is portrayed as what the Frontex Deputy Director refers to as the hottestarea of illegal immigration and greatest border challenge for Europe, for its complicatedgeography of thousands of miles of land and maritime borders. A historical criticism ofkey territories is skilfully enhanced by the accounts of key actors, disclosing thedesperation of people trapped in border regions, like an Afghan refugee, Noylan, whostruggles to make sense of the harsh experiences he is facing in this allegedly safe haven.</p><p>Leaving the South, Carr introduces the fortress outside Schengen with Small IslandBritish Borders (VI) and The Internal Border (VII), providing a critical review of theBritish refugee policy controls over the last century. He argues how successiveconservative and labour governments have vied with each other to demonstrate theirtoughness on asylum, constructing migrants as dangerous and dehumanized invadersmassing outside the nations borders (120). The author forcefully argues how the constantmistrust of refugees and migrants ensures the control mechanisms are extended beyond theborders, into the daily reality of neighbourhoods, streets, workplaces and private homes, asan overshadowing presence that is too often overlooked by the public eye.</p><p>The second part of the book addresses the searing accounts of personal courage exhibitedduring the tremendously harsh migrant journeys, undertaken to cross borders, enabling thereader to live at first-hand the meaning of refugee travel. From the twenty-seven Africansclinging to a tuna fishing cage pulled behind a trawler for three days, to the Tuareg banditspreying on the refugee convoys, the experiences and accounts leave no doubts about theincredible risks and hardships endured. Inwhat Carr refers to as the dark side of globalisation(183), the book tackles human trafficking (IX) particularly unforgiving in relation to sexualexploitation of women and children. These shocking but convincing arguments depict human</p><p>900 Book reviews</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f H</p><p>ong </p><p>Kon</p><p>g L</p><p>ibra</p><p>ries</p><p>] at</p><p> 22:</p><p>53 0</p><p>9 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>trafficking as a response to a specific prohibition, like any other smuggling or contraband,with EU borders playing their role as the tools that define such prohibition.</p><p>For a more constructive and optimistic future Hands across the Border (X) relates theacts of solidarity of a heterogeneous constellation of individuals and organisations (199)to then return to the historical and political analysis. In Blurred Edges (XI), Carr reopensthe debate on identity related to the states, nations, cultures and civilisations to argue how,beyond the experiences of individuals, this has become a recurring controlling discoursetowards a forced construction of a European identity. This thought-provoking utilitarianview of imaginary borders is wrapped up in The Western Borders (XII), placing Europe inthe wider world context to show how other seemingly different contexts, such as Indiaand Africa, are ultimately similar in a world obsessed by control.</p><p>Carrs painstaking ethnographic work advances a unique, compelling, vivid and thoroughanalysis of the effects of the unjustifiable European war on immigration and the terribleconsequences this has on people caught up in this undeclared conflict. Whilst offeringglimpses of hope though the actions of individuals, Carr lays bare how states continue tofocus on numbers and not on people, and to address only the consequences in a reactiveway, rather than seeking longer-term solutions that tackle the reasons why people considerundertaking these extraordinary journeys to an equally uncertain and hazardous future.</p><p>Olga JubanyDepartment of Social Anthropology</p><p>University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2013, Olga Jubany</p><p></p><p>Education and immigration, by Grace Kao, Elizabeth Vaquera and Kimberly Goyette,Cambridge, Polity Press, 2013, vi + 225 pp., 15.99/19.90 (paperback), ISBN9780745648323</p><p>Education and Immigration offers a broad exploration of the educational success ofchildren from immigrant families in the USA and the factors that affect it. The book isaimed at university students, and references to popular culture, especially films, and shortvignettes are used to introduce some of the chapters and to illustrate general processes.For more advanced European readers, the chapter of greatest interest is likely to be theone on language since this topic is often overlooked in European research.</p><p>For a book whose focus is on the education of children from immigrant families, asurprisingly small share of the text deals directly with this issue and a large share is ontopics that provide the context: general theories of assimilation beginning with theChicago School and ending with segmented assimilation (Chapter 2), the history ofmigration to the USA and the main pieces of legislation that have influenced migrationflows and assimilation outcomes (Chapter 3), and the educational attainment of adultimmigrants (Chapter 4). All of these topics are without a doubt important forunderstanding the educational attainment of children from immigrant families.Although the chapter on migration history is likely to be of least interest to non-USreaders, it is nevertheless valuable for understanding the US context, which is thecontext that most theories of assimilation are based on.</p><p>Book reviews 901</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f H</p><p>ong </p><p>Kon</p><p>g L</p><p>ibra</p><p>ries</p><p>] at</p><p> 22:</p><p>53 0</p><p>9 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p><p>mailto:olga.jubany@ub.edu</p></li></ul>