foren material selector for ammonia and caustic soda- mti ms-6

Download FOREN Material Selector for Ammonia and Caustic Soda- MTI MS-6

Post on 18-Apr-2015

490 views

Category:

Documents

15 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Ammonia induced corrosion on metals and alloys

TRANSCRIPT

Materials Selector for Hazardous Chemicals

Materials Selector for Hazardous ChemicalsMichael Davies

MS-6: Ammonia and Caustic Soda

Publication No. MS-6

Materials Technology Institute

Copyright

2004

Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. Printed and bound in the United States of America All rights reserved, including translations ISBN 1-57698-031-6 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher. This document was prepared under the sponsorship of the Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. (MTI) and is approved for release. All data and information contained in this document are believed to be reliable; however, no warranty of any kind, express or implied, is made with respect to the data, analyses, or author of this document; and the use of any part of this document is at the users sole risk. MTI, the author, or any person acting on its behalf, assume no liability and expressly disclaim liability, including without limitation liability for negligence, resulting from the use or publication of the information contained in this document or warrant that such use or publication will be free from privately owned rights. Published by Materials Technology Institute www.mti-global.org

Contents

List of Figures .....................................................................................................xii List of Tables .......................................................................................................xv Foreword............................................................................................................ xix

Section I: Ammonia Chapter 1: Introduction .....................................................................3 Chapter 2: Properties of Ammonia ..................................................7Physical Properties ..........................................................................................8 Chemical Properties ........................................................................................9 Safety and Health Considerations....................................................................9 First Aid Procedures................................................................................ 10 Recommended Protective Equipment ...................................................... 10 Disposal, Spill, or Leak Procedures.......................................................... 11 Fire.......................................................................................................... 11

Chapter 3: Production of Ammonia ..............................................13 Chapter 4: Corrosion by Ammonia................................................19v

vi

Materials Selector for Hazardous Chemicals

Passivity........................................................................................................ 19 Forms of Corrosion........................................................................................ 20 General Corrosion ................................................................................... 20 Pitting Corrosion ..................................................................................... 20 Crevice Corrosion.................................................................................... 21 Intergranular Attack ................................................................................ 21 Erosion-Corrosion.................................................................................... 21 Stress Corrosion Cracking........................................................................ 21 Vapor-Phase Attack ................................................................................. 21 High-Temperature Corrosion ................................................................... 22 Dealloying............................................................................................... 22

Chapter 5: Corrosion of Metals and Alloys.................................23Aluminum and Its Alloys .............................................................................. 23 Iron and Steel ................................................................................................ 24 Cast Irons ................................................................................................ 24 Carbon Steels........................................................................................... 25 Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steels.................................................... 26 Nitriding of Steels ............................................................................. 27 Hydrogen Attack............................................................................... 27 Temper Embrittlement ....................................................................... 29 Hydrogen Sulde Attack ................................................................... 29 Alloy Steels ............................................................................................. 30 Chromium-Molybdenum Steels ......................................................... 30 Nickel Alloy Steels ............................................................................ 30 Stainless Steels............................................................................................... 30 Ferritic Grades......................................................................................... 31 Precipitation-Hardening Grades .............................................................. 31 Duplex Stainless Steels ............................................................................ 31 Austenitic Stainless Steels........................................................................ 32 Cast Stainless Steels................................................................................. 33 Alloys for Use at Elevated Temperatures ....................................................... 34 Creep Resistance...................................................................................... 35 Metal Dusting.......................................................................................... 35 Nickel and Its Alloys ..................................................................................... 37 Copper and Its Alloys ................................................................................... 40

MS-6: Ammonia and Caustic Soda

vii

Titanium and Its Alloys ................................................................................. 42 Zirconium and Its Alloys............................................................................... 43 Niobium........................................................................................................ 43 Tantalum ....................................................................................................... 43 Other Metals and Alloys................................................................................ 43

Chapter 6: Resistance of Nonmetallic Materials ........................47Elastomers..................................................................................................... 47 Plastics .......................................................................................................... 47 Thermoplastics ........................................................................................ 48 Thermoset Resins .................................................................................... 49 Carbon and Graphite..................................................................................... 52 Ceramic Materials ......................................................................................... 52

Chapter 7: Corrosion in Contaminated Ammonia......................55Ammonium Chloride .................................................................................... 55 Carbon DioxideCarbamates ....................................................................... 55 Chlorides....................................................................................................... 57

Chapter 8: Specic Production Equipment...................................59Production Stages.......................................................................................... 59 Desulfurization Section............................................................................ 59 Primary Reformer.................................................................................... 60 Secondary Reformer ................................................................................ 63 High-Temperature Converter................................................................... 64 Carbon Dioxide Removal System ............................................................ 64 Waste Heat Recovery System................................................................... 64 Ammonia Synthesis................................................................................. 64 Distillation Columns................................................................................ 65 Heat Exchangers...................................................................................... 65 Heaters .............................................................................................. 65 Coolers and Condensers .................................................................... 66

viii

Materials Selector for Hazardous Chemicals

Storage Tanks .......................................................................................... 66 Refrigerated Storage Vessels .........................