Ford Sierra 4-Cylinder Service and Repair Manual

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  • Ford SierraService and Repair ManualSteve Rendle and Christopher Rogers

    Models coveredSaloon (Sapphire and Hatchback), Estate and P100 Pick-up models, including special/limited editions, with four-cylinder SOHC, DOHC & CVH petrol engines and two-wheel-drive

    Does not cover V6 or Diesel engine models, four-wheel-drive models, or RS Cosworth (903 - 368 - 11Y8)

    Haynes Publishing 1996

    A book in the Haynes Service and Repair Manual Series

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, recording or by any information storageor retrieval system, without permission in writing from thecopyright holder.

    ISBN 1 85960 090 5

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from from the British library.

    Printed by J H Haynes & Co. Ltd, Sparkford, Nr Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ

    Haynes PublishingSparkford, Nr Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ England

    Haynes North America, Inc861 Lawrence Drive, Newbury Park, California 91320 USA

    Editions Haynes S.A.147/149, rue Saint Honore, 75001 PARIS, France

  • LIVING WITH YOUR FORD SIERRAIntroduction to the Ford Sierra Page 04

    Acknowledgements Page 04

    Safety first! Page 05

    ROADSIDE REPAIRSJacking, vehicle support and wheel changing Page 06

    Towing Page 07

    Identifying leaks Page 08

    Jump starting Page 09

    Weekly ChecksIntroduction Page 010

    Underbonnet check points Page 010

    Engine Oil level Page 012

    Coolant level Page 012

    Screen washer fluid level Page 013

    Brake fluid level Page 013

    Power steering fluid level Page 014

    Electrical systems Page 014

    Battery Page 015

    Wiper blades Page 015

    Tyre condition and pressure Page 016

    Lubricants and fluids Page 017

    Tyre pressures Page 018

    MAINTENANCERoutine Maintenance and Servicing Page 11

    Maintenance schedule Page 14

    Maintenance procedures Page 19

    Contents

  • REPAIRS AND OVERHAUL

    Engine and Associated SystemsSOHC engines Page 2A1

    DOHC engines Page 2B1

    CVH engines Page 2C1

    Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems Page 31

    Fuel/exhaust systems - carburettor models Page 4A1

    Fuel/exhaust systems - fuel injection models Page 4B1

    Engine electrical systems Page 51

    TRANSMISSIONClutch Page 61

    Manual gearbox Page 7A1

    Automatic transmission Page 7B1

    Propellor shaft Page 81

    Final drive and driveshafts Page 91

    BRAKES AND SUSPENSIONBraking system Page 101

    Suspension and steering Page 111

    BODY EQUIPMENTBodywork, trim and fittings Page 121

    Body electrical systems Page 131

    Wiring Diagrams Page 1322

    ReferenceGeneral dimensions and weights Page REF1

    Buying spare parts and vehicle identification Page REF3

    General repair procedures Page REF4

    Tools and working facilities Page REF5

    MOT test checks Page REF7

    Fault finding Page REF11

    Glossary of technical terms Page REF18

    Index Page REF23

    Contents

  • 04

    The Ford Sierra was first introduced in late 1982 with the option ofseven different engines and four different trim levels. This manualcovers the four cylinder in-line petrol engines, but other models in therange are fitted with V6 or diesel engines.

    The Sierra was introduced by Ford as the successor to the Cortinaand initially received a mixed reception as it was one of the firstvehicles to make use of the aeroback body style designed to reducethe air drag coefficient to a minimum in the interests of fuel economy.Mechanically the Sierra is similar to the Cortina with the exception ofall-round independent suspension.

    Initially, 1.3, 1.6 and 2.0 litre SOHC carburettor engines wereavailable, with Hatchback and Estate body styles. In late 1984, a 1.8litre SOHC engine became available and in 1985, a performanceorientated 2.0 litre SOHC fuel injection engine was introduced.

    Towards the end of 1986, the 1.3 litre engine was phased out. In orderto fill a gap in the range, a Saloon body style, designated the Sapphire,was introduced in early 1987 and shortly afterwards, a 1.8 litre CVHengine replaced the previously used 1.8 litre SOHC engine throughoutthe model range.

    A 1.6 litre CVH engine was introduced in September 1991 to replacethe 1.6 litre SOHC engine used previously, this engine being broadlysimilar to the original 1.8 litre CVH engine which was in turn uprated inMarch, 1992.

    A 2.0 litre DOHC (Double OverHead Camshaft) engine was in-troduced in August 1989 to replace the 2.0 litre SOHC engine.

    In early 1988, a Sierra-based P100 pick-up model became availableto replace the previous Cortina-based design. The P100 consists of aSierra-type cab and front suspension, and a Ford Transit-type rear

    suspension and 2.0 litre engine.A wide range of standard and optional

    equipment is available within the Sierrarange to suit most tastes, including ananti-lock braking system.

    For the home mechanic, the Sierra is astraightforward vehicle to maintain andrepair since design features have beenincorporated to reduce the actual cost ofownership to a minimum, and most of theitems requiring frequent attention areeasily accessible.

    Ford Sierra L

    Ford Sierra Ghia Estate

    Introduction

    We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in thismanual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and designchanges during the production run of a particular vehicle of which theydo not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors orpublishers for loss, damage or injury caused by errors in, or omissionsfrom, the information given.

    Thanks are due to Champion Spark Plug who supplied the illustrationsshowing spark plug conditions. Certain other illustrations are thecopyright of the Ford Motor Company and are used with theirpermission. Thanks are also due to Sykes-Pickavant Limited, whoprovided some of the workshop tools, and to all those people atSparkford who helped in the production of this manual.

    Introduction to the Ford Sierra

    Acknowledgements

  • 05Safety First!Working on your car can be dangerous.

    This page shows just some of the potentialrisks and hazards, with the aim of creating asafety-conscious attitude.

    General hazardsScalding Dont remove the radiator or expansiontank cap while the engine is hot. Engine oil, automatic transmission fluid orpower steering fluid may also be dangerouslyhot if the engine has recently been running.

    Burning Beware of burns from the exhaust systemand from any part of the engine. Brake discsand drums can also be extremely hotimmediately after use.

    Crushing When working under or neara raised vehicle,alwayssupplement thejack with axlestands, or usedrive-onramps.Neverventureunder a car whichis only supported by a jack. Take care if loosening or tightening high-torque nuts when the vehicle is on stands.Initial loosening and final tightening shouldbe done with the wheels on the ground.

    Fire Fuel is highly flammable; fuel vapour isexplosive. Dont let fuel spill onto a hot engine. Do not smoke or allow naked lights(including pilot lights) anywhere near avehicle being worked on. Also beware ofcreating sparks (electrically or by use of tools). Fuel vapour is heavier than air, so dontwork on the fuel system with the vehicle overan inspection pit. Another cause of fire is an electricaloverload or short-circuit. Take care whenrepairing or modifying the vehicle wiring. Keep a fire extinguisher handy, of a typesuitable for use on fuel and electrical fires.

    Electric shock Ignition HTvoltage can bedangerous,especially topeople with heartproblems or apacemaker. Dontwork on or near theignition system withthe engine running orthe ignition switched on.

    Mains voltage is also dangerous. Makesure that any mains-operated equipment iscorrectly earthed. Mains power points shouldbe protected by a residual current device(RCD) circuit breaker.

    Fume or gas intoxication Exhaust fumes arepoisonous; they oftencontain carbonmonoxide, which israpidly fatal if inhaled.Never run theengine in aconfined spacesuch as a garagewith the doors shut. Fuel vapour is alsopoisonous, as are the vapours from somecleaning solvents and paint thinners.

    Poisonous or irritant substances Avoid skin contact with battery acid andwith any fuel, fluid or lubricant, especiallyantifreeze, brake hydraulic fluid and Dieselfuel. Dont syphon them by mouth. If such asubstance is swallowed or gets into the eyes,seek medical advice. Prolonged contact with used engine oil cancause skin cancer. Wear gloves or use abarrier cream if necessary. Change out of oil-soaked clothes and do not keep oily rags inyour pocket. Air conditioning refrigerant forms apoisonous gas if exposed to a naked flame(including a cigarette). It can also cause skinburns on contact.

    Asbestos Asbestos dust can cause cancer if inhaledor swallowed. Asbestos may be found ingaskets and in brake and clutch linings.When dealing with such components it issafest to assume that they contain asbestos.

    Specia hazardsHydrofluoric acid This extremely corrosive acid is formedwhen certain types of synthetic rubber, foundin some O-rings, oil seals, fuel hoses etc, areexposed to temperatures above 4000C. Therubber changes into a charred or stickysubstance containing the acid. Once formed,the acid remains dangerous for years. If itgets onto the skin, it may be necessary toamputate the limb concerned. When dealing with a vehicle which hassuffered a fire, or with components salvagedfrom such a vehicle, wear protective glovesand discard them after use.

    The battery Batteries contain sulphuric acid, whichattacks clothing, eyes and skin. Take carewhen topping-up or carrying the battery. The hydrogen gas given off by the batteryis highly explosive. Never cause a spark orallow a naked light nearby. Be careful whenconnecting and disconnecting batterychargers or jump leads.

    Air bags Air bags can cause injury if they go offaccidentally. Take care when removing thesteering wheel and/or facia. Special storageinstructions may apply.

    Diesel injection equipment Diesel injection pumps supply fuel at veryhigh pressure. Take care when working onthe fuel injectors and fuel pipes.

    Warning: Never expose the hands,face or any other part of the bodyto injector spray; the fuel can

    penetrate the skin with potentially fatalresults.

    Remember...DO Do use eye protection when using powertools, and when working under the vehicle.

    Do wear gloves or use barrier cream toprotect your hands when necessary.

    Do get someone to check periodicallythat all is well when working alone on thevehicle.

    Do keep loose clothing and long hair wellout of the way of moving mechanical parts.

    Do remove rings, wristwatch etc, beforeworking on the vehicle especially theelectrical system.

    Do ensure that any lifting or jackingequipment has a safe working load ratingadequate for the job.

    A few tipsDONT Dont attempt to lift a heavy componentwhich may be beyond your capability getassistance.

    Dont rush to finish a job, or takeunverified short cuts.

    Dont use ill-fitting tools which may slipand cause injury.

    Dont leave tools or parts lying aroundwhere someone can trip over them. Mopup oil and fuel spills at once.

    Dont allow children or pets to play in ornear a vehicle being worked on.

  • 06

    The jack supplied with the vehicle tool kitshould only be used for changing roadwheels.When carrying out any other kind of work,raise the vehicle using a trolley jack, andalways supplement the jack with axle standspositioned under the vehicle jacking points.

    To change a roadwheel, first remove thespare wheel and jack from their stowagepositions. On Saloon, Hatchback and Estatemodels, the jack and spare wheel are locatedin the luggage compartment. On P100models, the jack is located behind thepassenger seat, and the spare wheel islocated under the rear of the cargo area.Firmly apply the handbrake and engage firstgear on manual gearbox models or P on

    automatic transmission models. Place chocksat the front and rear of the wheel diagonallyopposite the one to be changed.

    Where applicable, remove the wheel trimand slacken the wheel nuts using the wheelbrace provided in the vehicle tool kit. Positionthe jack head under the jacking point nearestto the wheel to be changed. Raise the jackuntil the wheel is clear of the ground, thenremove the wheel nuts and the wheel. Fit thespare wheel and secure it with the wheel nuts.Lower the jack until the wheel is just touchingthe ground, and tighten the wheel nutsmoderately tight. Now lower the jack fully andtighten the wheel nuts securely in a diagonalsequence. Where applicable, refit the wheel

    trim , then withdraw the jack and stow thewheel and jack in thier respective locations.

    When jacking up the vehicle with a trolleyjack, position the jack under one of therelevant jacking point (note that on P100models, the jackng points for use with a trolleyjack are different to those for use with thevehicle jack). Do not jack the vehicle under thesump or or any of the steering or suspensioncomponents. Supplement the jack using axlestands. The jacking points and axle standpositions are shown in the accompanyingillustrations. Never work under, around or neara raised vehicle unless it is adequatelysupported in at least two places.

    Jacking, vehicle support and wheel changing

    Location of jacking points - Saloon,Hatchback and Estate models

    A Jacking points for use with vehicle jackB Jacking points for use with trolley jack or

    axle stands

    Location of jacking points - P100 modelsA Jacking points for use with vehicle jack

    B Jacking points for use with trolley jack or axle stands

    Rear jacking point - Hatchback model Jack location by front wheel - Hatchback model

    Axle stand correctly positioned underfront jacking point - Hatchback model

    Roadside repairs

  • 07

    Rear towing eye - Hatchback model

    Front towing eye - Hatchback model

    TowingTowing eyes are fitted to the front and rear

    of the vehicle for attachment of a tow rope.Always turn the ignition key to position IIwhen thew vehicle is being towed, so that thesteering lock is released and the directionindicator and brake lamps are operational.

    Before being towed, release the handbrakeand place the gear lever in neutral. On

    automatic transmission models, the towingspeed must not exceed 25 mph (40 kph), andthe towing distance must not exceed 12 miles(20 km). For longer distances, or iftransmission damage is suspected, thepropellor shaft should be removed, or the rearof the vehicle should be lifted clear of theground.

    Push or tow starting is not possible onvehicles fitted with automatic transmission.

    Roadside repairs

  • 08 Roadside repairs

    Puddles on the garage floor or drive, orobvious wetness under the bonnet or underneath the car, suggest a leak that needsinvestigating. It can sometimes be difficult todecide where the leak is coming from,especially if the engine bay is very dirtyalready. Leaking oil or fluid can also be blownrearwards by the passage of air under the car,giving a false impression of where theproblem lies.

    Warning: Most automotive oilsand fluids are poisonous. Washthem off skin, and change out ofcontaminated clothing, withoutdelay.

    Identifying leaksThe smell of a fluid leakingfrom the car may provide aclue to whats leaking. Somefluids are distinctively

    coloured. It may help to clean the carcarefully and to park it over some cleanpaper overnight as an aid to locating thesource of the leak.Remember that some leaks may onlyoccur while the engine is running.

    Sump oil Gearbox oil

    Brake fluid Power steering fluid

    Oil from filter

    Antifreeze

    Engine oil may leak from the drain plug... ...or from the base of the oil filter.

    Leaking antifreeze often leaves a crystallinedeposit like this.

    Gearbox oil can leak from the seals at theinboard ends of the driveshafts.

    A leak occurring at a wheel is almostcertainly brake fluid.

    Power steering fluid may leak from the pipeconnectors on the steering rack.

  • 09Roadside repairs

    When jump-starting a car using abooster battery, observe the followingprecautions:

    4 Before connecting the boosterbattery, make sure that the ignition isswitched off.

    4 Ensure that all electrical equipment(lights, heater, wipers, etc) isswitched off.

    4 Make sure that the booster battery isthe same voltage as the dischargedone in the vehicle.

    4 If the battery is being jump-startedfrom the battery in another vehicle,the two vehcles MUST NOT TOUCHeach other.

    4 Make sure that the transmission is inneutral (or PARK, in the case ofautomatic transmission).

    Jump starting will get you outof trouble, but you must correctwhatever made the battery goflat in the first place. There are three possibilities:

    1 The battery has been drained byrepeated attempts to start, or byleaving the lights on.

    2 The charging system is not workingproperly (alternator drivebelt slackor broken, alternator wiring fault oralternator itself faulty).

    3 The battery itself is at fault(electrolyte low, or battery worn out).

    Connect one end of the red jump lead tothe positive (+) terminal of the flatbattery

    Connect the other end of the red lead tothe positive (+) terminal of the boosterbattery.

    Connect one end of the black jump leadto the negative (-) terminal of thebooster battery

    Connect the other end of the blackjump lead to a bolt or bracket on theengine block, well away from thebattery, on the vehicle to be started.

    1 2 3

    4

    Make sure that the jump leads will notcome into contact with the fan, drive-belts or other moving parts of theengine.

    5

    Start the engine using the boosterbattery, then with the engine running atidle speed, disconnect the jump leads inthe reverse order of connection.

    6

    Jump starting

  • 010

    There are some very simple checks whichneed only take a few minutes to carry out, butwhich could save you a lot of inconvenienceand expense.

    These "Weekly checks" require no great skillor special tools, and the small amount of timethey take to perform could prove to be verywell spent, for example;

    M Keeping an eye on tyre condition andpressures, will not only help to stop themwearing out prematurely, but could also saveyour life.

    M Many breakdowns are caused by electricalproblems. Battery-related faults areparticularly common, and a quick check on aregular basis will often prevent the majority ofthese.

    M If your car develops a brake fluid leak, thefirst time you might know about it is when yourbrakes don't work properly. Checking the levelregularly will give advance warning of this kindof problem.

    M If the oil or coolant levels run low, the costof repairing any engine damage will be fargreater than fixing the leak, for example.

    Underbonnet check points

    2.0 litre OHC

    Carburettor model (air cleaner removed for clarity)

    A Location of oil level dipstickB Engine oil filler capC Coolant expansion tankD Brake fluid reservoirE Windscreen washer reservoirF Battery

    2.0 litre OHC

    Fuel injection model

    A Oil level dipstickB Engine oil filler capC Coolant expansion tankD Brake fluid reservoirE Windscreen washer reservoirF Battery

    Introduction

    Weekly checks

  • 011

    1.8 litre CVH

    Air cleaner removed for clarity

    A Oil level dipstickB Engine oil filler capC Coolant expansion tankD Brake fluid reservoirE Windscreen washer reservoirF Battery

    2.0 litre DOHC

    A Oil level dipstickB Engine oil filler capC Coolant expansion tankD Power steering fluid reservoirE Windscreen washer reservoirF Battery

    Weekly checks

  • Coolant level

    Engine oil levelBefore you start4 Make sure that your car is on level ground.4 Check the oil level before the car is driven,or at least 5 minutes after the engine has beenswitched off.

    The correct oilModern engines place great demands on theiroil. It is very important that the correct oil foryour car is used (See Lubricants and Fluids).

    Car Carel If you have to add oil frequently, you shouldcheck whether you have any oil leaks. Placesome clean paper under the car overnight,and check for stains in the morning. If thereare no leaks, the engine may be burning oil(see Fault Finding).

    l Always maintain the level between theupper and lower dipstick marks (see photo 3).If the level is too low severe engine damagemay occur. Oil seal failure may result if theengine is overfilled by adding too much oil.

    012

    Using a clean rag or paper towel removeall oil from the dipstick. Insert the clean

    dipstick into the tube as far as it will go, thenwithdraw it again.

    Add a mixture of water and antifreezethrough the expansion tank filler neck

    until the coolant reaches the MAX levelmark. Refit the cap, turning it clockwise as faras it will go until it is secure.

    If topping-up is necessary, wait until theengine is cold. Slowly turn the expansion

    tank cap anti-clockwise to relieve the systempressure. Once any pressure is released, turnthe cap anti-clockwise unti it can be lifted off.

    The coolant level varies with thetemperature of the engine. When the

    engine is cold, the coolant level should be atthe MAX mark. When the engine is hot, thelevel may rise slightly above this mark.

    Note the oil level on the end of thedipstick, which should be between the

    upper (MAX) mark and lower (MIN) mark.Approximately 1.0 litre of oil will raise the levelfrom the lower mark to the upper mark.

    Oil is added through the filler cap.Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; a

    funnel may help to reduce spillage . Add theoil slowly, checking the level on the dipstickfrequently. Avoid overfilling (see Car Care).

    On some models, the dipstick is brightlycoloured for easy identification. Refer to

    the photos on pages 010 and 011 for theexact location for each engine type

    1 2

    3

    1 2 3

    4

    Warning: DO NOT attempt toremove the expansion tankpressure cap when the engineis hot, as there is a very greatrisk of scalding. Do not leaveopen containers of coolantabout, as it is poisonous.

    Car Carel With a sealed-type cooling system, addingcoolant should not be necessary on a regularbasis. If frequent topping-up is required, it islikely there is a leak. Check the radiator, allhoses and joint faces for signs of staining orwetness, and rectify as necessary.

    l It is important that antifreeze is used in thecooling system all year round, not just duringthe winter months. Dont top-up with wateralone, as the antifreeze will become toodiluted.

    If the oil is checkedimmediately after driving thevehicle, some of the oil willremain in the upper engine

    components, resulting in an inaccuratereading on the dipstick!

    Weekly checks

  • Warning:Brake hydraulic fluidcan harm your eyes anddamage painted surfaces, souse extreme caution whenhandling and pouring it.l Do not use fluid that has beenstanding open for some time, as itabsorbs moisture from the airwhich can cause a dangerous lossof braking effectiveness.

    Safety firstl If the reservoir requires repeated topping-up this is an indication of a fluid leaksomewhere in the system, which should beinvestigated immediately.

    l If a leak is suspected, the car should not bedriven until the braking system has beenchecked. Never take any risks where brakesare concerned.

    l On ABS models, switch the ignition off andpump the brake pedal at least 20 times or untilthe pedal feels hard. Open the bonnet. Switchon the ignition: the hydraulic unit pump will beheard running. Wait until the pump stops, thenswitch off the ignition.

    Brake fluid level

    013

    Carefully add fluid avoiding spilling it onsurrounding paintwork. Use only the

    specified hydraulic fluid; mixing different typesof fluid can cause damage to the system. Afterfilling to the correct level, refit the capsecurely, to prevent leaks and the entry offoreign matter. Wipe off any spilt fluid.

    When adding fluid, its a good idea toinspect the reservoir. The system should

    be drained and refilled if dirt is seen in the fluid(see Chapter 9 for details).

    The MAX and MIN marks areindicated on the side of the reservoir. The

    fluid level must be kept between the marks.Disconnect the wiring plug (arrowed) beforeremoving the cap.

    1 If topping-up is necessary, first wipe thearea around the filler cap with a clean ragbefore removing the cap.2

    3 4

    Screen washer fluid level

    Some models have a visible reservoir,whilst others have only the filler nozzle

    (arrowed) showing. Either way, the location isin the same place.

    Top-up the washer reservoir using apropietary screen wash.

    On models with only the filler tube fitted,a dipstick is fitted to show the quantity of

    fluid left in the reservoir

    Screenwash additives not only keep thewinscreen clean during foul weather, they alsoprevent the washer system freezing in cold

    weather - which is when you are likely to needit most. Dont top up using plain water as thescreenwash will become too diluted, and will

    freeze during cold weather. On no account useengine antifreeze in the washer system - thiscould discolour or damage paintwork.

    1 2 3

    Make sure that your car ison level ground. The fluid level in themaster cylinder reservoir will

    drop slightly as the brake pads weardown, but the fluid level must never beallowed to drop below the MIN mark.

    Weekly checks

  • 014

    Before you start:4 Park the vehicle on level ground.

    4 Set the steering wheel pointing straight-ahead.

    4 The system should be at operatingtemperature and the engine should beturned off.

    Safety First: l The need for frequent topping-up indicatesa leak, which should be investigatedimmediately.

    Top-up if necessary with clean fluid ofthe specified type If the level is checked

    cold, use the MIN or FULL COLD mark.Recheck the level at operating temperature.

    The fluid level should be up to theMAX or upper HOT mark

    The power steering fluid reservoir islocated next to the coolant expansion

    tank. Clean around the filler cap and thenremove it should topping up be required.

    1 2 3

    For the check to be accuratethe steering must not beturned once the engine hasbeen stopped.

    Power steering fluid level

    Weekly checks

    Electrical system

    To replace a blown fuse, simply pull it out.Fit a new fuse of the same rating,

    available from car accessory shops.It is important that you find the reason that thefuse blew - a checking procedure is given inChapter 13.

    If more than one indicator light orheadlight has failed it is likely that either a

    fuse has blown or that there is a fault in thecircuit (refer to Electrical fault-finding inChapter 13).The fuses are mounted in a box in the enginecompartment on the right-hand side of thebulkhead. Remove the loose cover (and springclip if fitted), pulling the plastic clip, andremoving the plastic cover.

    If a single indicator light, brake light orheadlight has failed it is likely that a bulb

    has blown and will need to be replaced. Referto Chapter 12 for details.If both brake lights have failed, it is possiblethat the brake light switch above the brakepedal needs adjusting. This simple operationis described in Chapter 9.

    1

    If you need to check yourbrake lights and indicatorsunaided, back up to a wallor garage door and operate

    the lights. The reflected light shouldshow if they are working properly.

    4 Check all external lights and the horn. Referto the appropriate Sections of Chapter 13 fordetails if any of the circuits are found to beinoperative.

    4 Visually check all wiring connectors,harnesses and retaining clips for security, andfor signs of chafing or damage.

    2 3

  • 015

    To remove a wiper blade, pull the armfully away from the glass until it locks.

    Swivel the blade through 90, press thelocking tab(s) with your fingers, and slide theblade out of the arm's hooked end. Onrefitting, ensure that the blade locks securelyinto the arm.

    Check the condition of the wiper blades;if they are cracked or show any signs of

    deterioration, or if the glass swept area issmeared, renew them. For maximum clarity ofvision, wiper blades should be renewedannually, as a matter of course.

    21

    Weekly checks

    BatteryCaution: Before carrying out any work on thevehicle battery, read the precautions given inSafety first at the start of this manual.4 Make sure that the battery tray is in goodcondition, and that the clamp is tight.Corrosion on the tray, retaining clamp and thebattery itself can be removed with a solutionof water and baking soda. Thoroughly rinse allcleaned areas with water. Any metal partsdamaged by corrosion should be covered witha zinc-based primer, then painted.4 Periodically (approximately every threemonths), check the charge condition of thebattery as described in Chapter 5A.4 If the battery is flat, and you need to jumpstart your vehicle, see Roadside Repairs.

    The battery is located on the left-handside of the engine compartment. The

    exterior of the battery should be inspectedperiodically for damage such as a crackedcase or cover.

    Check the tightness of battery clamps (A)to ensure good electrical connections.

    You should not be able to move them. Alsocheck each cable (B) for cracks and frayedconductors.

    If corrosion (white, fluffy deposits) isevident, remove the cables from the

    battery terminals, clean them with a small wirebrush, then refit them. Accessory stores sell auseful tool for cleaning the battery post ...

    1 2

    3 ... as well as the battery cable clamps4Battery corrosion can be kept to aminimum by applying a layer ofpetroleum jelly to the clamps andterminals after they are reconnected.

    Wiper blades

  • 016 Weekly checks

    It is very important that tyres are in goodcondition, and at the correct pressure - havinga tyre failure at any speed is highly dangerous.Tyre wear is influenced by driving style - harshbraking and acceleration, or fast cornering,will all produce more rapid tyre wear. As ageneral rule, the front tyres wear out fasterthan the rears. Interchanging the tyres fromfront to rear (rotating the tyres) may result inmore even wear. However, if this is completelyeffective, you may have the expense ofreplacing all four tyres at once!Remove any nails or stones embedded in thetread before they penetrate the tyre to causedeflation. If removal of a nail does reveal that

    the tyre has been punctured, refit the nail sothat its point of penetration is marked. Thenimmediately change the wheel, and have thetyre repaired by a tyre dealer.Regularly check the tyres for damage in theform of cuts or bulges, especially in thesidewalls. Periodically remove the wheels, andclean any dirt or mud from the inside andoutside surfaces. Examine the wheel rims forsigns of rusting, corrosion or other damage.Light alloy wheels are easily damaged bykerbing whilst parking; steel wheels mayalso become dented or buckled. A new wheelis very often the only way to overcome severedamage.

    New tyres should be balanced when they arefitted, but it may become necessary to re-balance them as they wear, or if the balanceweights fitted to the wheel rim should fall off.Unbalanced tyres will wear more quickly, aswill the steering and suspension components.Wheel imbalance is normally signified byvibration, particularly at a certain speed(typically around 50 mph). If this vibration isfelt only through the steering, then it is likelythat just the front wheels need balancing. If,however, the vibration is felt through the wholecar, the rear wheels could be out of balance.Wheel balancing should be carried out by atyre dealer or garage.

    Tyre Pressure CheckCheck the tyre pressures regularly withthe tyres cold. Do not adjust the tyre

    pressures immediately after the vehicle hasbeen used, or an inaccurate setting will result.Tyre pressures are shown on the next page.

    Tread Depth - manual checkAlternatively tread wear can be monitoredwith a simple, inexpensive device known

    as a tread depth indicator gauge.

    Tread Depth - visual checkThe original tyres have tread wear safetybands (B), which will appear when the

    tread depth reaches approximately 1.6 mm.The band positions are indicated by atriangular mark on the tyre sidewall (A).

    1 2 3

    Tyre condition and pressure

    Tyre tread wear patterns

    Shoulder Wear

    Under-inflation (wear on both sides)Under-inflation will cause overheating of thetyre, because the tyre will flex too much, andthe tread will not sit correctly on the roadsurface. This will cause a loss of grip andexcessive wear, not to mention the danger ofsudden tyre failure due to heat build-up.Check and adjust pressuresIncorrect wheel camber (wear on one side)Repair or renew suspension partsHard corneringReduce speed!

    Centre Wear

    Over-inflationOver-inflation will cause rapid wear of thecentre part of the tyre tread, coupled withreduced grip, harsher ride, and the danger ofshock damage occurring in the tyre casing.Check and adjust pressures

    If you sometimes have to inflate your carstyres to the higher pressures specified formaximum load or sustained high speed, dontforget to reduce the pressures to normalafterwards.

    Uneven Wear

    Front tyres may wear unevenly as a result ofwheel misalignment. Most tyre dealers andgarages can check and adjust the wheelalignment (or "tracking") for a modest charge.Incorrect camber or castorRepair or renew suspension partsMalfunctioning suspensionRepair or renew suspension partsUnbalanced wheelBalance tyresIncorrect toe settingAdjust front wheel alignmentNote: The feathered edge of the tread whichtypifies toe wear is best checked by feel.

    4

  • 017Weekly checks

    Lubricants and fluidsComponent or system Lubricant type/specification1 Engine Multigrade engine oil, viscosity range SAE 10W/30 to 20W/50, to API SG/CD or better2 Manual gearbox

    4-speed (A, B and C type) Gear oil, viscosity SAE 80EP, to Ford spec SQM-2C 9008-A5-speed (N type) Gear oil, viscosity SAE 80EP, to Ford spec ESD-M2C 175-A5-speed (MT75 type) Gear oil to Ford spec ESD-M2C 186-A

    3 Automatic transmission ATF to Ford spec SQM-2C 9010-A4 Final drive Hypoid gear oil, viscosity SAE 90EP to Ford spec SQM-2C 9002-AA or 9003-AA5 Power steering ATF to Ford spec SQM-2C 9010-A6 Brake hydraulic system Brake fluid to Ford spec Amber SAM-1C 9103-A Fluid7 Cooling system:

    SOHC engines Soft water and antifreeze to Ford spec SSM-97 B-9103-ACVH engines Soft water and antifreeze to Ford spec ESD-M97B49-ADOHC engine Soft water and antifreeze to Ford spec SDM-M97B49-A

    Note: From 1992, the cooling system on all models is filled with a long-life coolant mixture in production (4-Year LonglifeEngine Coolant/Super Plus 40). The manufacturers do not specify any renewal intervals for this later type of coolant as it isintended to last the lifetime of the vehicle. Provided any topping-up is carried out with a similar coolant mixture of the correctstrength, coolant renewal is unnecessary. It is advisable to renew the coolant if the vehicle has covered a particularly highmileage, or if the history of the car is uncertain, but this is up to the discretion of the individual owner.

    CVH engines SOHC and DOHC engines

  • 018 Weekly checks

    Note: Manufacturers often modify tyre sizes and pressure recommendations. The following is intended as a guide only. Refer to your vehiclehandbook or a Ford dealer for the latest recommendations

    Tyre pressures (cold) - lbf/in2 (bar): Front RearAll Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models with normal load* 26 (1.8) 26 (1.8)All Saloon and Hatchback models with full load . . . . . 29 (2.0) 36 (2.5)Estate models with full load:

    175 R 13H, 175 R 135,175 R 13T, 195/70 R 13H and 195/65 R 14T tyres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 (2.0) 48 (2.8)195/60 R 14H and 195/60 VR 14 tyres . . . . . . . . . . 29 (2.0) 36 (2.5)

    P100 models with light load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 (1.8) 36 (2.5)P100 models with full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 (3.5) 65 (4.5)

    *Normal load is defined as up to three passengers (or equivalent). For sustained high speeds add 1.5 lbf/in2 (0.1 bar) for every 6 mph (10 km/h)over 100 mph (160 km/h)A light load is defined as one passenger plus up to 100 kg (220 lb) payload

    Tyre pressures

  • EngineOil filter type:

    SOHC and DOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C102CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C104

    Valve clearances (cold):SOHC:

    Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 0.03 mm (0.008 0.001 in)Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25 0.03 mm (0.010 0.001 in)

    DOHC and CVH:Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not applicable (hydraulic cam followers)Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not applicable (hydraulic cam followers)

    Chapter 1 Routine maintenance and servicing

    Air cleaner filter element renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38Air cleaner inlet air temperature control check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Air conditioner refrigerant charge check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Automatic transmission brake band adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40Automatic transmission fluid level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Automatic transmission selector lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Auxiliary drivebelt check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Battery electrolyte level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Battery terminal check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Brake fluid renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44Brake system seal and hose renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43Brake pipe and hose check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Camshaft drivebelt renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45Crankcase ventilation system check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35Crankcase ventilation vent valve renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Driveshaft check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Electrical system check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Engine coolant renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46Engine idle speed check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Engine oil and filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Engine valve clearance check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Exhaust system check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Final drive oil level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

    Fluid leak check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Fluid level checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Ford Sierra maintenance schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Front and rear brake pad/shoe check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Fuel filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41Handbrake check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Hinge and lock check and lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Idle speed linkage clean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Ignition system component check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Manual gearbox oil level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Mixture adjustment check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Oil filler cap check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Pulse air filter element renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37Radiator matrix and air conditioner condenser clean . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Road test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34Roadwheel security check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Seat belt check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Spark plug renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Steering and suspension security check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Tyre checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Underbody inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Wiper blade check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

    11

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

    Specifications

    Contents

    1

  • Cooling systemDrivebelt tensions:

    Air conditioning system compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0 mm (0.4 in) deflection at the midpoint of the belts longest rununder firm thumb pressure

    Coolant pump/alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0 mm (0.4 in) deflection midway between coolant pump andalternator (or power steering pump) pulleys under firm thumb pressure

    Fuel systemAir filter element:

    Carburettor type:1.3 and 1.6 litre (SOHC - Ford carburettor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W1101.6 litre (SOHC - Weber carburettor) and 1.8 litre SOHC . . . . . . . . Champion W1181.6 litre (SOHC - 1984-on) and 2.0 litre SOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W1521.8 litre CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W2192.0 litre DOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W152

    Fuel injection type:2.0 litre SOHC and DOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion U5071.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W219

    Fuel filter:All fuel injection models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion L204

    Ignition systemSpark plugs:Make and type:

    All except 1.8 CVH, CVH (R6A), 2.0 DOHC and P100 . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RF7YCC or RF7YC1.8 litre CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RC7YCC or RC7YCP100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RF7YC or F7YC1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RC7YCC2.0 litre DOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RC7YCC

    Electrode gap*:Champion F7YCC or RC7YCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 mm (0.032 in)Champion RF7YC, F7YC or RC7YC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 mm (0.028 in)

    Ignition HT leadsResistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 k ohms maximum per leadType:

    All SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion LS-09 or LS-10 boxed set1.8 litre CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion LS-10 boxed set1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion LS-30 boxed set2.0 litre DOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion LS-29 boxed set

    *The spark plug gap quoted is that recommended by Champion for their specified plugs listed above. If spark plugs of any other type are to befitted, refer to their manufacturers recommendations.

    BrakesBrake pad friction material minimum thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 mm (0.06 in)Brake shoe friction material minimum thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 mm (0.04 in)

    Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftEngine oil drain plug:

    SOHC and DOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 28 16 to 21CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 30 15 to 22

    Engine block coolant drain plug (where fitted) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 25 16 to 18Manual gearbox:

    Oil filler/level plug:A,B,C and N types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 to 41 24 to 30MT75 type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 to 41 21 to 30

    Oil drain plug:MT75 type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 to 41 21 to 30

    Final drive oil filler plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 45 26 to 33Roadwheel nuts:

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models (steel and alloy wheels) . . . . 70 to 100 52 to 74P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 to 90 63 to 66

    Spark plugs:SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 28 15 to 21CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 33 13 to 24DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 to 21 11 to 15

    Brake caliper guide bolts:Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Rear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 to 35 23 to 26

    12 Servicing specifications

  • The maintenance intervals in this manualare provided with the assumption that you willbe carrying out the work yourself. These arethe minimum maintenance intervalsrecommended by the manufacturer forvehicles driven daily. If you wish to keep yourvehicle in peak condition at all times, you may

    wish to perform some of these proceduresmore often. We encourage frequentmaintenance, because it enhances theefficiency, performance and resale value ofyour vehicle.

    If the vehicle is driven in dusty areas, usedto tow a trailer, or driven frequently at slow

    speeds (idling in traffic) or on short journeys,more frequent maintenance intervals arerecommended.

    When the vehicle is new, it should beserviced by a factory-authorised dealerservice department, in order to preserve thefactory warranty.

    CapacitiesEngine oilSOHC engines:

    With filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.75 litres (6.6 pints)Without filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.25 litres (5.7 pints)

    DOHC engine:With filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 litres (7.9 pints)Without filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 litres (7.0 pints)

    1.6 litre CVH engine:With filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 litres (6.2 pints)Without filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.25 litres (5.7 pints)

    1.8 CVH engines:With filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 litres (7.0 pints)Without filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 litres (6.2 pints)

    Cooling system (including heater)SOHC engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 litres (14.1 pints)DOHC engine:

    Carburettor models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0 litres (12.3 pints)Fuel injection models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 litres (12.8 pints)

    CVH engines:1.6 and 1.8 litre (R2A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 litres (16.7 pints)1.8 litre (R6A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9 litres (13.9 pints)

    Fuel tankAll models except P100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60.0 litres (13.2 gals)P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.0 litres (14.5 gals)

    Manual gearboxA1 and A2 types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.98 litre (1.72 pints)B type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.46 litres (2.57 pints)C type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.25 litres (2.20 pints)N type up to 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.90 litres (3.34 pints)N type from 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.25 litres (2.20 pints)MT75 type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 litres (2.1 pints)

    Automatic transmissionC3 type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 litres (11.1 pints)A4LD type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 litres (15.0 pints)

    Final drive (from dry)All models except 1.3 and 1.6 litre Hatchback and P100 . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9 litre (1.6 pints)1.3 and 1.6 litre Hatchback models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 litre (1.4 pints)P100 models (rear axle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.14 litres (2.0 pints)

    Power steeringAll models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.65 litre (1.14 pints)

    Servicing specifications 13

    1

    1 Ford Sierra maintenance schedule

  • 14 Maintenance schedule

    Every 250 miles (400 km) or weeklymm Check the engine oil level (Section 3)mm Check the engine coolant level (Section 3)mm Check the brake fluid level (Section 3)mm Check the power steering fluid level (Section 3)mm Check the screen washer fluid level (Section 3)mm Visually examine the tyres for tread depth, and wear

    or damage (Section 4)mm Check and if necessary adjust the tyre pressures

    (Section 4)mm Check and if necessary top-up the battery electrolyte

    level - where applicable (Section 6)mm Check the operation of the horn, all lights, and the

    wipers and washers (Sections 5 and 7)

    Every 6000 miles (10 000 km) or 6 months - whichever comes soonermm Renew engine oil and filter (Section 8) mm Check brake pads or shoes for wear (front and rear)

    (Section 9)mm Check operation of brake fluid level warning indicator

    (Section 9)mm Inspect engine bay and underside of vehicle for fluid

    leaks or other signs of damage (Section 10)mm Check function and condition of seat belts

    (Section 11)mm Check condition and security of exhaust system

    (Section 12)mm Check tightness of wheel nuts (Section 13)mm Clean oil filler cap (Section 14)mm Check idle speed (where applicable) (Section 15)mm Check mixture adjustment (where applicable)

    (Section 16)

    Every 12 000 miles (20 000 km) or 12 months - whichever comes soonermm Check automatic transmission fluid level (engine hot)

    (Section 17)mm Check manual gearbox oil level (Section 18)mm Check operation of latches, check straps and locks;

    lubricate if necessary (Section 19)mm Renew spark plugs (Section 20)mm Check condition and tension of auxiliary drivebelt(s);

    adjust or renew as necessary (Section 21)mm Check tightness of battery terminals, clean and

    neutralise corrosion if necessary (Section 22)mm Check engine valve clearances - SOHC only

    (Section 23)mm Check handbrake mechanism (Section 24)

    Every 24 000 miles (40 000 km) or2 years - whichever comes soonermm Check air cleaner inlet air temperature control

    operation (carburettor models) (Section 36)mm Renew pulse air filter element (1.6 litre CVH)

    (Section 37)mm Renew air cleaner element (Section 38)mm Clean and inspect distributor cap and HT leads

    (Section 39)mm Check automatic transmission brake band

    adjustment (Section 40)mm Renew fuel filter (fuel-injection models only)

    (Section 41)mm Renew crankcase ventilation vent valve (SOHC and

    DOHC) (Section 42)

    mm Clean radiator matrix and air conditioning condenserfins (where applicable) (Section 25)

    mm Check air conditioning refrigerant charge (whereapplicable) (Section 26)

    mm Check final drive oil level (Section 27)mm Lubricate automatic transmission selector/kickdown

    linkage (Section 28)mm Check security and condition of steering and

    suspension components, gaiters and boots (Section 29)

    mm Check condition and security of driveshaft joints andgaiters (Section 30)

    mm Inspect underbody and panels for corrosion or otherdamage (Section 31)

    mm Inspect brake pipes and hoses (Section 32)mm Clean idle speed control linkage at throttle (where

    applicable) (Section 33)mm Road test and check operation of ABS (Section 34)mm Check crankcase ventilation system (Section 35)

    Every 36 000 miles (60 000 km) or 3 years - whichever comes soonermm Renew brake hydraulic system seals and hoses if

    necessary (Section 43)mm Renew brake hydraulic fluid (Section 44)mm Renew camshaft drivebelt (optional on SOHC

    models - compulsory on CVH) (Section 45)mm Renew coolant (Section 46)

    Every 12 000 miles (20 000 km) or 12 months - whichever comes sooner(continued)

  • Maintenance - component location 15

    1

    Underbonnet view of a 1985 2.0 litre SOHCfuel injection model

    1 Battery2 Brake servo non-return valve3 Ignition coil4 Suspension strut top5 Fuel filter6 Air cleaner7 Airflow meter8 Fuel pressure regulator9 Air inlet hose10 Throttle body11 Alternator12 VIN plate13 Windscreen washer reservoir14 Coolant expansion tank15 Oil filler cap16 Idle speed control valve17 Inlet manifold18 Brake fluid reservoir19 Fusebox20 Windscreen wiper motor21 Engine oil level dipstick

    Underbonnet view of a 1983 2.0 litre SOHCcarburettor model (air cleaner removed)

    1 Brake fluid reservoir2 Windscreen wiper motor3 Battery4 Ignition coil5 Carburettor6 Distributor7 Fuel pressure regulator8 Thermostat housing9 Radiator top hose10 Upper fan shroud11 Alternator12 Windscreen washer reservoir13 Oil filler cap14 Cooler expansion tank15 Suspension strut top16 VIN plate17 Fusebox

  • 16 Maintenance - component location

    Underbonnet view of a 1990 2.0 litre DOHCfuel injection model

    1 Battery2 Braking system deceleration-sensitive valve3 Ignition coil4 Suspension strut top5 Air cleaner6 Plenum chamber7 Idle speed control valve8 Distributor9 Oil filler cap10 VIN plate11 Windscreen washer reservoir filler neck12 Power steering fluid reservoir13 Coolant expansion tank14 Manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor15 Brake fluid reservoir16 Inlet manifold17 Fuel pressure regulator18 Fusebox19 Windscreen wiper motor

    Underbonnet view of a 1989 1.8 litre (R2A)CVH model (air cleaner removed)

    1 Battery2 Suspension strut top3 Ignition coil4 Coolant expansion tank5 Alternator6 Distributor cap shroud7 VIN plate8 Electric cooling fan9 Radiator top hose10 Windscreen washer reservoir11 Fuel vapour separator12 Thermostat housing13 Oil filler cap14 Carburettor15 Brake fluid reservoir16 Engine oil level dipstick17 Windscreen wiper motor18 Fusebox

  • Maintenance - component location 17

    1

    Front underside view of a 1990 2.0 GLS model

    1 Horns2 Tie-rod end3 Tie-rod4 Gaiter5 Coolant pump6 Suspension lower arm7 Anti-roll bar8 Starter motor9 Exhaust downpipes10 Crossmember11 Engine sump12 Oil filter13 Power steering fluid pump14 Windscreen washer reservoir15 Cooling fans

    Underbonnet view of a 1992 1.6 litreCVH model (air cleaner removed)

    1 Battery2 Braking system deceleration-sensitive

    valve3 Suspension strut top4 Coolant expansion tank5 Pulse-air filter6 Vacuum-operated air valve7 Alternator8 Cooling fans9 Oil filler cap10 Thermostat housing11 VIN plate12 Windscreen washer reservoir filler neck13 Ignition module14 Pulse-air control solenoid15 CFI unit16 Brake fluid reservoir17 Engine oil level dipstick18 Manifold absolute pressure (MAP)

    Sensor19 Fusebox20 Windscreen wiper motor

  • 18 Maintenance - component location

    Rear underside view of a Hatchbackmodels

    1 Fuel tank2 Suspension lower arm3 Lower shock absorber mounting4 Suspension crossmember5 Suspension guide plate6 Final drive unit7 Exhaust system8 Propeller shaft9 Driveshaft

    Rear underside view of a P100 model1 Suspension leaf spring2 Rear axle3 Shock absorber4 Propeller shaft5 Exhaust system6 Handbrake cable adjuster7 Brake load apportioning valve

  • General informationThis Chapter is designed to help the home

    mechanic maintain his/her vehicle for safety,economy, long life and peak performance.

    The Chapter contains a mastermaintenance schedule, followed by Sectionsdealing specifically with each task in theschedule. Visual checks, adjustments,component renewal and other helpful itemsare included. Refer to the accompanyingillustrations of the engine compartment andthe underside of the vehicle for the locationsof the various components.

    Servicing your vehicle in accordance withthe mileage/time maintenance schedule andthe following Sections will provide a plannedmaintenance programme, which should resultin a long and reliable service life. This is acomprehensive plan, so maintaining someitems but not others at the specified serviceintervals, will not produce the same results.

    As you service your vehicle, you will discoverthat many of the procedures can - and should -be grouped together, because of the particularprocedure being performed, or because of theclose proximity of two otherwise-unrelatedcomponents to one another. For example, ifthe vehicle is raised for any reason, the exhaustcan be inspected at the same time as the

    suspension and steering components.The first step in this maintenance

    programme is to prepare yourself before theactual work begins. Read through all theSections relevant to the work to be carriedout, then make a list and gather together allthe parts and tools required. If a problem isencountered, seek advice from a partsspecialist, or a dealer service department.

    Intensive maintenanceIf, from the time the vehicle is new, the

    routine maintenance schedule is followedclosely, and frequent checks are made of fluidlevels and high-wear items, as suggestedthroughout this manual, the engine will bekept in relatively good running condition, andthe need for additional work will be minimised.

    It is possible that there will be times whenthe engine is running poorly due to the lack ofregular maintenance. This is even more likelyif a used vehicle, which has not receivedregular and frequent maintenance checks, ispurchased. In such cases, additional workmay need to be carried out, outside of theregular maintenance intervals.

    If engine wear is suspected, a compressiontest will provide valuable informationregarding the overall performance of the maininternal components. Such a test can be usedas a basis to decide on the extent of the workto be carried out. If, for example, acompression test indicates serious internalengine wear, conventional maintenance asdescribed in this Chapter will not greatly

    improve the performance of the engine, andmay prove a waste of time and money, unlessextensive overhaul work is carried out first.

    The following series of operations are thosemost often required to improve theperformance of a generally poor-runningengine:

    Primary operationsa) Clean, inspect and test the batteryb) Check all the engine-related fluidsc) Check the condition and tension of the

    auxiliary drivebeltd) Renew the spark plugse) Inspect the distributor cap and HT leads -

    as applicablef) Check the condition of the air cleaner

    filter element, and renew if necessaryg) Renew the fuel filterh) Check the condition of all hoses, and

    check for fluid leaksi) Check the idle speed and mixture settings

    - as applicableIf the above operations do not prove fully

    effective, carry out the following secondaryoperations:

    Secondary operationsa) Check the charging systemb) Check the ignition systemc) Check the fuel systemd) Renew the distributor cap and rotor arm -

    as applicablef) Renew the ignition HT leads - as

    applicable

    2 Introduction

    See Weekly checks.

    See Weekly checks.

    See Weekly checks.

    See Weekly checks.

    See Weekly checks.

    7 Wiper blade check

    6 Battery electrolyte level check

    5 Electrical system check

    4 Tyre checks

    3 Fluid level checks

    1 Frequent oil and filter changes are the mostimportant preventative maintenanceprocedures which can be undertaken by theDIY owner. As engine oil ages, it becomesdiluted and contaminated, which leads topremature engine wear.2 Before starting this procedure, gathertogether all the necessary tools and materials.Also make sure that you have plenty of cleanrags and newspapers handy, to mop up anyspills. Ideally, the engine oil should be warm,as it will drain better, and more built-up

    sludge will be removed with it. Take care,however, not to touch the exhaust or anyother hot parts of the engine when workingunder the vehicle. To avoid any possibility ofscalding, and to protect yourself frompossible skin irritants and other harmfulcontaminants in used engine oils, it isadvisable to wear gloves when carrying outthis work. Access to the underside of thevehicle will be greatly improved if it can beraised on a lift, driven onto ramps, or jackedup and supported on axle stands (seeJacking and vehicle support). Whichevermethod is chosen, make sure that the vehicleremains level, or if it is at an angle, so that thedrain plug is at the lowest point (seeillustration).

    8 Engine oil and filter renewal

    Maintenance procedures 19

    1

    8.2 Sump drain plug location

    Every 250 miles (400 km) or weekly

    Every 6000 miles (10 000 km) or 6 months

  • 3 Slacken the drain plug about half a turn.Position the draining container under the drainplug, then remove the plug completely. Ifpossible, try to keep the plug pressed into thesump while unscrewing it by hand the lastcouple of turns. As the plug releases from thethreads, move it away sharply so the streamof oil issuing from the sump runs into thecontainer, not up your sleeve! Recover thesealing washer from the drain plug.4 Allow some time for the old oil to drain,noting that it may be necessary to repositionthe container as the oil flow slows to a trickle.5 After all the oil has drained, wipe off thedrain plug with a clean rag. Check the sealingwasher for condition, and renew it ifnecessary. Clean the area around the drainplug opening, and refit the plug. Tighten theplug to the specified torque.6 Move the container into position under theoil filter.7 Using an oil filter removal tool if necessary,slacken the filter initially, then unscrew it byhand the rest of the way (see illustration).Empty the oil from the old filter into thecontainer, and discard the filter.8 Use a clean rag to remove all oil, dirt andsludge from the filter sealing area on theengine. Check the old filter to make sure thatthe rubber sealing ring hasnt stuck to theengine. If it has, carefully remove it.9 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil tothe sealing ring on the new filter, then screw itinto position on the engine. Tighten the filterfirmly by hand only - do not use any tools.Wipe clean the filter and sump drain plug.

    10 Remove the old oil and all tools fromunder the car, then lower the car to theground (if applicable).11 Remove the oil filler cap and withdraw thedipstick. Fill the engine, using the correctgrade and type of oil (see Lubricants andfluids). An oil can spout or funnel may help toreduce spillage. Pour in half the specifiedquantity of oil first, then wait a few minutes forthe oil to fall to the sump. Continue adding oila small quantity at a time until the level is up tothe lower mark on the dipstick. Finally, bringthe level up to the upper mark on the dipstick.Insert the dipstick, and refit the filler cap.12 Start the engine and run it for a fewminutes; check for leaks around the oil filterseal and the sump drain plug. Note that theremay be a delay of a few seconds before the oilpressure warning light goes out when theengine is first started, as the oil circulatesthrough the engine oil galleries and the new oilfilter, before the pressure builds up.13 Switch off the engine, and wait a fewminutes for the oil to settle in the sump oncemore. With the new oil circulated and the filtercompletely full, recheck the level on thedipstick, and add more oil as necessary.14 Dispose of the used engine oil safely, withreference to General repair procedures inthe Reference section of this manual.

    1 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack upthe front and rear of the car and support itsecurely on axle stands (see Jacking andvehicle support).2 For a quick check, the front brake disc padscan be inspected without removing the frontwheels by inserting a mirror between eachcaliper and roadwheel (see illustration). If anyone pad is worn down to the minimumspecified thickness, all four pads (on bothfront wheels) must be renewed.3 It is necessary to remove the rear wheels inorder to inspect the rear disc pads. The padscan be viewed through the top of the caliperafter removing the blanking spring clip (seeillustration). If any one pad is worn down tothe minimum specified, all four pads (on bothrear wheels) must be renewed.

    4 For a comprehensive check, the brake discpads should be removed and cleaned. Theoperation of the caliper can then also bechecked, and the condition of the brake discscan be fully examined on both sides. Refer toChapter 10 for further information.5 On rear drum brake models, the brake shoefriction material can be inspected for wearwithout removing the roadwheels. Workingbeneath the vehicle, prise the plug from thebrake backplate, and using an inspectionlamp or torch, check that the friction materialthickness is not less than the minimum givenin the Specifications (see illustration). If anyone of the shoes has worn below thespecified limit, the shoes must be renewed asan axle set (4 shoes).6 At the same interval, check the function of thebrake fluid level warning light. Chock the wheels,release the handbrake and switch on theignition. Unscrew and raise the brake fluidreservoir cap whilst an assistant observes thewarning light: it should come on as the levelsensor is withdrawn from the fluid. Refit the cap.7 On completion, refit the wheels and lowerthe car to the ground.

    1 Visually inspect the engine joint faces,gaskets and seals for any signs of water or oilleaks. Pay particular attention to the areasaround the rocker cover, cylinder head, oilfilter and sump joint faces. Bear in mind thatover a period of time some very slightseepage from these areas is to be expectedbut what you are really looking for is anyindication of a serious leak. Should a leak befound, renew the offending gasket or oil sealby referring to the appropriate Chapter(s) inthis manual.2 Similarly, check the transmission for oilleaks, and investigate and rectify andproblems found.3 Check the security and condition of all theengine related pipes and hoses. Ensure thatall cable-ties or securing clips are in place andin good condition. Clips which are broken ormissing can lead to chafing of the hoses,pipes or wiring which could cause moreserious problems in the future.

    10 Fluid leak check

    9 Front and rear brake pad/shoecheck

    110 Every 6000 miles or 6 months

    8.7 Unscrewing the oil filter

    9.3 Disc pads viewed through caliperinspection hole (roadwheel removed)

    9.5 Brake shoe inspection hole plug(arrowed)

    9.2 Using a mirror to inspect the disc padfriction material for wear

    A Brake disc B Brake disc pads

  • 4 Carefully check the condition of all coolant,fuel, power steering and brake hoses. Renewany hose which is cracked, swollen ordeteriorated. Cracks will show up better if thehose is squeezed. Pay close attention to thehose clips that secure the hoses to the systemcomponents. Hose clips can pinch andpuncture hoses, resulting in leaks. If wire typehose clips are used, it may be a good idea toreplace them with screw-type clips.5 With the vehicle raised, inspect the fueltank and filler neck for punctures, cracks andother damage. The connection between thefiller neck and tank is especially critical.Sometimes a rubber filler neck or connectinghose will leak due to loose retaining clamps ordeteriorated rubber.6 Similarly, inspect all brake hoses and metalpipes. If any damage or deterioration isdiscovered, do not drive the vehicle until thenecessary repair work has been carried out.Renew any damaged sections of hose or pipe.7 Carefully check all rubber hoses and metalfuel lines leading away from the petrol tank.Check for loose connections, deterioratedhoses, crimped lines and other damage. Payparticular attention to the vent pipes andhoses which often loop up around the fillerneck and can become blocked or crimped.Follow the lines to the front of the vehiclecarefully inspecting them all the way. Renewdamaged sections as necessary.8 From within the engine compartment,check the security of all fuel hose attachmentsand pipe unions, and inspect the fuel hosesand vacuum hoses for kinks, chafing anddeterioration.9 Where applicable, check the condition ofthe oil cooler hoses and pipes.10 Check the condition of all exposed wiringharnesses.

    1 Periodically check the belts for fraying orother damage. If evident, renew the belt.2 If the belts become dirty, wipe them with adamp cloth using a little detergent only.3 Check the tightness of the anchor bolts andif they are ever disconnected, make quite surethat the original sequence of fitting ofwashers, bushes and anchor plates isretained.

    With the vehicle raised on a hoist orsupported on axle stands, check the exhaustsystem for signs of leaks, corrosion ordamage and check the rubber mountings forcondition and security. Where damage orcorrosion are evident, renew the systemcomplete or in sections, as applicable, usingthe information given in Chapter 4.

    With the wheels on the ground, slacken eachwheel nut by a quarter turn, then retighten itimmediately to the specified torque.

    Remove and clean the oil filler cap of anysludge build-up using paraffin.

    Inspect the vent hose for blockage ordamage. A blocked hose can cause a build-up of crankcase pressure, which in turn cancause oil leaks.

    Ford VV carburettor1 Ensure that the air cleaner is correctly fitted,and that all vacuum hoses and pipes aresecurely connected and free from restrictions,then run the engine until it is at normaloperating temperature.2 Stop the engine, and connect a tachometerand an exhaust gas analyser in accordancewith the manufacturers instructions.3 Start the engine and run it at 3000 rpm for30 seconds, ensuring that all electrical loadsare switched off (headlamps, heater bloweretc), then allow the engine to idle and checkthe idle speed and CO content. Note that theCO reading will initially rise, then fall and finallystabilise after between 5 and 25 seconds.

    4 If necessary, adjust the idle speed screw togive the specified idle speed (seeillustration).5 Checking and adjustment should becompleted within 30 seconds of the meterreadings stabilising. If this has not beenpossible, repeat paragraphs 3 and 4, ignoringthe reference to starting the engine.

    Weber 2V carburettor

    Models without stepper motor6 Proceed as described for the Ford VVcarburettor but note the following:7 It is permissible to loosen the air cleanersecuring screws to allow easier access to thecarburettor adjustment screws but ensurethat all vacuum hoses and pipes are securelyconnected. For adjustment screw location(see illustrations).

    Models with stepper motor (ESC IIsystem) 8 The idle speed is controlled by the ESC IImodule via the stepper motor. The only idlespeed adjustment possible is provided by theidle speed adjustment wire, which can beearthed to raise the idle speed by 75 rpm. Noother method of idle speed adjustment shouldbe attempted. If the idle speed is incorrect,the problem should be referred to a Forddealer, as the problem probably lies in theESC II module for which special diagnosticequipment is required.

    15 Engine idle speed check

    14 Oil filler cap check

    13 Roadwheel security check

    12 Exhaust system check

    11 Seat belt check

    Every 6000 miles or 6 months 111

    1

    15.7b Weber 2V carburettor adjustmentscrew locations - 1.6 litre models

    A Idle mixture screw B Idle speed screw

    15.7a Weber 2V carburettor adjustmentscrew locations - 2.0 litre models up to 1985

    A Idle speed screw B Idle mixture screw

    15.4 Ford VV carburettor adjustment screwlocations

    A Idle speed screw B Idle mixture screw

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1,Chapter 4, Part A or B (asapplicable), before proceeding.

    Before carrying out any carburettoradjustments, ensure that the ignitiontiming and spark plug gaps are set asspecified. To carry out the adjustments anaccurate tachometer and an exhaust gasanalyser (CO meter) will be required.

  • Pierburg 2V carburettor9 Proceed as described for the Ford VVcarburettor. For adjustment screw location(see illustration).

    Weber 2V TLD carburettor 10 Proceed as described for the Ford VVcarburettor, noting the following points: 11 Ensure that the vacuum pipe and thecamshaft cover breather hose are securelyconnected to the air cleaner and are free fromrestrictions. 12 When warming-up the engine, run theengine until the cooling fan cuts in.13 For adjustment screw location (seeillustration).

    Fuel injection

    2.0 litre SOHC models14 Idle speed is controlled by the EEC IVmodule and the only means of adjustmentprovided is by the yellow idle speedadjustment wire (Chapter 5, Section 17) whichallows the idle speed to be raised by 75 rpm.

    2.0 litre DOHC models15 Idle speed is controlled by the EEC IVmodule, and manual adjustment is notpossible.16 The base idle speed can be adjusted,but only by a Ford dealer, using specialequipment.

    Ford VV carburettor1 Ensure that the air cleaner is correctly fittedand that all vacuum hoses and pipes aresecurely connected and free from restrictions,then run the engine until it is at normaloperating temperature.2 Stop the engine, and connect a tachometerand an exhaust gas analyser in accordancewith the manufacturers instructions.3 Start the engine and run it at 3000 rpm for 30seconds, ensuring that all electrical loads areswitched off (headlamps, heater blower etc),then allow the engine to idle and check the idlespeed and CO content. Note that the COreading will initially rise, then fall and finallystabilise after between 5 and 25 seconds.4 If the reading noted in paragraph 3 is not asspecified, proceed as follows.5 Using a thin screwdriver, remove thetamperproof seal from the mixture screw.

    6 Run the engine at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds,then allow the engine to idle, and using asmall screwdriver or a 4.0 mm Allen key, asapplicable, adjust the mixture screw to givethe specified CO content.7 Checking and adjustment should becompleted within 30 seconds of the meterreadings stabilising. If this has not beenpossible, then repeat paragraph 6.8 If necessary adjust the idle speed, thenrecheck the CO content.9 On completion of the adjustments, stop theengine and disconnect the tachometer andexhaust gas analyser. Fit a new tamperproofseal to the mixture screw.

    Weber 2V carburettor

    Models without stepper motor10 Proceed as described for the Ford VVcarburettor but note the following:11 To remove the mixture screw tamperproofseal, it will be necessary to drill the seal inorder to prise it from the mixture screwhousing. Alternatively a self-tapping screwcan be used to draw out the seal. If thetamperproof seal is to be renewed, ensurethat a blue-coloured replacement seal isfitted.12 It is permissible to loosen the air cleanersecuring screws to allow easier access to thecarburettor adjustment screws, but ensurethat all vacuum hoses and pipes are securelyconnected.

    Models with stepper motor (ESC IIsystem) 13 If necessary, the mixture can be adjustedas described for the Ford VV carburettor withreference to paragraphs 11 and 12 of thisSection. Do not attempt to adjust the idlespeed on completion of mixture adjustment.For adjustment screw location (seeillustration).

    Pierburg 2V carburettor14 Proceed as described for the Ford VVcarburettor.

    Weber 2V TLD carburettor 15 Proceed as described for the Ford VVcarburettor, noting the following points: 16 Ensure that the vacuum pipe and thecamshaft cover breather hose are securelyconnected to the air cleaner and are free fromrestrictions. 17 When warming-up the engine, run theengine until the cooling fan cuts in.18 If adjustment of the mixture (CO content)is required, the air cleaner must be removedfor access to the adjustment screw, asfollows.19 Remove the air cleaner, and prise thetamperproof seal from the mixture screw.20 Loosely refit the air cleaner, ensuring thatthe vacuum pipe and the camshaft coverbreather hose are securely connected andfree from restrictions (there is no need tosecure the air cleaner in position).21 On completion, fit a new tamperproof sealto the mixture screw (the service replacementplug is coloured blue), and refit the air cleanerassembly.

    Fuel injection

    2.0 litre SOHC models22 The idle mixture can be checked and ifnecessary adjusted as follows:23 Run the engine until it is at normaloperating temperature.24 Stop the engine and connect atachometer and an exhaust gas analyser inaccordance with the manufacturersinstructions.

    16 Mixture adjustment check

    112 Every 6000 miles or 6 months

    15.9 Pierburg 2V carburettor adjustmentscrew locations

    A Idle speed screw B Idle mixture screw A Idle mixture screw B Idle speed screw

    16.13 Weber 2V carburettor idle mixtureadjustment screw location (arrowed) -

    2.0 litre models from 1985

    15.13 Weber 2V TLD carburettoradjustment screw locations

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1,Chapter 4, Part A or B (asapplicable), before proceeding.

    Before carrying out any carburettoradjustments, ensure that the ignitiontiming and spark plug gaps are set asspecified. To carry out the adjustments anaccurate tachometer and an exhaust gasanalyser (CO meter) will be required.

  • 25 Start the engine and run it at 3000 rpm for15 seconds, ensuring that all electrical loads(headlamps, heater blower etc) are switchedoff, then allow the engine to idle and checkthe CO content. Note that the CO reading willinitially rise, then fall and finally stabilise.26 If adjustment is necessary, remove thetamperproof cap from the base of the airflowmeter, and turn the mixture screw using asuitable Allen key to give the specified COcontent (see illustration).27 Checking and adjustment should becompleted within 30 seconds of the meterreadings stabilising. If this has not beenpossible, run the engine at 3000 rpm, for 15seconds, then allow the engine to idle. Re-check the CO content and carry out furtheradjustment if necessary.28 On completion of adjustment, stop theengine and disconnect the tachometer andexhaust gas analyser. Fit a new tamperproofcap to the mixture screw.

    2.0 litre DOHC models29 On models with a catalytic converter, themixture is controlled by the EEC IV module.No manual adjustment is possible.30 On models without a catalytic converter,the idle mixture can be adjusted as follows:31 Run the engine until it is at normaloperating temperature.32 Stop the engine, and connect atachometer and an exhaust gas analyser inaccordance with the equipmentmanufacturers instructions. 33 Start the engine and run it at 3000 rpm for15 seconds, ensuring that all electrical loads(headlamps, heater blower, etc) are switchedoff. Allow the engine to idle, and check the COcontent. Note that the reading will initially rise,then fall and finally stabilise.34 If adjustment is necessary, remove thecover from the mixture adjustmentpotentiometer (located at the rear right-hand

    side of the engine compartment, behind theMAP sensor), and turn the screw to give thespecified CO content (see illustrations).35 If adjustment does not produce a changein reading, the potentiometer may be at theextreme of its adjustment range. To centralisethe potentiometer, turn the adjustment screw20 turns clockwise followed by 10 turns anti-clockwise, then repeat the adjustment proce-dure.36 Checking and adjustment should becompleted within 30 seconds of the meterreadings stabilising. If this has not beenpossible, run the engine at 3000 rpm for 15seconds, then allow the engine to idle. Re-check the CO content, and carry out furtheradjustments if necessary.37 On completion of adjustment, stop theengine, and disconnect the tachometer andthe exhaust gas analyser. Refit the cover tothe adjustment screw.

    1 Fluid level should be checked with thetransmission at operating temperature (after arun) and with the vehicle parked on levelground. 2 Open and prop the bonnet. With the engineidling and the handbrake and footbrake applied,move the gear selector through all positionsthree times, finishing up in position P,3 Wait one minute. With the engine still idling,withdraw the transmission dipstick (seeillustration). Wipe the dipstick with a cleanlint-free rag, re-insert it fully and withdraw itagain. Read the fluid level at the end of thedipstick: it should be between the twonotches.4 If topping-up is necessary, do so via thedipstick tube, using clean transmission fluid ofthe specified type (see illustration). Do notoverfill.5 Stop the engine, refit the dipstick and closethe bonnet.

    6 Note that if the fluid level was below theminimum mark when checked or is inconstant need of topping-up, check aroundthe transmission for any signs of excessivefluid leaks.If present, leaks must be rectifiedwithout delay.7 If the colour of the fluid is dark brown orblack this denotes the sign of a worn brakeband or transmission clutches, in which casehave your Ford dealer check the transmissionat the earliest opportunity.

    1 Place the vehicle over a pit, or raise andsupport it at front and rear. The vehicle mustbe level for an accurate check.2 If the gearbox is hot after a run, allow it tocool for a few minutes. This is necessarybecause the oil can foam when hot and give afalse level reading.

    18 Manual gearbox oil levelcheck

    17 Automatic transmission fluidlevel check

    Every 12 000 miles or 12 months 113

    1

    16.34b . . . to enable mixture adjustment -DOHC models

    17.4 Topping-up the transmission fluid17.3 Automatic transmission dipsticklocation and markings

    16.34a Remove the cover from the mixtureadjustment potentiometer . . .

    16.26 Adjusting the idle mixture -SOHC models

    Every 12 000 miles (20 000 km) or 12 months

  • 3 Wipe clean around the filler/level plug.Unscrew the plug and remove it (seeillustration).4 Using a suitably marked piece of bent wireas a dipstick, check that the oil level is asshown in the table at the top of this page,according to gearbox type.5 Top-up the level if necessary, using cleanoil of the specified type. Do not overfill, as thiscan lead to leakage and difficult gearchanging. Allow excess oil to drip out of thefiller/level hole if necessary. Refit and tightenthe filler/level plug on completion.6 The frequent need for topping-up can onlybe due to leaks, which should be rectified.The most likely sources of leaks are the rearextension housing and input shaft oil seals. 7 No periodic oil changing is specified, andno drain plug is fitted.

    1 Work around the vehicle, and lubricate thebonnet, door and tailgate hinges with a lightmachine oil.2 Lightly lubricate the bonnet releasemechanism and exposed sections of innercable with a smear of grease.3 Check the security and operation of allhinges, latches and locks, adjusting themwhere required. Where applicable, check theoperation of the central locking system.4 Check the condition and operation of thetailgate struts, renewing them if either isleaking or is no longer able to support thetailgate securely when raised.

    1 The correct functioning of the spark plugs isvital for the correct running and efficiency ofthe engine. It is essential that the plugs fittedare appropriate for the engine.2 Make sure that the ignition is switched offbefore inspecting the HT leads to see if theycarry their cylinder numbers. Note that theposition of No 1 cylinder HT lead in thedistributor cap is marked with either a pip, ora number 1 .

    3 Where necessary, for improved accessremove the air cleaner and/or the inlet hose.4 Disconnect the leads from the plugs bypulling on the connectors, not the leads.5 On 2.0 litre DOHC carburettor models, thelocation of the spark plugs and the closeproximity of the carburettor makes spark plugaccess difficult, particularly when removingthe plugs from cylinders 2 and 3. It issuggested that a 3/8 inch ratchet drive sparkplug socket with rubber insert and longextension bar is used, possibly in conjunctionwith a universal joint adapter. It is alsoadvisable to disconnect No 3 cylinder HT leadfrom the distributor first, to allow some slackfor disconnection at the spark plug. 6 Clean the area around each spark plugusing a small brush, then using a plugspanner (preferably with a rubber insert),unscrew and remove the plugs (seeillustration). Cover the spark plug holes witha clean rag to prevent the ingress of anyforeign matter.7 Before fitting new spark plugs, check thatthe threaded connector sleeves are tight. Asthe plugs incorporate taper seats, make surethat the threads and seats are clean.

    8 On DOHC models before refitting the sparkplugs, coat their threads with suitable anti-seize compound, taking care not tocontaminate the electrodes.9 Screw in the spark plugs by hand, thentighten them to the specified torque. Do notexceed the torque figure.10 Push the HT leads firmly onto the sparkplugs, and where applicable refit the aircleaner and/or inlet hose.

    1 Refer to the Specifications at the beginningof this Chapter and check the tension of eachdrivebelt at the point stated. Check the fulllength of each drivebelt for cracks anddeterioration. It will be necessary to turn theengine in order to check that portion of thedrivebelt in contact with the pulleys. Renew ortension each belt as necessary as follows,according to model type:

    SOHC models2 Note that two drivebelts are fitted to modelsequipped with power steering and bothshould be renewed if either one isunserviceable. Where fitted, the airconditioning compressor is driven by aseparate belt.3 Disconnect the battery negative lead.4 Where applicable, remove the airconditioning compressor drivebelt.5 Loosen the alternator mounting andadjustment nuts and bolts, and pivot thealternator towards the cylinder block.6 Slip the drivebelt(s) from the alternator,water pump, crankshaft and (whereapplicable) the power steering pump pulleys.7 Fit the new drivebelt(s) over the pulleys,then lever the alternator away from thecylinder block until the specified belt tensionis achieved. Lever the alternator using awooden or plastic lever at the pulley end toprevent damage and straining the brackets. Itis helpful to partially tighten the adjustmentlink bolt before tensioning the drivebelt(s).

    21 Auxiliary drivebelt check

    20 Spark plug renewal

    19 Hinge and lock check andlubrication

    114 Every 12 000 miles or 12 months

    18.3 Gearbox filler/level plug location(arrowed) - N type gearbox

    20.6 Removing a spark plug - CVH engine

    Note: The vehicle build code appears as the twelfth and thirteenth characters of the VIN numberon the plate in the engine compartment.

    Gearbox typeAll four-speed gearboxes

    All five-speed gearboxes up to April 1984 (buildcode E6) except those subsequently fitted witha modified extension housing

    All five-speed gearboxes from May 1984 (buildcode EC) to end of April 1985 (build code FP)and all vehicles built up to April 1984 (buildcode E6) subsequently fitted with a modifiedgearbox extension housing

    All five-speed gearboxes from May 1985

    Oil level0 to 5.0 mm (0 to 0.2 in) below lower edge offiller/level hole

    Level with bottom edge of filler/level hole

    20.0 to 25.0 mm (0.79 to 0.99 in) below loweredge of filler/level hole

    0 to 5.0 mm (0 to 0.2 in)below lower edge offiller/level hole

    Number each HT lead usingsticky tape or paint beforeremoval so as to avoidconfusion when refitting.

  • 8 Tighten the alternator mounting andadjustment nuts and bolts in the order shown(see illustration).9 Where applicable, refit and tension the airconditioning compressor drivebelt.10 Reconnect the battery negative lead.11 Drivebelt tension should be recheckedand if necessary adjusted after the engine hasbeen run for a minimum of ten minutes.

    DOHC models12 Three different types of drivebeltarrangement are used, depending on model(see illustrations). On models without power

    steering, the drivebelt is tensioned by movingthe alternator. On models with power steering,the power steering pump is also driven by thecoolant pump/alternator drivebelt and anautomatic belt tensioner is fitted (seeillustration). On models with air conditioning,the drivebelt drives the alternator, coolantpump, power steering pump and airconditioning compressor, and an automaticbelt tensioner is fitted.13 On models without power steering, loosenthe alternator mounting and adjustment bolts,and pivot the alternator towards the cylinderblock. Slip the drivebelt from the pulleys.14 On models with power steering, theautomatic tensioner can be released using a17 mm socket and a wrench on the boss inthe centre of the pulley. Lever the tensionerassembly clockwise, slide the belt from thepulleys, then slowly release the tensioner.15 To fit a new belt on models withoutpower steering, slide the belt over the pulleys,then lever the alternator away from thecylinder block until the correct belt tension isachieved. Lever the alternator using a plasticor wooden lever at the pulley end to preventdamage. It is helpful to partially tighten theadjustment link bolt before tensioning thedrivebelt. When the correct tension isachieved, tighten all the bolts.16 To fit a new belt on models with powersteering, lever the tensioner clockwise asduring removal, then slide the belt over thepulleys, and slowly release the tensioner.

    1 The battery fitted as original equipment ismaintenance-free, and requires no

    maintenance apart from having the case keptclean, and the terminals clean and tight.2 To clean the battery terminals disconnectthem, after having first removed the cover(later models) - negative earth first. Use a wirebrush or abrasive paper to clean theterminals. Bad corrosion should be treatedwith a solution of bicarbonate of soda, appliedwith an old toothbrush. Do not let this solutionget inside the battery.3 Coat the battery terminals with petroleumjelly or a proprietary anti-corrosive compoundbefore reconnecting them. Reconnect andtighten the positive (live) lead first, followed bythe negative (earth) lead. Do not overtighten.4 Keep the top of the battery clean and dry.Inspect the battery tray for corrosion, andmake good as necessary.

    SOHC engines1 The valve clearances must be checked withthe engine cold. On carburettor modelsremove the air cleaner. 2 Disconnect the HT leads from the sparkplugs and release them from the clips on thecamshaft cover. 3 On fuel injection models, unbolt andremove the bracing strut securing the inletmanifold to the right-hand side of the cylinderhead. 4 Where applicable, unclip any hoses andwires from the camshaft cover, then unscrewthe securing bolts and remove the camshaftcover and gaskets. Take care not to lose thespacer plates which fit under the bolt heads,where applicable.

    23 Engine valve clearancecheck

    22 Battery terminal check

    Every 12 000 miles or 12 months 115

    1

    21.12b Coolant pump/alternator drivebeltarrangement - 2.0 litre DOHC engine with

    power steering

    1 Alternator2 Automatic belt

    tension3 Coolant pump

    4 Crankshaft pulley5 Power steering

    pump

    21.12d Alternator/coolant pump drivebelttensioner indicator position -

    2.0 litre DOHC engine

    Inset shows tensioner at maximumadjustment

    1 Alternator2 Automatic belt

    tensioner3 Coolant pump

    4 Air conditioningcompressor

    5 Crankshaft pulley6 Power steering

    pump

    21.12c Coolant pump/alternator drivebeltarrangement - 2.0 litre DOHC engine with

    power steering and air conditioning

    21.12a Coolant pump/alternator drivebeltarrangement - 2.0 litre DOHC engine

    without power steering

    1 Alternator2 Coolant pump

    3 Crankshaftpulley

    21.8 Alternator mounting tighteningsequence - SOHC engines

    Caution: Before carrying outany work on the vehicle battery,read through the precautionsgiven in Safety first! at thebeginning of this manual.

    It will be easier to turn theengine by hand if the sparkplugs are removed but takecare not to allow dirt to enter

    the spark plug holes.

  • 5 Numbering from the front (camshaftsprocket) end of the engine, the exhaustvalves are 1, 3, 5 and 7, and the inlet valvesare 2, 4, 6 and 8. 6 Turn the engine clockwise using a suitablesocket on the crankshaft pulley bolt, until theexhaust valve of No 1 cylinder (valve No 1) isfully closed; ie the cam lobe is pointingvertically upwards (see illustration).7 Insert a feeler blade of the correct thickness(see Specifications) between the cam followerand the heel of the No 1 valve cam lobe. Thefeeler blade should be a firm sliding fit. If not,loosen the locknut and adjust the ball-pinposition accordingly by turning the adjuster

    nut, then tighten the locknut (seeillustrations). Allowance must be made fortightening the locknut, as this tends todecrease the valve clearance. Recheck theadjustment after tightening the locknut.8 Repeat the procedure given in paragraphs6 and 7 for the remaining valves. With thecarburettor/inlet manifold fitted, some diffi-culty may be experienced when adjusting theexhaust valve clearances, and a suitableopen-ended spanner bent to 90 will be foundhelpful.9 Check the condition of the camshaft covergasket, and renew if necessary. Fit the gasketto the camshaft cover ensuring that thelocating tabs and dovetails are correctlylocated (see illustration), then refit thecamshaft cover and tighten the securing boltsin the order shown (see illustration), ensuringthat the spacer plates are in position underthe bolt heads, where applicable.10 On fuel injection models, refit the inletmanifold bracing strut.11 Where applicable refit the spark plugs.Reconnect the HT leads and locate them inthe clips on the camshaft cover.12 Where applicable, refit any wires andhoses to the clips on the camshaft cover andon carburettor models, refit the air cleaner.

    DOHC and CVH engines13 These engines are fitted with hydrauliccam followers therefore no adjustment isnecessary.

    Chock the front roadwheels and jack therear wheels clear of the ground, supportingthe vehicle with axlestands.

    Check that with the handbrake released,the rear wheels are free to rotate and no brakebind is evident. The handbrake lever travelshould be between two and four clicks of theratchet. If brake bind or excessive levertravel is evident, check the handbrake cablerouting and check the self-adjustermechanism for wear or damage. Refer toChapter 10 for full service information.

    Gain access to the radiator matrix byremoving the surrounding body panels, fanshrouds, etc. Clean dirt and debris from thematrix using an air jet or water and a softbrush. Be careful not to damage the fins orcut your fingers.

    Remove the protecting grille and clean anyleaves, insects etc. from the air conditionercondenser coil and fins. Be very careful not todamage the condenser fins: use a soft brush, ora compressed air jet, along (not across) the fins.

    1 If applicable, remove the radiator grillebeing careful not to damage the condenserfins.2 Check the refrigerant charge as follows.The engine should be cold and the ambienttemperature should be between 64 and 77F(18 and 25C).3 Start the engine and allow it to idle.Observe the refrigerant sight glass (seeillustration) and have an assistant switch onthe air conditioning to fan speed III. A fewbubbles should be seen in the sight glass asthe system starts up, but all bubbles shoulddisappear within 10 seconds. Persistentbubbles, or no bubbles at all, mean that therefrigerant charge is low. Switch off the

    26 Air conditioner refridgerantcharge check

    25 Radiator matrix and airconditioner condenser clean

    24 Handbrake check

    116 Every 12 000 miles or 12 months

    23.6 Cam lobe correctly positioned forchecking valve clearance. Insert feeler

    gauge as shown by arrow

    23.7b Adjusting a valve clearance

    26.3 Air conditioning system refrigerantsight glass (arrowed)

    23.9b Camshaft cover bolts (A) and spacerplates (B)

    Tighten bolts in following stages:Stage 1 Bolts 1 to 6Stage 2 Bolts 7 and 8Stage 3 Bolts 9 and 10Stage 4 Bolts 7 and 8 (again)

    23.9a Camshaft cover gasket dovetails

    23.7a Using a feeler gauge to check avalve clearance

  • system immediately if the charge is low anddo not use it again until it has been recharged.4 Inspect the refrigerant pipes, hoses andunions for security and good condition. Refitthe radiator grille.5 The air conditioning system will lose aproportion of its charge through normalseepage typically up to 100 g (4 oz) per year -so it is as well to regard periodic rechargingas a maintenance operation.

    1 Check the final drive oil level as follows.2 Position the vehicle over a pit, or raise it atfront and rear on ramps or axle stands. Thevehicle must be level.3 Wipe clean around the final drive filler/levelplug (see illustrations) and unscrew theplug. Using a piece of bent wire as a dipstick,check that the oil is no more than 10 mm (0.4in) below the plug hole. 4 If topping-up is necessary, use clean gearoil of the specified type. Do not overfill.Frequent need for topping-up can only be dueto leaks, which should be rectified.5 When the level is correct, refit the filler/levelplug and tighten it to the specified torqueloading. 6 There is no requirement for periodic oilchanging, and no drain plug is provided.

    Lubricate the transmission selector andkickdown linkages with engine oil or aerosollubricant.

    1 Check the shock absorbers by bouncingthe vehicle up and down at each corner inturn. When released, it should come to restwithin one complete oscillation. Continuedmovement, or squeaking and groaning noisesfrom the shock absorber suggests thatrenewal is required .2 Raise and support the vehicle. Examine allsteering and suspension components forwear and damage. Pay particular attention todust covers and gaiters, which if renewedpromptly when damaged can save furtherdamage to the component protected.3 At the same intervals, check the frontsuspension lower arm balljoints for wear bylevering up the arms (see illustration).Balljoint free movement must not exceed 0.5mm (0.02 in). The track rod end balljoints canbe checked in a similar manner, or byobserving them whilst an assistant rocks thesteering wheel back and forth. If the lower armballjoint is worn, the complete lower arm mustbe renewed .

    4 Wheel bearings can be checked for wear byspinning the relevant roadwheel. Anyroughness or excessive noise indicates wornbearings, which must be renewed, as noadjustment is possible. It is unlikely that anywear will be evident unless the vehicle hascovered a very high mileage. It should benoted that it is normal for the bearings toexhibit slight endfloat, which is perceptible aswheel rock at the wheel rim.

    1 Position the vehicle over a pit, or raise it atfront and rear on ramps or axle stands (seeJacking and vehicle support).2 Examine the driveshaft joint rubber gaiters.Flex the gaiters by hand and inspect the foldsand clips. Damaged or leaking gaiters mustbe renewed without delay to avoid damageoccurring to the joint itself3 Check the tightness of the final drivemounting bolts and the driveshaft flange screws.

    1 Except on vehicles with a wax-basedunderbody protective coating, have the wholeof the underframe of the vehicle steam-cleaned, engine compartment included, sothat a thorough inspection can be carried outto see what minor repairs and renovations arenecessary.

    2 Steam-cleaning is available at manygarages and is necessary for the removal ofthe accumulation of oily grime whichsometimes is allowed to become thick incertain areas. If steam-cleaning facilities arenot available, there are some excellent greasesolvents available which can be brush-applied; the dirt can then be simply hosed off.3 After cleaning, position the vehicle over apit, or raise it at front and rear on ramps or axlestands (see Jacking and vehicle support).4 Using a strong light, work around theunderside of the vehicle, inspecting it forcorrosion or damage. If either is found, referto Chapter 12 for details of repair.

    Periodically inspect the rigid brake pipes forrust and other damage, and the flexible hosesfor cracks, splits or ballooning. Have anassistant depress the brake pedal (ignition on)and inspect the hose and pipe unions for leaks.Renew any defective item without delay.

    On carburettor models which incorporate astepper motor (ie. Weber 2V from 1985), goodelectrical contact between the motor plungerand the adjusting screw is essential tomaintain a regular idle speed.

    Clean the plunger and adjusting screwcontact faces with abrasive paper followed byswitch cleaning fluid. Switch cleaning fluid isavailable from electronic component shops.

    Instruments and electricalequipment1 Check the operation of all instruments andelectrical equipment.2 Make sure that all instruments readcorrectly, and switch on all electricalequipment in turn to check that it functionsproperly.

    34 Road test

    33 Idle speed linkage clean

    32 Brake pipe and hose check

    31 Underbody inspection

    30 Driveshaft check

    29 Steering and suspensionsecurity check

    28 Automatic transmissionselector linkage lubrication

    27 Final drive oil level check

    Every 12 000 miles or 12 months 117

    1

    29.3 Levering up lower arm to checkballjoint for wear

    27.3b Rear axle filler plug location - P100 models

    27.3a Final drive unit filler plug location(arrowed) -

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models

  • Steering and suspension3 Check for any abnormalities in the steering,suspension, handling or road feel.4 Drive the vehicle, and check that there areno unusual vibrations or noises.5 Check that the steering feels positive, withno excessive sloppiness, or roughness, andcheck for any suspension noises whencornering, or when driving over bumps.

    Drivetrain6 Check the performance of the engine,clutch, transmission and driveshafts.7 Listen for any unusual noises from theengine, clutch and transmission.8 Make sure that the engine runs smoothlywhen idling, and that there is no hesitationwhen accelerating.

    9 Where applicable, check that the clutchaction is smooth and progressive, that thedrive is taken up smoothly, and that the pedaltravel is not excessive. Also listen for anynoises when the clutch pedal is depressed.10 Check that all gears can be engagedsmoothly, without noise, and that the gear leveraction is not abnormally vague or notchy.

    Check the operation andperformance of the brakingsystem11 Make sure that the vehicle does not pull toone side when braking, and that the wheelsdo not lock prematurely when braking hard.12 Check that there is no vibration throughthe steering when braking.13 Check that the handbrake operatescorrectly, without excessive movement of the

    lever, and that it holds the vehicle stationaryon a slope.14 Test the operation of the brake servo unitas follows. With the engine off, depress thefootbrake four or five times to exhaust thevacuum. Start the engine, holding the brakepedal depressed. As the engine starts, thereshould be a noticeable give in the brakepedal as vacuum builds up. Allow the engineto run for at least two minutes, and thenswitch it off. If the brake pedal is depressednow, it should be possible to detect a hissfrom the servo as the pedal is depressed.After about four or five applications, no furtherhissing should be heard, and the pedal shouldfeel considerably firmer.

    1 Inspect the crankcase ventilation systemfor blockage or damage. A blocked hose cancause a build-up of crankcase pressure,which in turn can cause oil leaks (seeillustration).2 On carburettor model SOHC engines, cleanthe oil filler cap with paraffin and check thatthe vent valve is not blocked by pulling it fromthe oil separator and loosening the hose clip(Section 42).3 On CVH engines, check that the oilseparator and mushroom valve are notblocked, and clean if necessary (seeillustration).

    35 Crankcase ventilation systemcheck

    SOHC and DOHC carburettormodels 1 A vacuum pump will be required to test thecontrol components.

    2 To check the operation of the airtemperature control, the engine must be cold.First observe the position of the flap valvewhich should be fully closed prior to startingthe engine (see illustration). The position ofthe flap can be observed by disconnecting thecold air inlet hose from the air cleaner spoutand looking into the spout.3 Start the engine and allow it to idle. Checkthat the flap is now fully open to admit hot airfrom the exhaust manifold shroud. If the flapdoes not fully open, stop the engine andcheck the vacuum diaphragm unit and heatsensor as follows (see illustrations).

    4 Working under the base of the air cleanerbody, disconnect the diaphragm unit-to-heatsensor vacuum pipe at the sensor end, andconnect a vacuum pump to the diaphragm unit.Apply a vacuum of 100.0 mm (4.0 in) of mercury.5 If the flap opens, then the heat sensor isfaulty and should be renewed. If the flapremains closed, then the diaphragm unit isfaulty, and a new air cleaner body will have tobe obtained, as the diaphragm unit is notavailable separately.6 On completion of the checks, disconnectthe vacuum pump, and reconnect the vacuumpipe and cold air inlet hose.

    36 Air cleaner inlet airtemperature control check

    118 Every 24 000 miles or 2 years

    35.1 Loosening the crankcase ventilationhose clip - CVH models

    36.3b Air cleaner heat sensor viewed frominside air cleaner - OHC models

    36.3a Air cleaner vacuum diaphragm unit -OHC models

    36.2 Air cleaner flap valve operation - OHC models

    A Flap fully open to admit hot airB Flap fully closed to admit cold air

    35.3 Oil separator (1) and mushroom valve(2) locations in air cleaner - CVH models

    Every 24 000 miles (40 000 km) or 2 years

  • CVH carburettor models7 To test the unit the engine must initially becold. Disconnect the hot air inlet hose fromthe air cleaner spout and observe the positionof the flap which should be fully open to allowonly hot air to enter (see illustration).8 Refit the hose and warm up the engine tonormal operating temperature.9 Disconnect the hot air inlet hose again, andobserve the position of the flap which shouldbe fully closed to admit only cold air.10 If the flap positions are not as described,the waxstat is defective and the complete aircleaner must be renewed as the waxstat isnot available separately.11 On completion of the checks, stop theengine and reconnect the hot air inlet hose.

    1 The pulse-air filter is located at the frontleft-hand side of the engine compartment.2 To renew the element, simply unclip thefilter cover, then lift out the metal gauze, andwithdraw the filter element (see illustration).3 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Ensurethat the holes in the gauze and the filterelement are positioned on the engine side ofthe filter housing.

    Carburettor models1 Remove the screws from the top of the aircleaner cover (see illustration).2 Where applicable release the spring clipsaround the edge of the cover, then lift or priseoff the cover (see illustration). 3 Lift out the air cleaner element. Wipe theinside of the air cleaner body clean, takingcare not to allow dirt to enter the carburettorthroat. Also clean the inside of the cover. 4 Place a new element in position, then refitthe air cleaner cover.

    Fuel-injection models All models except 2.0 litre DOHC5 Disconnect the battery negative lead.6 Depress the locking clip on the airflowmeter wiring plug and disconnect the plug.Pull on the plug, not the wiring (seeillustration).7 Loosen the securing clip and disconnectthe air inlet hose from the airflow meter.8 Release the four securing clips and lift offthe air cleaner lid with the airflow meter.9 Lift out the old air cleaner element (seeillustration), then wipe the inside of the aircleaner casing and lid clean.10 Fit the new element with the sealing lipuppermost.11 Refit the air cleaner lid and secure withthe four clips.12 Reconnect the air inlet hose to the airflowmeter, ensuring that the securing clip iscorrectly aligned (see illustration). Reconnectthe wiring plug.

    38 Air cleaner element renewal

    37 Pulse air filter elementrenewal (1.6 litre CVH)

    Every 24 000 miles or 2 years 119

    1

    37.2 Withdrawing the pulse-air filterelement and gauze - 1.6 litre CVH models

    38.12 Air intake hose clip correctly aligned38.9 Unclip the lid and remove the aircleaner element

    38.6 Disconnecting the airflow meterwiring plug

    38.2 . . . release the spring clips, and lift offthe cover for access to the element

    38.1 Remove the air cleaner cover screws . . .

    36.7 Air cleaner flap valve operation - CVH models

    A Flap fully open to admit hot airB Flap fully closed to admit cold air1 Air inlet spout2 Hot air inlet hose

    3 Flap valve4 Link arm5 Waxstat6 Air cleaner body

  • 13 Reconnect the battery negative lead.

    2.0 litre DOHC models14 Disconnect the battery negative lead.15 Disconnect the wiring plug from the idlespeed control valve at the front of the plenumchamber.16 Loosen the clamp, and detach the air inlethose from the air inlet tubing.17 Unscrew the securing nut, and release theair inlet tube from the bracket on the enginecompartment front panel (see illustration).18 Release the air cleaner lid securing clips,then lift away the air inlet tube, plenumchamber and air cleaner lid as an assembly,disconnecting the breather hose from the airinlet tube.19 Lift out the air cleaner element (seeillustration), then wipe the inside of the aircleaner lid and casing clean.20 Fit the new element with the sealing lipuppermost. 21 Further refitting is a reversal of removal.

    1 Before disturbing any part of the ignitionsystem, disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Identify and clearly mark all HT leads beforedisconnecting them from the spark plugs.3 Refer to the appropriate Section in Chapter5 and, where applicable, remove thedistributor cap and rotor arm. 4 Clean the HT leads and distributor cap witha dry cloth. Scrape any corrosion or other

    deposits from the connectors and terminals.Also clean the coil tower.5 Renew the HT leads if they are cracked,burnt or otherwise damaged. If a multi-meteris available, measure the resistance of theleads. The desired value is given in theSpecifications of Chapter 5.6 Renew the distributor cap if it is cracked orbadly burnt inside, or if there is evidence oftracking (black lines marking the path of HTleakage). If there is a carbon brush at thecentre of the cap, make sure that it movesfreely, and is not excessively worn (seeillustration).7 Clean the metal track of the rotor arm withfine abrasive paper. Renew the arm if it iscracked or badly burnt.8 Refit the rotor arm and distributor cap.9 Reconnect the HT leads to the spark plugsand coil. 10 Reconnect the battery and run the engine.

    Note: A brake band torque wrench - Ford toolNo 17-005, or a conventional torque wrenchand a splined socket of suitable size to fit thesquare section head of the adjuster screw(s)will be required for this operation.1 For improved access, apply the handbrake,then jack up the front of the vehicle andsupport on axle stands (see Jacking andvehicle support).

    2 The brake band adjuster screw(s) is/aresituated on the left-hand side of thetransmission housing, forward of thekickdown lever. Note that the C3 typetransmission has a single adjuster screw foradjustment of the front brake band, whereasthe A4LD type transmission has two adjusterscrews for adjustment of the front andintermediate brake bands (see illustration).3 Disconnect the kickdown cable from thekickdown lever on the transmission housing.4 Loosen the locknut on the front brake bandadjuster screw, and back off the adjusterscrew several turns.5 Using the Ford special tool or a suitableequivalent, tighten the adjuster screw to thespecified torque, then back off the screw twocomplete turns, and tighten the locknut.Ensure that the adjuster screw does not turnas the locknut is tightened.6 Repeat the procedure given in paragraphs4 and 5 for the remaining adjuster screw onA4LD type transmissions, but on all modelswhere the part number on the transmissionidentification tag starts with 88 (seeillustration) and additionally on all 1.8 CVHengine models, the adjuster screw should bebacked off two and a half turns aftertightening to the specified torque. On all othermodels, the adjuster screw should be backedoff two turns.7 Reconnect the kickdown cable, and lowerthe vehicle to the ground on completion.

    2.0 litre SOHC fuel injectionmodels1 The fuel filter is located on the left-handside of the engine compartment (seeillustration).2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Position a suitable container beneath thefilter, then slowly loosen the fuel inlet union torelieve the pressure in the fuel lines.4 Disconnect the fuel inlet and outlet unions.Be prepared for petrol spillage. If necessary,identify the fuel line unions for use whenrefitting. 5 Loosen the filter clamp screw, andwithdraw the filter from the clamp. Drain thepetrol from the filter into the container.Dispose of the filter carefully.

    41 Fuel filter renewal

    40 Automatic transmissionbrake band adjustment39 Ignition system component

    check

    120 Every 24 000 miles or 2 years

    38.17 Air intake tube securing nut(arrowed)

    39.6 Bosch distributor cap showing HTsegments (A) and carbon brush (B)

    40.6 Transmission identification tag withpart number starting with 88

    40.2 Brake band adjustment - A4LD typetransmission

    A Adjuster screwsB Locknuts

    C Kickdown lever

    38.19 Lifting out the air cleaner element

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Chapter 4, PartB, Section 1 before proceeding.

  • 6 Fit the new filter, ensuring that the arrows onthe filter body point in the direction of fuel flow.7 Tighten the clamp screw, and reconnectthe fuel inlet and outlet unions. Ensure that theunions are correctly connected.8 Reconnect the battery negative lead, andcheck the fuel line unions for leaks,pressurising the system by switching theignition on and off several times.

    All models except 2.0 litre SOHC 9 Proceed as described for the 2.0 litre SOHC

    models, noting the following points.10 The fuel filter is located under the rear ofthe vehicle, above the driveshaft (seeillustration). For access to the filter, chockthe front wheels, then jack up the rear of thevehicle and support it on axle stands.11 To remove the filter, the mounting bracketmust first be removed from the floor, afterunscrewing the securing bolt. The filter canthen be removed from the bracket afterunscrewing the clamp bolt.

    On carburettor model SOHC engines,renew the crankcase ventilation vent valve bypulling it from the oil separator and looseningthe hose clip (see illustration). Fit the newvalve, tighten the clip, and insert it into the oilseparator grommet.

    42 Crankcase ventilation ventvalve renewal

    If in doubt as to the condition of any of thebrake system seals and hoses, then renewdefective items whilst referring to the relevantSections of Chapter 10.

    1 An assistant and bleeding equipment willbe needed. A considerable quantity ofhydraulic fluid will be required - probablyabout 2 litres (nearly half a gallon).2 Slacken the front wheel nuts. Raise andsupport the front of the vehicle and removethe front wheels.3 Remove the hydraulic fluid reservoir cap.4 Open both front bleed screws one full turn.Attach one bleed tube to each screw, placingthe free end of each tube in a jar.5 Pump the brake pedal to expel fluid fromthe bleed screws. Pause after each upstroketo allow the master cylinder to refill.6 When air emerges from both bleed screws,stop pumping. Detach the left-hand caliperwithout disconnecting it and remove theinboard brake pad.7 Depress the caliper piston, using apurpose-made tool or a blunt item such as atyre lever, to force more fluid out of thecaliper. Hold the piston depressed and havethe assistant pump the pedal until air emergesfrom the bleed screw again.

    8 Tighten the bleed screw on the left-handcaliper. Loosely refit the caliper and pad sothat the piston is not accidentally ejected.9 Repeat the purging operation on the right-hand caliper, but do not refit it or tighten thebleed screw yet.10 Fill the reservoir with fresh hydraulic fluid.Position the bleed jar for the right-handcaliper at least 300 mm (1 foot) above thelevel of the bleed screw.11 Have the assistant pump the brake pedaluntil fluid free of bubbles emerges from thebleed screw. Tighten the bleed screw at theend of a downstroke.12 Place a piece of wood in the caliper jawsto limit piston travel. Keep your fingers clearof the piston. Have the assistant depress thebrake pedal gently in order to move thecaliper piston out.13 With the pedal held depressed, slackenthe bleed screw on the right-hand caliper andagain depress the piston. Tighten the bleedscrew when the piston is retracted. The pedalcan now be released.14 Disconnect the bleed tube. Refit the right-hand brake pad and caliper.15 Remove the left-hand caliper and inboardpad again. Carry out the operations describedin paragraphs 10 to 14 on the left-handcaliper.16 Bleed the rear brakes (Chapter 10).17 Refit the front wheels, lower the vehicleand tighten the wheel nuts.18 Pump the brake pedal to bring the padsup to the discs, then make a final check of thehydraulic fluid level. Top-up and refit thereservoir cap.

    Camshaft drivebelt renewal isrecommended as a precautionary measure forSOHC engines but is compulsory for CVHengines. Refer to Chapter 2 for theappropriate renewal procedure.

    1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 It is preferable to drain the cooling systemwith the engine cold. If this is not possible,take precautions against scalding whenremoving the expansion tank cap. Place athick rag over the cap and slacken the cap alittle to release any pressure. When allpressure has been released, carry onunscrewing the cap and remove it.3 Early models have no radiator drain plug, sothe radiator must be drained by detaching thebottom coolant hose from the outlet on theright-hand side of the radiator. Later SOHCmodels have a drain plug located in the baseof the left-hand radiator end tank, whilst allCVH models have a drain plug in theright-hand radiator end tank and DOHCmodels have a plug to the bottom right-handside of the radiator.

    46 Engine coolant renewal

    45 Camshaft drivebelt renewal

    44 Brake hydraulic fluid renewal

    43 Brake hydraulic system sealand hose renewal

    Every 36 000 miles or 3 years 121

    1

    42.1 Removing the crankcase vent valvefrom the oil separator

    41.10 Fuel filter location (arrowed) underrear of vehicle

    41.1 Fuel filter location - outlet unionarrowed

    Caution: Before proceeding,note the precautions given inChapter 3, Section 1.

    Every 36 000 miles (60 000 km) or 3 years

  • 4 Certain SOHC models have a bleed spigoton the thermostat housing, which is coveredby a rubber cap. The cap should be removedfrom the spigot before commencing draining(see illustration).5 With the expansion tank cap removed,place a suitable container beneath theradiator bottom hose or drain plug asapplicable.6 On early models, loosen the clip and easethe bottom hose away from the radiatoroutlet. On later models, unscrew the drainplug (see illustrations). Allow the coolant todrain into the container.7 On SOHC models, place a secondcontainer beneath the drain plug on theright-hand side of the cylinder block (seeillustration). Unscrew the drain plug andallow the coolant to drain into the container.No cylinder block drain plug is fitted on CVHand DOHC models.

    8 Dispose of the drained coolant safely.9 After some time the radiator and enginewaterways may become restricted or evenblocked with scale or sediment, whichreduces the efficiency of the cooling system.When this occurs, the coolant will appearrusty and dark in colour and the systemshould then be flushed. 10 Disconnect the top hose from the radiator,then insert a garden hose and allow water tocirculate through the radiator until it runs clearfrom the outlet.11 Insert the hose in the expansion tank fillerneck and allow water to run out of the bottomhose (and cylinder block on SOHC models)until clear. If, after a reasonable period thewater still does not run clear, the radiator canbe flushed with a good proprietary cleaningagent.12 Disconnect the inlet hose from the inletmanifold, connect the garden hose and allowwater to circulate through the manifold,automatic choke (where applicable), heaterand out through the bottom hose until clear.13 In severe cases of contamination thesystem should be reverse flushed. To do this,remove the radiator, invert it and insert a hosein the outlet. Continue flushing until clearwater runs from the inlet.14 The engine should also be reverseflushed. To do this, remove the thermostat

    and insert the hose into the cylinder head onSOHC models, or into the inlet manifold onCVH and DOHC models. Continue flushinguntil clear water runs from the bottom hose(and cylinder block on SOHC models).15 Where applicable, refit the radiator andthe thermostat.16 Reconnect any disturbed hoses and refitand tighten the cylinder block drain plugand/or radiator drain plug, as applicable.17 On SOHC models fitted with a bleedspigot on the thermostat housing, ensure thatthe rubber cap is removed before refilling thesystem.18 Pour coolant in through the expansiontank filler hole until the level is up to theMAX mark.19 Where applicable, refit the rubber cap tothe bleed spigot when coolant starts toemerge from the spigot. Tighten the clip.20 Squeeze the coolant hoses to helpdisperse air locks. Top-up the coolant furtherif necessary, then refit and tighten theexpansion tank cap.21 Run the engine up to operatingtemperature, checking for coolant leaks. Stopthe engine and allow it to cool, then re-checkthe coolant level. Top-up the level asnecessary, taking care to avoid scalding asthe expansion tank cap is removed.

    122 Every 36 000 miles or 3 years

    46.4 Unscrew the clip and remove therubber cap from the bleed spigot -

    SOHC models

    46.6b Radiator drain plug (arrowed) - laterCVH models

    46.7 Cylinder block drain plug (arrowed) -SOHC models (engine removed)

    46.6a Disconnect the bottom hose fromthe radiator - early OHC models

  • 1.3 litre engine

    GeneralEngine type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four-cylinder, in-line, single overhead camshaftFiring order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3-4-2Engine code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JCTBore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.02 mmStroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.00 mmCubic capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1294 ccCompression ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0:1Compression pressure at starter motor speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 13 barMaximum continuous engine speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5800 rpmMaximum engine power (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 kW at 5700 rpmMaximum engine torque (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Nm at 3100 rpm

    Cylinder bore diameterStandard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.000 to 79.010 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.010 to 79.020 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.020 to 79.030 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.030 to 79.040 mmOversize class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.510 to 79.520 mmOversize class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.520 to 79.530 mmOversize class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.530 to 79.540 mmStandard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.030 to 79.040 mmOversize 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.530 to 79.540 mmOversize 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.030 to 80.040 mm

    Chapter 2 Part A:SOHC engines

    Auxiliary shaft - removal, inspection and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Camshaft and cam followers - removal, inspection and refitting . . . .24Compression test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Crankcase ventilation system - inspection and maintenance . . . . . . .4Crankshaft and bearings - examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . .35Crankshaft and main bearings - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . .34Crankshaft front oil seal - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Crankshaft rear oil seal - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Cylinder block and bores - examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . .36Cylinder head - dismantling and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Cylinder head - inspection and renovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Cylinder head - removal and refitting (engine in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . .20Cylinder head - removal and refitting (engine removed) . . . . . . . . . . .21Engine - refitting (automatic transmission in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Engine - refitting (manual gearbox in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Engine - removal leaving automatic transmission in vehicle . . . . . . .10Engine - removal leaving manual gearbox in vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Engine/automatic transmission assembly - reconnection and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Engine/automatic transmission assembly - removal and separation .12

    Engine dismantling,examination, renovation and reassembly - generalinformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

    Engine/manual gearbox - reconnection and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Engine/manual gearbox assembly - removal and separation . . . . . .11Engine mountings - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Engine oil and filter - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Flywheel/driveplate - removal, inspection and refitting . . . . . . . . . . .26General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Initial start-up after overhaul or major repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37Major operations possible with the engine in the vehicle . . . . . . . . . . .6Major operations requiring engine removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Method of engine removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Oil pump - dismantling, inspection and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Oil pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Pistons and connecting rods - examination and renovation . . . . . . .33Pistons and connecting rods - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Sump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Timing belt and sprockets - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Valve clearances - checking and adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

    2A1

    Specifications

    Contents

    2A

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • CrankshaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.08 to 0.28 mm (0.003 to 0.011 in)Main bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.010 to 0.064 mmMain bearing journal diameter:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.970 to 56.990 mmUndersize 0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.720 to 56.740 mmUndersize 0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.470 to 56.490 mmUndersize 0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.220 to 56.240 mmUndersize 1.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.970 to 55.990 mm

    Main bearing thrustwasher thickness:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.30 to 2.35 mmOversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.50 to 2.55 mm

    Big-end bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.006 to 0.060 mmBig-end bearing journal diameter:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.980 to 52.000 mmUndersize 0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.730 to 51.750 mmUndersize 0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.480 to 51.500 mmUndersize 0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.230 to 51.250 mmUndersize 1.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50.980 to 51.000 mm

    Pistons and piston ringsPiston diameter:

    Standard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78.965 to 78.975 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78.975 to 78.985 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78.985 to 78.995 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78.995 to 79.005 mmStandard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78.990 to 79.015 mmService oversize 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.490 to 79.515 mmService oversize 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.990 to 80.015 mm

    Piston ring end gap:Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.300 to 0.500 mmCentre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.300 to 0.500 mmBottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.400 to 1.400 mm

    Auxiliary shaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.204 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in)

    Cylinder headValve seat angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 30 to 45 00Service correction cutter*:

    Upper correction angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Lower correction angle:

    Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.5

    Valve seat width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 to 2.0 mmValve guide bore:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.063 to 8.088 mmOversize 0.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.263 to 8.288 mmOversize 0.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.463 to 8.488 mm

    *Not for use with hardened valve seats

    CamshaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.104 to 0.204 mm (0.004 to 0.008 in)Thrust plate thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.98 to 4.01 mm (0.156 to 0.158 in)Bearing journal diameter:

    Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.987 to 42.013 mmCentre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44.607 to 44.633 mmRear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44.987 to 45.013 mm

    ValvesValve clearance (cold engine):

    Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 0.03 mm (0.008 0.001 in)Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25 0.03 mm (0.010 0.001 in)

    Valve timing:Inlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 BTDCInlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ABDCExhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 BBDCExhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 ATDC

    Valve spring free length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.00 mm (1.85 in)

    2A2 SOHC engines

  • Inlet valve stem diameter:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.025 to 8.043 mmOversize 0.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.225 to 8.243 mmOversize 0.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.425 to 8.443 mmOversize 0.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.625 to 8.643 mmOversize 0.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.825 to 8.843 mm

    Exhaust valve stem diameter:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.999 to 8.017 mmOversize 0.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.199 to 8.217 mmOversize 0.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.399 to 8.417 mmOversize 0.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.599 to 8.617 mmOversize 0.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.799 to 8.817 mm

    Lubrication systemOil type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multigrade engine oil, viscosity range SAE 10W/30 to 20W/50 to API

    SG/CD or betterOil capacity:

    With filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.75 litres (6.6 pints)Without filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.25 litres (5.7 pints)

    Oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C102Oil pump clearances:

    Outer rotor to body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.153 to 0.304 mm (0.006 to 0.012 in)Inner rotor to outer rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.200 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in)Rotor endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.039 to 0.104 mm (0.002 to 0.004 in)

    Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftMain bearing cap bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 to 102 65 to 75Big-end bearing cap nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 47 30 to 35Crankshaft pulley bolt:

    Strength class 8.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 60 41 to 44Strength class 10.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 115 74 to 85

    Camshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 50 33 to 37Auxiliary shaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 50 33 to 37Flywheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 to 70 47 to 52Oil pump bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 to 21 13 to 15Oil pump cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 13 7 to 10Sump bolts:

    Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 to 2 0.7 to 1.5Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6Stage 3 (after running engine for 20 minutes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 10 6 to 7

    Sump drain plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 28 15 to 21Oil pressure warning lamp switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 to 15 9 to 11Valve adjustment ball-pin locknuts:

    7 mm thick nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 50 33 to 378 mm thick nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 55 37 to 41

    Cylinder head bolts:Splined type bolts:

    Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 55 30 to 41Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 70 37 to 52Stage 3 (after 20 minutes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 to 83 54 to 61Stage 4 (after running engine for 15 minutes at 1000 rpm) . . . . . . 95 to 115 70 to 85

    Torx type bolts:Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 40 26 to 30Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 75 52 to 55Stage 3 (after 5 minutes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten through a further 90

    Camshaft cover bolts:Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 to 3 1.5 to 2Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6

    Timing cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 to 17 10 to 13Timing belt tensioner bolts:

    Models with tensioner spring:Spring bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 to 21 13 to 15Pivot bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18

    Models without tensioner spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Oil pick-up tube/strainer-to-oil pump bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 14 8 to 10Oil pick-up tube/strainer-to-cylinder block bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 to 21 13 to 15

    SOHC engines 2A3

    2A

  • 1.6 litre engine

    GeneralEngine type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four-cylinder, in-line, single overhead camshaftFiring order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3-4-2Engine codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LCS, LCT, LSD and LSE

    LCS and LCT LSD and LSEBore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.67 mm 81.32 mmStroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.00 mm 76.95 mmCubic capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1593 cc 1597 ccCompression ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 : 1 9.5 : 1Compression pressure at starter motor speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 13 bar 11 to 13 barMaximum continuous engine speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5800 rpm 5950 rpmMaximum engine power (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 kW at 5300 rpm 55 kW at 4900 rpmMaximum engine torque (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Nm at 2900 rpm 123 Nm at 2900 rpm

    Cylinder bore diameter LCS and LCT LSD and LSEStandard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.650 to 87.660 mm 81.300 to 81.310 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.660 to 87.670 mm 81.310 to 81.320 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.670 to 87.680 mm 81.320 to 81.330 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.680 to 87.690 mm 81.330 to 81.340 mmOversize class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.160 to 88.170 mm 81.810 to 81.820 mmOversize class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.170 to 88.180 mm 81.820 to 81.830 mmOversize class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.180 to 88.190 mm 81.830 to 81.840 mmStandard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.680 to 87.690 mm 81.330 to 81.340 mmOversize 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.180 to 88.190 mm 81.830 to 81.840 mmOversize 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.680 to 88.690 mm 82.330 to 82.340 mm

    CrankshaftSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine except for the following:Main bearing thrustwasher thickness from 1987:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.28 to 2.33 mmOversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.48 to 2.53 mm

    Pistons and piston ringsPiston diameter: LCS and LCT LSD and LSE

    Standard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.615 to 87.625 mm 81.265 to 81.275 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.625 to 87.635 mm 81.275 to 81.285 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.635 to 87.645 mm 81.285 to 81.295 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.645 to 87.655 mm 81.295 to 81.305 mmStandard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.640 to 87.665 mm 81.290 to 81.315 mmService oversize 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.140 to 88.165 mm 81.790 to 81.815 mmService oversize 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.640 to 88.665 mm 82.290 to 82.315 mm

    Piston ring end gap:Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.300 to 0.500 mm 0.300 to 0.500 mmCentre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.300 to 0.500 mm 0.300 to 0.500 mmBottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.400 to 1.400 mm 0.400 to 1.400 mm

    Auxiliary shaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.204 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in)

    Cylinder headSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine

    CamshaftSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine except for the following:Endfloat:

    Engine codes LCS, LCT and LSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.104 to 0.204 mm (0.004 to 0.008 in)Engine code LSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.090 to 0.170 mm (0.003 to 0.007 in)

    ValvesSpecification as for 1.3 litre engine

    Lubrication systemSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine

    Torque wrench settingsSpecification as for 1.3 litre engine

    2A4 SOHC engines

  • 1.8 litre engine

    GeneralEngine type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four-cylinder, in line, single overhead camshaftFiring order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3-4-2Engine codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REB and REDBore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.20 mmStroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76.95 mmCubic capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1796 ccCompression ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5:1Compression pressure at starter motor speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 13 barMaximum continuous engine speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5850 rpmMaximum engine power (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66kW at 5400 rpmMaximum engine torque (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Nm at 3500 rpm

    Cylinder bore diameterStandard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.180 to 86.190 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.190 to 86.200 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.200 to 86.210 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.210 to 86.220 mmOversize class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.690 to 86.700 mmOversize class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.700 to 86.710 mmOversize class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.710 to 86.720 mmStandard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.210 to 86.220 mmOversize 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.710 to 86.720 mmOversize 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.210 to 87.220 mm

    CrankshaftSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine except for the following:Main bearing thrustwasher thickness from 1987:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.28 to 2.33 mmOversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.48 to 2.53 mm

    Pistons and piston ringsPiston diameter:

    Standard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.145 to 86.155 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.155 to 86.165 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.165 to 86.175 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.175 to 86.185 mmStandard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.170 to 86.195 mmService oversize 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.670 to 86.695 mmService oversize 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.170 to 86.195 mm

    Piston ring end gap:Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.300 to 0.500 mmCentre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.300 to 0.500 mmBottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.400 to 1.400 mm

    Auxiliary shaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.204 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in)

    Cylinder head and camshaftSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine

    ValvesSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine except for the following:Valve clearance (cold engine):

    Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 0.03 mm (0.008 0.001 in)Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25 0.03 mm (0.010 0.001 in)

    Valve timing:Inlet opens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 BTDCInlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 ABDCExhaust opens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 BBDCExhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ATDC

    Lubrication systemSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine

    Torque wrench settingsSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine

    SOHC engines 2A5

    2A

  • 2.0 litre engine

    GeneralEngine type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Four-cylinder, in-line, single overhead camshaftFiring order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3-4-2Engine codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NES and NET (carburettor, except P100), NRB and N4A (fuel

    injection), and NAE (P100)Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.82 mmStroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76.95 mmCubic capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 ccCompression ratio:

    All except engine code NAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2:1Engine code NAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2:1

    Compression pressure at starter motor speed:All except engine code NAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 13 barEngine code NAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 12 bar

    Maximum continuous engine speed:Engine code NES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5850 rpmEngine codes NET and NAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5800 rpmEngine codes NRB and N4A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6050 rpm

    Maximum engine power (DIN):Engine codes NES and NET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77kW at 5200 rpmEngine codes NRB and N4A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85kW at 5500 rpmEngine code NAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57kW at 4500 rpm

    Maximum engine torque (DIN):Engine codes NES and NET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Nm at 4000 rpmEngine codes NRB and N4A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Nm at 4000 rpmEngine code NAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Nm at 2800 rpm

    Cylinder bore diameterStandard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.800 to 90.810 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.810 to 90.820 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.820 to 90.830 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.830 to 90.840 mmOversize class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.310 to 91.320 mmOversize class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.320 to 91.330 mmOversize class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.330 to 91.340 mmStandard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.830 to 90.840 mmOversize 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.330 to 91.340 mmOversize 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.830 to 91.840 mm

    CrankshaftSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine except for the following:Main bearing thrustwasher thickness:

    All except engine codes NES, NET, NRB and N4A from 1987:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.30 to 2.35 mmOversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.50 to 2.55 mm

    Engine codes NES, NET, NRB and N4A from 1987:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.28 to 2.33 mmOversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.48 to 2.53 mm

    Pistons and piston ringsPiston diameter:

    Standard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.765 to 90.775 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.775 to 90.785 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.785 to 90.795 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.795 to 90.805 mmStandard service:

    Up to 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.780 to 90.805 mmFrom 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.790 to 90.815 mm

    Service oversize 0.5:Up to 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.280 to 91.305 mmFrom 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.290 to 91.315 mm

    Service oversize 1.0:Up to 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.780 to 91.805 mmFrom 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.790 to 91.815 mm

    2A6 SOHC engines

  • Piston ring end gap:Top:

    Up to 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.038 to 0.048 mmFrom 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.400 to 0.600 mm

    Centre:Up to 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.038 to 0.048 mmFrom 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.400 to 0.600 mm

    Bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.400 to 1.400 mm

    Auxiliary shaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.204 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in)

    Cylinder headSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine

    Valves Specifications as for 1.3 litre engine except for the following:Valve clearance (cold engine):

    Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 0.03 mm (0.008 0.001 in)Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25 0.003 mm (0.010 0.001 in)

    Valve timing: All except code NAE Engine code NAEInlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 BTDC 18 BTDCInlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 ABDC 58 ABDCExhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 BBDC 70 BBDCExhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ATDC 6 ATDC

    Lubrication systemSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine

    Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftSpecifications as for 1.3 litre engine except for the following:Crankshaft pulley bolt:

    Fuel injection models up to 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 to 130 85 to 96Fuel injection models from 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 115 74 to 85

    SOHC engines 2A7

    2A

    The engine is of a four-cylinder, in-line,single overhead camshaft type, mounted atthe front of the vehicle and available in 1.3,1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 litre versions.

    The crankshaft incorporates five mainbearings. Thrustwashers are fitted to thecentre main bearing in order to controlcrankshaft endfloat.

    The camshaft is driven by a toothed beltand operates the slightly angled valves viacam followers which pivot on ball-pins.

    The auxiliary shaft which is also driven bythe toothed belt, drives the distributor, oilpump and fuel pump.

    The cylinder head is of crossflow designwith the inlet manifold mounted on the left-hand side and the exhaust manifold mountedon the right-hand side.

    Lubrication is by means of a bi-rotor pumpwhich draws oil through a strainer locatedinside the sump, and forces it through a full-flow filter into the engine oil galleries where itis distributed to the crankshaft, camshaft andauxiliary shaft. The big-end bearings aresupplied with oil via internal drillings in thecrankshaft. The undersides of the pistons aresupplied with oil from drillings in the big-ends.The distributor shaft is intermittently suppliedwith oil from the drilled auxiliary shaft. Thecamshaft followers are supplied with oil via a

    drilled spray tube from the centre camshaftbearing.

    A semi-closed crankcase ventilation systemis employed whereby piston blow-by gasesare drawn into the inlet manifold via an oilseparator and control valve.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 8.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 23.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 35.

    1 When engine performance is poor, or ifmisfiring occurs which cannot be attributed tothe ignition or fuel system, a compression testcan provide diagnostic clues. If the test isperformed regularly it can give warning oftrouble before any other symptoms becomeapparent.

    2 The engine must be at operatingtemperature, the battery must be fullycharged and the spark plugs must beremoved. The services of an assistant will alsobe required.3 Disable the ignition system bydisconnecting the coil LT feed. Fit thecompression tester to No 1 spark plug hole.(The type of tester which screws into thespark plug hole is to be preferred.)4 Have the assistant hold the throttle wideopen and crank the engine on the starter.Record the highest reading obtained on thecompression tester.5 Repeat the test on the remaining cylinders,recording the pressure developed in each.6 Desired pressures are given in theSpecifications. If the pressure in any cylinderis low, introduce a teaspoonful of cleanengine oil into the spark plug hole and repeatthe test.7 If the addition of oil temporarily improvesthe compression pressure, this indicates thatbore, piston or piston ring wear wasresponsible for the pressure loss. Noimprovement suggests that leaking or burntvalves, or a blown head gasket, may be toblame.8 A low reading from the two adjacentcylinders is almost certainly due to the headgasket between them having blown.9 On completion of the test, refit the sparkplugs and reconnect the coil LT feed.

    5 Compression test

    4 Crankcase ventilation system -inspection and maintenance

    3 Valve clearances - checking andadjustment

    2 Engine oil and filter - renewal

    1 General information

  • The following operations can be carried outwithout removing the engine from the vehicle:a) Removal and servicing of the cylinder

    headb) Removal of the camshaft after removal of

    the cylinder headc) Removal of the timing belt and sprocketsd) Removal of the sumpe) Removal of the oil pumpf) Removal of the pistons and connecting

    rodsg) Removal of the big-end bearingsh) Removal of the engine mountingsi) Removal of the clutch and flywheelj) Removal of crankshaft front and rear oil

    sealsk) Removal of the auxiliary shaft

    The following operations can only be carriedout after removing the engine from thevehicle:a) Removal of the crankshaft main bearingsb) Removal of the crankshaft

    The engine may be lifted out either on itsown, or together with the manualgearbox/automatic transmission. Unless workis to be carried out on the manualgearbox/automatic transmission, it isrecommended that the engine is removed onits own. Where automatic transmission isfitted, the engine should where possible beremoved on its own due to the additionalweight of the transmission.

    Note: The air conditioning system shouldalways be discharged by a Ford dealer or airconditioning specialist.Note: Refer to the warning in Section 8 beforeproceeding. A suitable hoist and lifting tacklewill be required for this operation.1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the bonnet.3 On carburettor models remove the air cleaner.4 On fuel injection models, disconnect thecrankcase ventilation hose from the air inlethose, then disconnect the air inlet hose fromthe throttle body. Depress the locking clip onthe airflow meter wiring plug and disconnectthe plug (pulling on the plug, not the wiring)then release the four securing clips and lift offthe air cleaner lid with the airflow meter andair inlet hose.5 Remove the four retaining clips andunscrew the two retaining screws, thenwithdraw the upper section of the cooling fanshroud from the radiator. Unclip and removethe lower section of the shroud.6 Remove the thermo-viscous cooling fan asdescribed in Chapter 3. 7 Drain the cooling system.8 Disconnect the upper radiator hose andwhere applicable, the expansion tank hosefrom the thermostat housing.9 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thecoolant pump, and where applicable from theinlet manifold and automatic choke. Unclipthe coolant hose from the bracket on theexhaust manifold hot air shroud/heat shield,or the camshaft cover, as applicable.10 On carburettor models, where applicabledisconnect the vacuum pipe from the enginemanagement module.11 Disconnect the brake servo vacuum pipefrom the inlet manifold.12 On carburettor models, disconnect the fuelhoses from the carburettor and whereapplicable the mechanical fuel pump and plugthe ends of the hoses to minimise petrolspillage. Remember to take adequate fireprecautions.13 On fuel injection models, disconnect thefuel feed line from the fuel pressure regulator,then disconnect the fuel supply hose from the

    fuel rail. Position a suitable container beneaththe pressure regulator, then slowly loosen thefuel feed union to relieve the pressure in thefuel lines before disconnecting the union.Take adequate fire precautions. Plug the endsof the hoses to minimise petrol spillage.14 Disconnect the throttle cable, and whereapplicable remove its bracket.15 Disconnect the HT lead from the ignitioncoil.16 Disconnect the wiring from the followingcomponents as applicable depending onmodel:AlternatorStarter motorDistributorOil pressure warning lamp switchTemperature gauge senderEngine coolant temperature sensorAutomatic chokeAutomatic choke pull-down solenoidCarburettor anti-dieselling valveInlet manifold heaterCarburettor stepper motorFuel injection harnessDipstick

    17 Where applicable, detach the powersteering pump from the cylinder block andmove it to one side.18 Unscrew and remove the top engine-to-gearbox bolts which are accessible from theengine compartment. Note the location of theearth strap on one of the bolts.19 Note the location of the earth strap on therear inlet manifold stud, then remove the nutand disconnect the strap.20 Apply the handbrake (if not already done),jack up the front of the vehicle and support onaxle stands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).21 Drain the engine oil into a suitablecontainer.22 Remove the starter motor.23 Remove the exhaust downpipe.24 Unscrew the nuts or bolts, as applicable,securing the engine mountings to thecrossmember. Recover the washers.25 Unscrew and remove the remainingengine-to-gearbox bolts, and remove the boltfrom the engine adapter plate (seeillustration).26 Remove the two securing bolts anddisconnect the engine-to-gearbox brace fromthe engine and gearbox.27 Working inside the vehicle, place awooden block under the clutch pedal to raiseit fully against its stop which will hold theautomatic adjuster pawl clear of the toothedquadrant.28 Disconnect the clutch cable from theclutch release arm, and pass the cablethrough the bellhousing. Where applicable,remove the clip securing the clutch cable tothe right-hand engine mounting bracket. Notethe cable routing for use when refitting.29 Lower the vehicle to the ground, andsupport the gearbox with a trolley jack, usinga block of wood between the jack and thegearbox to spread the load.30 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate engine removal.

    9 Engine - removal leavingmanual gearbox in vehicle

    8 Method of engine removal

    7 Major operations requiringengine removal

    6 Major operations possible withthe engine in the vehicle

    2A8 SOHC engines

    9.25 Engine adapter plate bolt (A) andengine-to-gearbox brace (B)

    Warning: Vehicles equippedwith air conditioning:Components of the airconditioning system may

    obstruct work being undertaken on theengine, and it is not always possible tounbolt and move them aside sufficiently,within the limits of their flexibleconnecting pipes. In such a case, thesystem should be discharged by a Forddealer or air conditioning specialist. Therefrigerant is harmless under normalconditions, but in the presence of a nakedflame (or a lighted cigarette) it forms ahighly toxic gas. Liquid refrigerant spilledon the skin will cause frostbite. Ifrefrigerant enters the eyes, rinse themwith a diluted solution of boric acid andseek medical advice immediately.

  • 31 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head, and carefully take the weight ofthe engine. The engine should be supportedhorizontally, ie do not allow it to tilt front to rear.32 Raise the engine until the enginemountings are clear of the crossmember thenpull the engine forwards to disconnect it fromthe gearbox. Ensure that the gearbox isadequately supported, and take care not tostrain the gearbox input shaft. It may benecessary to rock the engine a little to releaseit from the gearbox.33 Once clear of the gearbox, lift the enginefrom the vehicle, taking care not to damagethe radiator fins.

    Note: Refer to the warning in Section 8 beforeproceeding. A suitable hoist and lifting tacklewill be required for this operation.1 Proceed as described in Section 9,paragraphs 1 to 17 inclusive, but additionally,where applicable, disconnect the kickdowncable from the carburettor/inlet manifold. 2 Unscrew and remove the top engine-to-transmission bolts which are accessible fromthe engine compartment. Note the location ofthe earth strap, vacuum pipe bracket, andtransmission dipstick tube bracket.3 Proceed as described in Section 9,paragraphs 20 to 24 inclusive.4 Working through the starter motor aperture,unscrew the four torque converter-to-driveplate nuts. It will be necessary to turn thecrankshaft, using a suitable spanner on thecrankshaft pulley bolt, in order to gain accessto each nut in turn through the aperture.5 Unscrew and remove the remaining engine-to-transmission bolts, and remove the boltfrom the engine adapter plate. Whereapplicable pull the blanking plug from theadapter plate.6 Remove the two securing bolts anddisconnect the engine-to-transmission bracefrom the engine and transmission.7 Lower the vehicle to the ground, andsupport the transmission with a trolley jack,using a block of wood between the jack andthe transmission to spread the load.8 Proceed as described in Section 9,paragraphs 30 and 31.9 Raise the engine until the engine mountingsare clear of the crossmember, then pull theengine forwards to disconnect it from thetransmission. Ensure that the torque converteris held firmly in place in the transmissionhousing, otherwise it could fall out resulting influid spillage and possible damage. It may benecessary to rock the engine a little to releaseit from the transmission.10 Once clear of the transmission lift theengine from the vehicle, taking care not todamage the radiator fins.

    Note: Refer to the warning in Section 8 beforeproceeding. A suitable hoist and lifting tacklewill be required for this operation.

    Removal1 Proceed as described in Section 9,paragraphs 1 to 17 inclusive.2 Note the location of the earth strap on therear inlet manifold stud, then remove the nutand disconnect the strap.3 Working inside the vehicle, unscrew thegear lever knob and remove the centreconsole. Where a full length console is fitted,it is only necessary to remove the front tray.4 Detach the outer gaiter from the retainingframe and withdraw it over the gear lever.5 Unscrew the securing screws on earlymodels, or release the clips on later models,and remove the gaiter retaining frame andinner gaiter. 6 Using a suitable Torx key, remove thescrews securing the gear lever to the gearboxextension housing, and withdraw the gearlever. Note how the base of the gear leverlocates over the selector shaft.7 Jack up the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).Ensure that there is sufficient working roombeneath the vehicle.8 To improve access, disconnect the exhaustdownpipe from the manifold and remove theexhaust system.9 Remove the propeller shaft.10 Where applicable bend back the locktabs,then unscrew the two bolts in each casesecuring the two anti-roll bar U-clamps to thevehicle underbody. Lower the anti-roll bar asfar as possible.11 Proceed as described in Section 9,paragraphs 27 and 28. 12 Drain the engine oil into a container.13 Unscrew the nuts or bolts, as applicable,securing the engine mountings to thecrossmember. Recover the washers.14 Disconnect the wiring from the reversinglamp switch.15 Remove the retaining circlip, andwithdraw the speedometer cable from thegearbox extension housing.16 Support the gearbox with a trolley jack,using a block of wood between the jack andthe gearbox to spread the load.17 Unscrew the four bolts securing thegearbox crossmember to the vehicleunderbody. Unscrew the central bolt securingthe crossmember to the gearbox and removethe crossmember. Note the position of theearth strap, where applicable. Recover themounting cup and where applicable theexhaust mounting bracket and heat shield.18 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate removal of the en-gine/gearbox assembly.

    19 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head. Arrange the lifting tackle so thatthe engine/gearbox assembly will assume asteep angle of approximately 40 to 45 as it isbeing removed.20 Raise the engine/gearbox so that theengine mountings are clear of thecrossmember, then ease the assemblyforwards, at the same time lowering the trolleyjack which is supporting the gearbox. Lift theassembly from the vehicle, taking care not todamage surrounding components (seeillustration).21 With the engine/gearbox assemblyremoved, temporarily reconnect the anti-roll barto the underbody if the vehicle is to be moved.

    Separation22 To separate the engine from the gearbox,proceed as follows.23 Remove the starter motor.24 Support the engine and gearboxhorizontally on blocks of wood.25 Unscrew the two securing bolts anddisconnect the engine-to-gearbox brace fromthe engine and gearbox.26 Unscrew and remove the engine-to-gearbox bolts, noting the location of the earthstrap, and remove the bolt from the engineadapter plate.27 Pull the engine and gearbox apart, takingcare not to strain the gearbox input shaft. Itmay be necessary to rock the units slightly toseparate them.

    Note: Refer to the warning in Section 8 beforeproceeding. A suitable hoist and lifting tacklewill be required for this operation. Anysuspected faults in the automatic transmissionshould be referred to a Ford dealer orautomatic transmission specialist beforeremoval of the unit, as the specialist faultdiagnosis equipment is designed to operatewith the transmission in the vehicle.

    Removal1 Proceed as described in Section 9,paragraphs 1 to 17 inclusive, but additionally,

    12 Engine/automatictransmission assembly -removal and separation

    11 Engine/manual gearboxassembly - removal andseparation

    10 Engine - removal leavingautomatic transmission invehicle

    SOHC engines 2A9

    2A

    11.20 Lifting the engine/gearbox assemblyfrom the vehicle

  • where applicable disconnect the kickdowncable from the carburettor/inlet manifold. 2 Note the location of the earth strap on therear inlet manifold stud, then remove the nutand disconnect the strap.3 Jack up the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).Ensure that there is sufficient working roombeneath the vehicle.4 To improve access, disconnect the exhaustdownpipe from the manifold and remove theexhaust system.5 Remove the propeller shaft.6 Where applicable bend back the locktabs,then unscrew the two bolts, in each casesecuring the two anti-roll bar U-clamps to thevehicle underbody. Lower the anti-roll bar asfar as possible.7 Unscrew the unions and disconnect thefluid cooler pipes from the transmission. Plugthe open ends of the pipes and thetransmission to prevent dirt ingress and fluidleakage. Remove the fluid cooler pipe bracketfrom the engine mounting bracket, and placeit to one side.8 Remove the two clips securing the selectorrod, and detach the selector rod from themanual selector lever, and the selector leveron the transmission.9 Disconnect the kickdown cable from thelever on the transmission, and whereapplicable, detach the cable from the bracketon the transmission. On C3 type transmissionsit will be necessary to unscrew the locknut inorder to remove the cable from the bracket.Withdraw the cable from the vehicle.10 Disconnect the wiring from the starterinhibitor/reversing lamp switch and whereapplicable, on A4LD type transmissions, thekickdown solenoid and the lock-up clutch.11 Remove the securing screw, anddisconnect the speedometer cable from thetransmission extension housing. Plug theopening in the transmission to prevent dirtingress.12 Disconnect the vacuum pipe from thevacuum diaphragm unit, and unclip the pipefrom its securing bracket on the transmissionhousing where applicable.13 Drain the engine oil into a suitablecontainer.14 Unscrew the nuts or bolts, as applicable,securing the engine mountings to thecrossmember. Recover the washers.15 Support the transmission with a trolleyjack, using a block of wood to spread the load.16 Unscrew the four bolts securing thetransmission crossmember to the vehicleunderbody. Note the position of the earthstrap, where applicable. Unscrew the centralbolt securing the crossmember to thetransmission and remove the crossmember.Recover the mounting cup and whereapplicable the exhaust mounting bracket.17 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate removal of theengine/transmission assembly.

    18 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head. Arrange the lifting tackle so thatthe engine/transmission assembly will assumea steep angle of approximately 40 to 45 as itis being removed.19 Raise the engine/transmission so that theengine mountings are clear of thecrossmember, then ease the assemblyforwards, at the same time lowering the trolleyjack which is supporting the transmission. Liftthe assembly from the vehicle, taking care notto damage surrounding components.20 With the engine/transmission assemblyremoved, temporarily reconnect the anti-rollbar to the underbody if the vehicle is to bemoved.

    Separation21 To separate the engine from thetransmission, proceed as follows. 22 Remove the starter motor.23 Support the engine and transmissionhorizontally on blocks of wood.24 Working through the starter motoraperture, unscrew the four torque converter-to-driveplate nuts. It will be necessary to turnthe crankshaft using a suitable spanner on thecrankshaft pulley bolt in order to gain accessto each nut in turn through the aperture.25 Unscrew the two securing bolts anddisconnect the engine-to-transmission bracefrom the engine and transmission.26 Unscrew and remove the engine-to-transmission bolts, noting the locations of theearth strap, vacuum pipe bracket, andtransmission dipstick tube bracket. Removethe bolt from the engine adapter plate, andwhere applicable pull the blanking plug fromthe adapter plate.27 Pull the engine and transmission apart,ensuring that the torque converter is heldfirmly in place in the transmission housing,otherwise it could fall out resulting in fluidspillage and possible damage. It may benecessary to rock the units slightly toseparate them.

    1 Reverse the procedure described in Section9, noting the following points:2 Before attempting to refit the engine, checkthat the clutch friction disc is centralised. Thisis necessary to ensure that the gearbox inputshaft splines will pass through the splines inthe centre of the friction disc.3 Check that the clutch release arm andbearing are correctly fitted and lightly greasethe input shaft splines.4 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels.5 Refit the exhaust downpipe.6 Reconnect the clutch cable to the releasearm, ensuring that it is routed as noted duringremoval.

    7 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.8 Fill the cooling system.9 Check and if necessary adjust the tensionof the alternator and where applicable thepower steering pump drivebelt(s).10 Adjust the throttle cable.

    1 Reverse the procedure described in Section10, noting the following points:2 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels.3 As the torque converter is only looselyengaged in the transmission, care must betaken to prevent the torque converter fromfalling out forwards. When the torqueconverter hub is fully engaged with the fluidpump drivegear in the transmission, distanceA in illustration 2.24 of Chapter 7B must beas specified. Incorrect installation of thetorque converter will result in damage to thetransmission.4 As the engine is installed, guide the torqueconverter studs through the holes in thedriveplate, noting that on the C3 typetransmission, the torque converter fluid drainplug must line up with the opening in thedriveplate (see illustration 2.25 in Chapter 7B).When the engine is positioned flush with theengine adapter plate and the transmissionhousing, check that the torque converter isfree to move axially a small amount beforerefitting and tightening the engine-to-transmission bolts.5 Do not tighten the torque converter-to-driveplate nuts until the lower engine-to-transmission bolts have been fitted andtightened.6 Refit the exhaust downpipe.7 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil. 8 Fill the cooling system.9 Check and if necessary adjust the tensionof the alternator and where applicable thepower steering pump drivebelt(s).10 Adjust the throttle cable.11 Where applicable, adjust the kickdowncable.

    1 Reverse the procedure described in Section11, noting the following points.2 Before attempting to reconnect the engineto the gearbox, check that the clutch frictiondisc is centralised. This is to ensure that thegearbox input shaft splines will pass throughthe splines in the centre of the friction disc.3 Check that the clutch release arm andbearing are correctly fitted, and lightly greasethe input shaft splines.

    15 Engine/manual gearboxassembly - reconnection andrefitting

    14 Engine - refitting (automatictransmission in vehicle)

    13 Engine - refitting (manualgearbox in vehicle)

    2A10 SOHC engines

  • 4 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels.5 Refit the propeller shaft.6 Refit the exhaust system.7 Reconnect the clutch cable to the releasearm, ensuring that it is routed as noted duringremoval. 8 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.9 Fill the cooling system.10 Check and if necessary top-up thegearbox oil level.11 Check and if necessary adjust the tensionof the alternator and where applicable thepower steering pump drivebelt(s).12 Adjust the throttle cable.

    1 Reverse the removal procedure describedin Section 12, noting the following points.2 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels.3 As the torque converter is only looselyengaged in the transmission, care must betaken to prevent the torque converter fromfalling out forwards. When the torqueconverter hub is fully engaged with the fluidpump drivegear in the transmission, distanceA in illustration 2.24 of Chapter 7B must beas shown. Incorrect installation of the torqueconverter will result in damage to thetransmission.4 As the engine and transmission arereconnected, guide the torque converter studsthrough the holes in the driveplate, noting thaton the C3 type transmission, the torqueconverter fluid drain plug must line up with theopening in the driveplate (see illustration 2.25in Chapter 7B). When the engine is positionedflush with the engine adapter plate and thetransmission housing, check that the torqueconverter is free to move axially a smallamount before refitting and tightening theengine-to-transmission bolts.5 Do not tighten the torque converter-to-driveplate nuts until the lower engine-to-transmission bolts have been fitted andtightened.6 Reconnect and adjust the selector rod.7 Refit the propeller shaft.

    8 Refit the exhaust system.9 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil. 10 Fill the cooling system.11 Check and if necessary top-up thetransmission fluid level.12 Check and if necessary adjust the tensionof the alternator and where applicable thepower steering pump drivebelt(s).13 Adjust the throttle cable.14 If applicable, adjust the kickdown cable.

    1 The engine mountings incorporatehydraulic dampers and must be renewed ifexcessive engine movement is evident.2 Working in the engine compartment,unscrew the central nuts securing the enginemounting brackets to the tops of themountings. Recover the washers whereapplicable.3 Remove the two bolts or the central nut andwasher (as applicable) in each case securingthe mountings to the crossmember.4 Raise the engine using a hoist and liftingtackle attached to the engine lifting brackets onthe cylinder head, or a jack with an interposedblock of wood under the sump, until themountings can be withdrawn (see illustration).5 Fit the new mountings, then lower theengine onto them.6 Fit the bolts or the nuts and washers (asapplicable) securing the mountings to thecrossmember, and tighten them.7 Fit and tighten the central nuts, and washersif applicable, securing the engine mountingbrackets to the tops of the mountings.

    Dismantling1 It is best to mount the engine on adismantling stand but if this is not available,stand the engine on a strong bench at acomfortable working height. Failing this, it willhave to be stripped down on the floor.2 Cleanliness is most important, and if the

    engine is dirty, it should be cleaned withparaffin while keeping it in an upright position.3 Avoid working with the engine directly on aconcrete floor, as grit presents a real sourceof trouble.4 As parts are removed, clean them in aparaffin bath. However, do not immerse partswith internal oilways in paraffin as it is difficultto remove, usually requiring a high pressurehose. Clean oilways with nylon pipe cleaners.5 It is advisable to have suitable containersavailable to hold small items according totheir use, as this will help when reassemblingthe engine and also prevent possible losses.6 Always obtain a complete set of newgaskets for use during engine reassembly, butretain the old gaskets with a view to usingthem as a pattern to make a replacement if anew one is not available.7 Where possible, refit securing nuts, bolts andwashers to their locations after removing therelevant components. This will help to protectthe threads and will also prevent losses.8 Retain unserviceable components in orderto compare them with the new parts supplied.9 Suitable splined sockets will be required forremoval of the oil pump bolts, the timing belttensioner bolts on early models (up to mid-1985), and the cylinder head bolts on earlymodels (up to early 1984) and a size T55 Torxsocket will be required to remove the cylinderhead bolts on later models (from early 1984).10 Before dismantling the main enginecomponents the following externally mountedancillary components can be removed, withreference to the relevant Chapters of thisManual and the relevant Sections of thisChapter, where applicable:Inlet manifold (and carburettor, where

    applicable Exhaust manifoldFuel pump and operating pushrod (where

    applicable)AlternatorDistributor, HT leads and spark plug Coolant pump, thermostat and housingTemperature gauge sender and oil pressure

    warning lamp switchOil filterDipstickEngine mounting brackets (see illustration)Crankcase ventilation valve and oil separatorClutchAlternator mounting bracket (see illustration)

    18 Engine dismantling,examination, renovation andreassembly - general information

    17 Engine mountings - renewal

    16 Engine/automatictransmission assembly -reconnection and refitting

    SOHC engines 2A11

    2A

    18.10b Removing the alternator mountingbracket

    18.10a Removing the right-hand enginemounting bracket

    17.4 Withdrawing an engine mounting

  • Examination and renovation11 With the engine completely stripped,clean all the components and examine themfor wear. Each part should be checked, andwhere necessary renewed or renovated asdescribed in the relevant Sections. Renewmain and big end shell bearings as a matter ofcourse, unless it is known that they have hadlittle wear and are in perfect condition.12 If in doubt as to whether to renew acomponent which is still just serviceable,consider the time and effort which will beincurred should it fail at an early date.Obviously the age and expected life of thevehicle must influence the standards applied.13 Gaskets, oil seals and O-rings must all berenewed as a matter of routine. Flywheel andTorx type cylinder head bolts must berenewed because of the high stresses towhich they are subjected.14 Take the opportunity to renew the enginecore plugs while they are easily accessible.Knock out the old plugs with a hammer andchisel or punch. Clean the plug seats, smearthe new plugs with sealant and tap themsquarely into position.

    Reassembly15 To ensure maximum life with minimumtrouble from a rebuilt engine, not only musteverything be correctly assembled, but it mustalso be spotlessly clean. All oilways must beclear, and locking washers and springwashers must be fitted where indicated. Oil allbearings and other working surfacesthoroughly with clean engine oil duringassembly.16 Before assembly begins, renew any boltsor studs with damaged threads.17 Gather together a torque wrench, oil can,clean rag, and a set of engine gaskets and oilseals, together with a new oil filter.18 If they have been removed, new Torx typecylinder head bolts and new flywheel bolts willbe required.19 After reassembling the main enginecomponents, refit the ancillary componentslisted, referring to the appropriate Chapterswhere necessary. Delicate items such as thealternator and distributor may be left until afterthe engine has been refitted if preferred.

    20 If the crankcase ventilation oil separatorwas removed, apply a liquid sealing agent toits tube before pressing it into the cylinderblock.

    Note: Refer to the warning in Section 8 beforeproceeding. On models from mid-1985(without a timing belt tensioner spring) the belttension should be checked using Ford specialtool No 21-113 after refitting. On models up tomid-1985 (with a tensioner spring), a suitablesplined socket will be required for thetensioner spring bolt. A suitable puller may berequired to remove the sprockets.

    Removal1 If the engine is in the vehicle, carry out thefollowing operations:a) Disconnect the battery negative leadb) Remove the thermo-viscous cooling fanc) Remove the coolant

    pump/alternator/power-steering pumpdrivebelt(s)

    d) For improved access, remove the radiatorand disconnect the radiator top hose fromthe thermostat housing

    2 Unscrew the three securing bolts andwashers and withdraw the timing cover. Notethe position of the fourth bolt above thecrankshaft pulley which can be left in place.3 Using a socket on the crankshaft pulleybolt, turn the engine clockwise until the TDC(top dead centre) mark on the crankshaftpulley is aligned with the pointer on thecrankshaft front oil seal housing (seeillustration 16.2a of Chapter 5) and the pointeron the camshaft sprocket backplate is alignedwith the indentation on the cylinder head (seeillustration).4 On models up to mid-1985 (with a tensionerspring), loosen the timing belt tensioner springbolt using the special splined socket (seeillustration), then loosen the tensioner pivotbolt. If necessary for improved access,remove the thermostat housing. Press thetensioner against the spring tension andtighten the pivot bolt to retain the tensioner inthe released position.

    5 On models from mid-1985 (without atensioner spring), loosen the timing belttensioner bolts (see illustration) and movethe tensioner away from the belt. If necessaryto improve access, remove the thermostathousing.6 Mark the running direction of the belt if it isto be re-used, then slip it off the camshaftsprocket.7 Slacken the crankshaft pulley bolt. Preventthe crankshaft from turning by engaging topgear (manual gearbox only) and having anassistant apply the brake pedal hard, or byremoving the starter motor and jamming thering gear teeth with a lever. Alternatively, if thepulley has peripheral bolt holes, screw in acouple of bolts and use a lever between themto jam it. Do not allow the crankshaft to turnvery far, or piston/valve contact may occur.8 Remove the bolt and washer and withdrawthe pulley. If the pulley will not come off easily,refit the bolt part way and use a puller (seeillustration). A puller will almost certainly berequired on fuel-injection models.9 Remove the guide washer from in front ofthe crankshaft sprocket, then remove thetiming belt (see illustration). Do not kink it orget oil on it if it is to be re-used.10 If desired, the sprocket can be removed asfollows, otherwise proceed to paragraph 21.11 Remove the crankshaft sprocket, refittingthe bolt part way and using a puller ifnecessary (see illustration).12 Unscrew the auxiliary shaft sprocket boltwhile holding the sprocket stationary with ascrewdriver inserted through one of the holes.

    19 Timing belt and sprockets -removal and refitting

    2A12 SOHC engines

    19.3 TDC pointer on camshaft sprocketbackplate aligned with indentation on

    cylinder head

    19.5 Timing belt tensioner bolts (arrowed) -models from mid-1985

    19.8 Using a puller to remove a pressedtype crankshaft pulley

    19.4 Loosening the timing belt tensionerspring bolt using a splined socket - models

    up to mid-1985

  • 13 Remove the auxiliary shaft sprocket,refitting the bolt part way and using a puller ifnecessary (see illustration).14 Hold the camshaft sprocket stationaryusing a home-made tool similar to that shown(in illustration 18.17 in Part C of this Chapter)with two bolts engaged in the sprocket holes,and unscrew the bolt and washer.Alternatively, remove the camshaft cover andhold the camshaft using a spanner on theboss behind the No 6 valve cam.15 Remove the camshaft sprocket, refittingthe bolt part way and using a puller ifnecessary, then remove the backplate, notingwhich way round it is fitted (see illustrations).16 If desired, the camshaft oil seal can beremoved using self-tapping screws and a pairof grips. A new seal can be fitted using asuitable tube drift to press it into place.Lubricate the seal lips with clean engine oilbefore installation.

    Refitting17 Refit the sprockets as follows.18 Fit the camshaft sprocket backplate, asnoted during removal, then fit the sprocket.Insert the bolt, hold the camshaft or sprocket

    as during removal, and tighten the bolt to thespecified torque. Where applicable, refit thecamshaft cover.19 Fit the auxiliary shaft sprocket with theribs towards the engine. Fit the sprocket boltand tighten it to the specified torque,counterholding the sprocket with a barthrough one of the holes.20 Fit the crankshaft sprocket, chamferedside inwards.21 Fit the timing belt over the crankshaftsprocket, but do not engage it with the othersprockets yet. Be careful not to kink the belt.If the old belt is being refitted, observe thepreviously noted running direction.22 Refit the guide washer and the crankshaftpulley. Fit the bolt and washer and tighten justenough to seat the pulley, being careful not toturn the crankshaft.23 Make sure that the TDC pointer on thecamshaft sprocket backplate is still alignedwith the indentation on the cylinder head.24 Make sure that the TDC mark on thecrankshaft pulley is still aligned with thepointer on the oil seal housing. If necessary,turn the crankshaft by the shortest possible

    route to align the marks.25 If the distributor is fitted, turn the auxiliaryshaft sprocket so that the rotor arm points tothe No 1 HT segment position in thedistributor cap.26 Fit the timing belt over the sprockets andround the tensioner.27 On models up to mid-1985 (with atensioner spring), slacken the pivot bolt, andallow the tensioner roller to rest against thebelt. Using a socket on the crankshaft pulleybolt, turn the crankshaft through twocomplete revolutions in a clockwise direction,to bring No 1 cylinder back to TDC. Tightenthe tensioner pivot bolt and then the springbolt to the specified torque. Do not turn thecrankshaft anti-clockwise with the belttensioner released. Proceed to paragraph 33.28 On models from mid-1985 (without atensioner spring), move the tensioner totension the belt roughly and nip up thetensioner bolts. Using a socket on thecrankshaft pulley bolt, turn the crankshaftthrough two complete revolutions in aclockwise direction (to bring No 1 cylinderback to TDC), then turn the crankshaft 60

    SOHC engines 2A13

    2A

    19.13 Removing the auxiliary shaftsprocket

    19.15b . . . and backplate19.15a Removing the camshaft sprocket . . .

    19.11 Removing the crankshaft sprocket19.9 Removing the guide washer from thecrankshaft

  • anti-clockwise (No 1 cylinder at 60 BTDC)(see illustration).29 The belt tension should now be checkedby applying Ford tension gauge, tool No 21-113 to the longest belt run. Desired gaugereadings are:

    Used belt - 4 to 5New belt - 10 to 11

    If the tension gauge is not available, a roughguide is that the belt tension is correct whenthe belt can be twisted 90 in the middle of thelongest run with the fingers, using moderatepressure (see illustration). In this case, thevehicle should be taken to a Ford dealer sothat the belt tension can be checked using thespecial gauge at the earliest opportunity.30 If adjustment of belt tension is necessary,turn the crankshaft clockwise to bring No 1cylinder to TDC, then slacken the tensioner

    bolts and move the tensioner to increase ordecrease the belt tension. Tighten thetensioner bolts to the specified torque.31 Turn the crankshaft 90 clockwise pastTDC, then anti-clockwise back to the 60BTDC position (No 1 cylinder at 60 BTDC).Check the belt tension again.32 Repeat the procedure given in paragraphs30 and 31 until the belt tension is correct.33 Tighten the crankshaft pulley bolt to thespecified torque, preventing the crankshaftfrom turning as described in paragraph 7 (seeillustration).34 Refit the timing cover and tighten its bolts.35 If the engine is in the vehicle, reverse theoperations described in paragraph 1.36 When the engine is next started, checkthe ignition timing is correct.

    Note: Refer to the warning in Section 8 andthe note at the beginning of Section 21 beforeproceeding.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2 Drain the cooling system. 3 Disconnect the coolant hose from thethermostat housing. 4 Disconnect the wiring from the temperaturegauge sender. 5 Disconnect the HT leads from the sparkplugs and from the clips on the camshaftcover and remove the spark plugs.6 On carburettor models, remove the aircleaner.7 The cylinder head can be removed eitherwith or without the manifolds. If desired, theinlet manifold can be unbolted and moved toone side, leaving the wires, hoses, pipes andcables connected, but care must be taken notto strain any of the wires, hoses, pipes orcables.8 Unscrew the three securing nuts anddisconnect the exhaust downpipe from themanifold flange. Recover the gasket.9 Disconnect the coolant hose from the clipon the exhaust manifold hot air shroud, and ifdesired, remove the exhaust manifold.10 If the inlet manifold is to be removed withthe cylinder head, disconnect all relevant

    20 Cylinder head - removal andrefitting (engine in vehicle)

    2A14 SOHC engines

    19.33 Holding a pressed type crankshaftpulley with two bolts and a lever while

    tightening the bolt

    19.29 Twisting the timing belt to assess itstension

    19.28 Timing belt tension checking sequence - models from mid-1985

    A No 1 cylinder at TDC B No 1 cylinder at 60 BTDC forchecking

    C Return No 1 cylinder to TDC foradjustment

  • wires, hoses, pipes and cables, otherwise,unbolt the manifold and move it to one side,ensuring that it is adequately supported. 11 If not already done, unclip any wires andhoses from the camshaft cover, noting theirlocations for use when refitting, and on fuelinjection models unbolt the bracing strutsecuring the inlet manifold to the right-handside of the cylinder head.12 If desired, remove the thermostat andhousing, and the temperature gauge sender.13 Proceed as described in Section 21 forcylinder head removal.

    Refitting14 With the cylinder head refitted asdescribed in Section 21, proceed as follows.15 Where applicable, refit the temperaturegauge sender and the thermostat andhousing.16 Refit the manifolds and/or reconnect allwires, hoses, pipes and cables, as applicable.17 Reconnect the exhaust downpipe to themanifold, using a new gasket.18 Refit the coolant hose to the clip on theexhaust manifold hot air shroud.19 Refit the spark plugs and reconnect theHT leads. 20 Reconnect the temperature gauge senderwiring. 21 Reconnect the coolant hoses to thethermostat housing.22 Fill the cooling system.23 If not already done, refit any hoses andwires to the camshaft cover, as noted duringremoval, and on fuel injection models refit theinlet manifold bracing strut. If splined typecylinder head bolts have been used, leavethese operations until the bolts have beenfinally tightened after running the engine.24 Refit the air cleaner on carburettormodels. 25 Reconnect the battery negative lead.26 If splined type cylinder head bolts havebeen used, start the engine and run it at 1000rpm for 15 minutes, then stop the engine,remove the air cleaner and the camshaft coveras described previously, and finally tighten thecylinder head bolts to the fourth stage (seeSpecifications). Refit the camshaft cover oncompletion, then refit any hoses and wires,and on fuel injection models the inlet manifoldbracing strut. Refit the air cleaner.

    Note: Up to early 1984, splined type cylinderhead bolts were used, and from early 1984,size T55 Torx bolts were used. Torx type boltsmust always be renewed after slackening. Thetwo types of bolts are interchangeable, butonly in complete sets - the two types must notbe mixed on the same engine. A suitablespecial socket will be required for removal ofthe bolts, and a new cylinder head gasketmust be used when refitting.

    Removal1 With the manifolds removed, proceed asfollows.2 Remove the timing belt.3 Where applicable, disconnect the breatherhose from the camshaft cover.4 Unscrew the ten securing bolts and removethe camshaft cover and gasket. Take care notto lose the spacer plates which fit under thebolt heads, where applicable.5 Using the relevant special socket, unscrewthe ten cylinder head bolts half a turn at a timein the reverse order to that shown fortightening. 6 With the bolts removed, lift the cylinderhead from the block. If the cylinder head isstuck, tap it free with a wooden mallet. Placethe cylinder head on blocks of wood toprevent damage to the valves.7 Recover the gasket.

    Refitting8 Commence refitting as follows.9 With the cylinder head supported on blocksof wood, check and if necessary adjust the

    valve clearances. This work is easier to carryout on the bench rather than in the vehicle.10 Turn the crankshaft so that No 1 piston isapproximately 20 mm (0.8 in) before TDC.This precaution will prevent any damage toopen valves.11 Make sure that the mating faces of thecylinder block and cylinder head are perfectlyclean, then locate the new gasket on theblock making sure that all the internal holesare aligned (see illustration). Do not usejointing compound.12 Turn the camshaft so that the TDC pointeron the camshaft sprocket backplate is alignedwith the indentation on the front of thecylinder head.13 Lower the cylinder head onto the gasket.The help of an assistant will ensure that thegasket is not dislodged.14 Lightly oil the cylinder head bolt threadsand heads, then insert the bolts into theirlocations in the cylinder head. Note that if theoriginal bolts were of the Torx type, new boltsmust be used when refitting.15 Using the relevant special socket, tightenthe bolts in the correct sequence (seeillustration) to the stages given in theSpecifications. Note that the bolt tighteningstages are different for splined and Torx typebolts. If splined type bolts are used, they mustbe finally tightened to the fourth stage afterthe engine has been run for 15 minutes (seeSpecifications). 16 Check the condition of the camshaftcover gasket and renew if necessary. Fit thegasket to the camshaft cover, ensuring thatthe locating tabs and dovetails are correctlylocated, then refit the camshaft cover andtighten the securing bolts in the order shown(see Chapter 1, Section 23), ensuring that thespacer plates are in position under the boltheads, where applicable.17 Where applicable, reconnect the breatherhose to the camshaft cover.18 Refit the timing belt.

    21 Cylinder head - removal andrefitting (engine removed)

    SOHC engines 2A15

    2A

    21.15 Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence

    21.11 Fitting a new cylinder head gasket

    Tap a stuck cylinder headfree with a wooden mallet.Do not insert a lever into thehead joint as this may

    damage the mating faces.

  • Note: A valve spring compressor will berequired during this procedure. New valvestem oil seals should be used on reassembly.

    Dismantling1 With the cylinder head removed, removethe camshaft.2 Using a valve spring compressor, compressone of the valve springs until the split colletscan be removed from the groove in the valvestem. Release the compressor and removethe cap and spring, identifying them forlocation. If the cap is difficult to release, donot continue to tighten the compressor, butgently tap the top of the tool with a hammer.Always make sure that the compressor isfirmly located on the valve head and the cap.Withdraw the valve (see illustrations).3 Repeat the procedure given in paragraph 2for the remaining valves, keeping allcomponents identified for location so thatthey can be refitted in their original positions.4 Prise the valve stem oil seals from the topsof the valve guides (see illustration).5 Unscrew the cam follower ball-pins fromthe cylinder head, keeping them identified forlocation.

    Reassembly6 Commence reassembly by refitting the camfollower ball-pins to their original locations,where applicable.7 Lubricate the valve stems and guides withSAE 80/90 hypoid oil, then insert the valvesinto their original guides.8 Wrap a thin layer of adhesive tape over thecollet groove of each valve, then smear thenew oil seals with a little SAE 80/90 hypoid oiland slide them down the valve stems onto theguides. If necessary use a suitable metal tubeto press the oil seals into the guides. Removethe adhesive tape.9 Working on each valve in turn, fit the valvespring and cap, then compress the springusing the valve spring compressor and fit thesplit collets to the groove in the valve stem.Release the compressor and tap the end ofthe valve stem with a soft-faced mallet to

    settle the components. If the originalcomponents are being refitted, ensure thatthey are refitted in their original locations.10 Refit the camshaft.

    Note: On engines fitted with hardened valveseats for use with unleaded petrol, valve andvalve seat grinding and recutting cannot becarried out without the use of specialistequipment. Consult a Ford dealer for furtheradvice.1 This operation will normally only berequired at comparatively high mileages.However, if persistent pre-ignition (pinking)occurs and performance has deterioratedeven though the engine adjustments arecorrect, de-carbonizing and valve grindingmay be required.2 With the cylinder head removed, use ascraper to remove the carbon from thecombustion chambers and ports. Remove alltraces of gasket from the cylinder headsurface, then wash it thoroughly with paraffin.3 Use a straight edge and feeler blade tocheck that the cylinder head surface is notdistorted. If it is, it must be resurfaced by asuitably equipped engineering works.4 If the engine is still in the vehicle, clean thepiston crowns and cylinder bore upper edges,but make sure that no carbon drops betweenthe pistons and bores. To do this, locate twoof the pistons at the top of their bores andseal off the remaining bores with paper and

    masking tape. Press a little grease betweenthe two pistons and their bores to collect anycarbon dust; this can be wiped away whenthe piston is lowered. To prevent carbonbuild-up, polish the piston crown with metalpolish, but remove all traces of the polishafterwards.5 Examine the heads of the valves for pittingand burning, especially the exhaust valveheads. Renew any valve which is badly burnt.Examine the valve seats at the same time. Ifthe pitting is very slight, it can be removed bygrinding the valve heads and seats togetherwith coarse, then fine, grinding paste.6 Where excessive pitting has occurred, thevalve seats must be recut or renewed by asuitably equipped engineering works.7 Valve grinding is carried out as follows.Place the cylinder head upside down on abench on blocks of wood.8 Smear a trace of coarse carborundumpaste on the valve seat face and press asuction grinding tool onto the valve head.With a semi-rotary action, grind the valvehead to its seat, lifting the valve occasionallyto redistribute the grinding paste. When a dullmatt even surface is produced on the matingsurface of both the valve seat and the valve,wipe off the paste and repeat the process withfine carborundum paste as before. A lightspring placed under the valve head will greatlyease this operation. When a smooth unbrokenring of light grey matt finish is produced onthe mating surface of both the valve and seat,the grinding operation is complete.9 Scrape away all carbon from the valve headand stem, and clean away all traces ofgrinding compound. Clean the valves andseats with a paraffin soaked rag, then wipewith a clean rag.10 If the guides are worn they will needreboring for oversize valves or for fitting guideinserts. The valve seats will also needrecutting to ensure that they are concentricwith the stems. This work should be entrustedto a Ford dealer or local engineering works.11 Check that the free length of the valvesprings is as specified, and renew ifnecessary. Do not renew individual springs; ifany springs are excessively worn, renew allthe springs as a set.

    23 Cylinder head - inspectionand renovation

    22 Cylinder head - dismantlingand reassembly

    2A16 SOHC engines

    22.2a Compressing a valve spring 22.2c Removing a valve

    22.4 Removing a valve stem oil seal

    22.2b Removing a valve spring and cap

  • Note: A new camshaft oil seal should be usedwhen refitting the camshaft.

    Removal1 Remove the cylinder head.2 Hold the camshaft stationary using asuitable spanner on the cast boss behind theNo 6 valve cam, and unscrew the camshaftsprocket bolt and washer.3 Remove the camshaft sprocket, using asuitable puller if necessary, and withdraw thesprocket backplate, noting which way round itis fitted.4 Remove the three securing bolts and

    withdraw the camshaft oil supply tube (seeillustration).5 Note how the cam follower retainingsprings are fitted, then unhook them from thecam followers (see illustration).6 Loosen the locknuts and back off the ball-pin adjuster nuts until the cam followers canbe removed (see illustration). Note theirlocations for use when refitting. It will benecessary to rotate the camshaft during thisoperation.7 Unscrew the two bolts and remove thecamshaft thrustplate from the rear bearinghousing (see illustration).8 Carefully withdraw the camshaft from therear of the cylinder head taking care not todamage the bearings (see illustration).9 Prise the oil seal from the front bearing inthe cylinder head (see illustration).

    Inspection10 Examine the surfaces of the camshaftjournals and lobes, and the cam followers forwear. If wear is excessive, considerable noisewould have been noticed from the top of theengine when running, and a new camshaftand followers must be fitted.11 Check the camshaft bearings for wear,and if necessary have them renewed by aFord dealer.12 Check the camshaft oil supply tube forobstructions, making sure the jet holes are clear.

    Refitting13 Commence refitting by driving a new oilseal into the cylinder head front bearing, using

    a suitable tube drift or socket (seeillustration). Smear the seal lip with cleanengine oil.14 Lubricate the camshaft, bearings andthrustplate with SAE 80/90 hypoid oil, thencarefully insert the camshaft from the rear ofthe cylinder head, taking care not to damagethe bearings.15 Locate the thrustplate in the camshaftgroove, then insert and tighten the bolts.16 Using a dial test indicator if available, orfeeler blades, check that the camshaftendfloat is within the limits given in theSpecifications. If not, renew the thrustplateand re-check. If this does not bring theendfloat within limits, the camshaft must berenewed.17 Lubricate the ball-pins with SAE 80/90hypoid oil, then refit the cam followers to theiroriginal locations, and refit the retainingsprings as noted during removal. It will benecessary to rotate the camshaft during thisoperation.18 Fit the oil supply tube and tighten thebolts.19 Fit the camshaft sprocket backplate, asnoted during removal.20 Fit the camshaft sprocket, then insert andtighten the bolt (with washer in place) to thespecified torque, holding the camshaftstationary as described in paragraph 2.21 With the cylinder head supported onblocks of wood, adjust the valve clearances.This work is easier to carry out on the benchrather than in the vehicle.22 Refit the cylinder head.

    24 Camshaft and cam followers- removal, inspection andrefitting

    SOHC engines 2A17

    2A

    24.6 Removing a cam follower

    24.13 Fitting a new camshaft oil seal usinga socket

    24.9 Prising out the camshaft oil seal24.8 Withdrawing the camshaft

    24.7 Unscrew the securing bolts andremove the camshaft thrustplate

    24.5 Note how the cam follower retainingsprings are fitted

    24.4 Withdrawing the camshaft oil supplytube

  • Note: A new gasket should be used whenrefitting the auxiliary shaft cover (see text).

    Removal1 Remove the timing belt and the auxiliaryshaft sprocket.2 Remove the distributor.3 Remove the mechanical fuel pump andoperating pushrod (where applicable).4 Unscrew the three securing bolts andremove the auxiliary shaft cover (seeillustration).5 Unscrew the cross-head screws, using animpact screwdriver if necessary, remove thethrustplate and withdraw the auxiliary shaftfrom the cylinder block (see illustrations).6 Cut the cover gasket along the top of thecrankshaft front oil seal housing and scrapeoff the gasket.

    Inspection7 Examine the shaft for wear and damage,and renew it if necessary. 8 If desired, the oil seal in the cover can berenewed as follows.9 Support the cover on blocks of wood anddrive out the old oil seal. Drive the new sealinto place using a suitable metal tube orsocket (see illustrations). The sealing lipmust face towards the cylinder block. Smearthe sealing lip with clean engine oil beforeinstallation.

    Refitting10 Commence refitting by lubricating theauxiliary shaft journals with clean engine oil,then insert the shaft into the cylinder block.11 Locate the thrustplate in the shaft groove,then insert the crosshead screws and tightenthem with an impact screwdriver.12 Using a dial test indicator (if available), orfeeler blades, check that the auxiliary shaftendfloat is within the limits given in theSpecifications. If not, renew the thrustplateand re-check. If this does not bring theendfloat within limits, the auxiliary shaft mustbe renewed.13 Cut out the relevant section of a newgasket, and locate it on the cylinder block,then refit the auxiliary shaft cover and tightenthe securing bolts.14 Where applicable, refit the fuel pump.15 Refit the distributor.16 Refit the auxiliary shaft sprocket and thetiming belt.

    Note: The manufacturers recommend that theflywheel/driveplate securing bolts are renewedafter slackening. Suitable thread-locking agentwill be required to coat the bolt threads.

    Removal1 If the engine is in the vehicle, remove theclutch or the automatic transmission, asapplicable.

    2 Prevent the flywheel/driveplate from turningby jamming the ring gear teeth or by bolting astrap between the flywheel/driveplate and thecylinder block.3 Make alignment marks on theflywheel/driveplate and the end of thecrankshaft, so that the flywheel/driveplate canbe refitted in its original position.4 Unscrew the securing bolts and withdrawthe flywheel/driveplate. Do not drop it, it isvery heavy. Note that on models with A4LDtype automatic transmission, the driveplatemay be secured with one or two reinforcingplates depending on model.5 The engine adapter plate may now bewithdrawn from the dowels if required (seeillustration).

    Inspection6 With the flywheel/driveplate removed, thering gear can be examined for wear anddamage.7 If the ring gear is badly worn or has missingteeth it should be renewed. The old ring canbe removed from the flywheel/driveplate bycutting a notch between two teeth with ahacksaw and then splitting it with a coldchisel. Wear eye protection when doing this.8 Fitting of a new ring gear requires heatingthe ring to 400F (204C). This can be done bypolishing four equally spaced sections of thegear, laying it on a heat resistant surface (suchas fire bricks) and heating it evenly with a blowlamp or torch until the polished areas turn alight yellow tinge. Do not overheat, or the hardwearing properties will be lost. The gear has a

    26 Flywheel/driveplate - removal,inspection and refitting

    25 Auxiliary shaft - removal,inspection and refitting

    2A18 SOHC engines

    25.4 Unscrew the auxiliary shaft coversecuring bolts and remove the cover

    25.5b Withdraw the auxiliary shaft

    26.5 Withdrawing the engine adaptor plate25.9b Using a socket to fit a new auxiliaryshaft cover oil seal

    25.9a Driving out the auxiliary shaft coveroil seal

    25.5a Unscrew the auxiliary shaftthrustplate securing screws and remove

    the thrustplate

  • chamfered inner edge which should fit againstthe shoulder on the flywheel. When hotenough, place the gear in position quickly,tapping it home if necessary, and let it coolnaturally without quenching in any way.

    Refitting9 Commence refitting of theflywheel/driveplate by refitting the engineadapter plate to the dowels on the rear of thecylinder block, where applicable.10 Ensure that the mating faces are clean,then locate the flywheel/driveplate on the rearof the crankshaft, aligning the previouslymade marks (see illustration).11 Coat the threads of the securing boltswith a liquid thread-locking agent, then insertthe bolts. Note that the manufacturers rec-ommend the use of new bolts. Whereapplicable refit the reinforcing plate(s) onmodels with A4LD type automatics

    12 Prevent the flywheel/driveplate fromturning as described in paragraph 2, thentighten the securing bolts to the specifiedtorque in a diagonal sequence (seeillustration).13 If the engine is in the vehicle, refit theclutch or the automatic transmission, asapplicable.

    Note: A new gasket will be required forrefitting if the old seal housing is removedduring this procedure.1 Remove the timing belt and the crankshaftsprocket.2 If an oil seal removal tool is available, the oilseal can be removed at this stage. It may alsobe possible to remove the oil seal by drilling

    the outer face and using self-tapping screwsand a pair of grips.3 If the oil seal cannot be removed asdescribed in paragraph 2, remove the sumpand the auxiliary shaft sprocket, then unboltthe oil seal housing and the auxiliary shaftfront cover. Recover the gasket. The oil sealcan then be driven out from the inside of thehousing (see illustrations).4 Clean the oil seal housing, then drive in anew seal using a suitable metal tube orsocket. Make sure that the seal lip faces intothe engine and lightly smear the lip with cleanengine oil (see illustration).5 Where applicable, refit the oil seal housingand the auxiliary shaft front cover, using anew gasket, and tighten the bolts. Using astraight edge, ensure that the bottom face ofthe oil seal housing is aligned with the bottomface of the cylinder block before finallytightening the bolts (see illustrations). Refitthe auxiliary shaft sprocket and refit the sump.6 Refit the crankshaft sprocket and timingbelt.

    1 Remove the flywheel/driveplate and theengine adapter plate.2 Extract the oil seal using an oil seal removaltool if available. It may also be possible toremove the oil seal by drilling the outer faceand using self-tapping screws and a pair ofgrips (see illustration).

    28 Crankshaft rear oil seal -renewal

    27 Crankshaft front oil seal -renewal

    SOHC engines 2A19

    2A

    27.3a Removing the crankshaft front oilseal housing

    27.3b Driving the crankshaft front oil sealfrom the housing

    28.2 Crankshaft rear oil seal location(arrowed)

    27.5b Checking the alignment of thecrankshaft front oil seal housing

    27.5a Crankshaft front oil sealhousing/auxiliary shaft cover gasket

    located on front of cylinder block

    27.4 Using a socket to fit a new crankshaftfront oil seal

    26.12 Use a strap to prevent the flywheelturning as its securing bolts are tightened

    26.10 Flywheel located on crankshaft

  • 3 Clean the oil seal housing, then drive in anew seal using a suitable metal tube orsocket. Make sure that the seal lip faces intothe engine and lightly smear the lip with cleanengine oil.4 Refit the engine adapter plate and theflywheel/driveplate.

    Note: New gaskets and sealing strips will berequired for refitting, and sealing compoundwill be required to coat the gasket faces.

    Removal1 If the engine is in the vehicle, proceed asfollows, otherwise proceed to paragraph 12.2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.

    3 Apply the handbrake, jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).4 Drain the engine oil into a container.5 Remove the starter motor, if necessary.6 Unscrew the nuts or bolts, as applicable,securing the engine mountings to thecrossmember.7 Working in the engine compartment,unscrew the bolt securing the intermediateshaft to the steering column, swivel the clampplate to one side, and disconnect theintermediate shaft.8 Where applicable, detach the brake linesfrom the crossmember.9 Support the engine using a hoist, or a barand blocks of wood resting on the suspensionturrets (see illustrations). Attach the liftingtackle to the engine lifting brackets on thecylinder head. If using a support bar, theengine may be lifted slightly by using the bar

    as a lever before resting it on the woodenblocks.10 Support the front crossmember with atrolley jack, then unscrew the bolts securingthe crossmember to the underbody (seeillustration).11 Lower the crossmember just enough togive sufficient clearance to remove the sump(see illustrations).12 Unscrew the twenty-three securing boltsand withdraw the sump (see illustration). Ifthe sump is stuck, carefully tap it sideways tofree it. Do not prise between the mating faces.Note that if the engine has been removed, it ispreferable to keep the engine upright until thesump has been removed to prevent sludgefrom entering the engine internals.13 Recover the gaskets and sealing strips.14 Thoroughly clean the mating faces of thecylinder block and sump.

    Refitting15 Commence refitting by applying sealingcompound (available from a Ford dealer) tothe corners of the front and rear rubbersealing strip locations in the cylinder block,then press the sealing strips into the groovesin the rear main bearing cap and thecrankshaft front oil seal housing (seeillustrations).16 Apply a little sealing compound to themating face of the cylinder block, then placethe sump gaskets in position, ensuring thatthe end tabs locate correctly beneath therubber sealing strips (see illustration).17 Locate the sump on the gaskets andloosely fit the securing bolts.

    29 Sump - removal and refitting

    2A20 SOHC engines

    29.9a Make up wooden blocks to fit thefront suspension turrets and support a

    metal bar . . .

    29.10 Unscrew the front crossmembersecuring bolts

    29.15b . . . then fit the rubber sealing strips29.15a Apply sealing compound . . .29.12 Unscrew the securing bolts andwithdraw the sump

    29.11b . . . to give sufficient clearance forsump removal

    29.11a Lower the suspension . . .

    29.9b . . . which will support the engine

  • 18 Tighten the bolts in the correct sequence(see illustration) noting the two stages givenin the Specifications. Tighten to the first stagein a clockwise sequence starting at point A,then tighten to the second stage in aclockwise sequence starting at point B.Tighten to the third stage after the engine hasbeen running for twenty minutes.19 If the engine is in the vehicle proceed asfollows.20 Carefully lift the crossmember with thejack, then refit the securing bolts and tightento the specified torque.21 Withdraw the jack, then lower the engineand remove the lifting tackle.22 Where applicable, refit the brake lines tothe crossmember.23 Ensure that the front wheels are pointingstraight ahead and that the steering wheel iscentred, then reconnect the intermediate shaftto the steering column. Secure the clampplate with the bolt.24 Refit the engine mounting bolts and

    tighten to the specified torque.25 Refit the starter motor. 26 Lower the vehicle to the ground.27 Ensure that the sump drain plug is fitted,then fill the engine with the correct quantityand grade of oil. If necessary, renew the oilfilter before filling the engine with oil.28 Reconnect the battery negative lead.29 Start the engine and check for leaksaround the sump, and where applicable the oilfilter. When the engine is started, there maybe a delay in the extinguishing of the oilpressure warning lamp while the systempressurises.30 Run the engine for twenty minutes thenstop the engine and tighten the sump bolts tothe third stage given in the Specifications,starting at the point A shown and workingclockwise.31 Check the oil level.32 Dispose of any old engine oil safely. Donot pour it down a drain - this is illegal andcauses pollution.

    Removal1 Remove the sump.2 Unscrew the bolt securing the pick-up tubeand strainer to the cylinder block (seeillustration).3 Using a suitable splined socket, unscrewthe two securing bolts and withdraw the oilpump and strainer (see illustration).4 If desired, the hexagon-shaped driveshaftcan be withdrawn, but note which way round

    it is fitted (see illustration). The driveshaftengages with the lower end of the distributordriveshaft.5 Thoroughly clean the mating faces of the oilpump and cylinder block.

    Refitting6 Commence refitting by inserting the oilpump driveshaft into the cylinder block in itspreviously noted position.7 Prime the pump by injecting oil into it andturning it by hand. 8 Fit the pump, insert the securing bolts, andtighten them to the specified torque.9 Fit the pick-up tube securing bolt andtighten it. 10 Refit the sump.

    Note: A new pressure relief valve plug andpick-up tube gasket will be required forreassembly.

    Dismantling1 If oil pump wear is suspected, check thecost and availability of new parts and the costof a new pump. Examine the pump asdescribed in this Section and then decidewhether renewal or repair is the best course ofaction.2 Unbolt the pick-up tube and strainer.Recover the gasket.3 Unscrew the three securing bolts andremove the oil pump cover (see illustration).

    31 Oil pump - dismantling,inspection and reassembly

    30 Oil pump - removal andrefitting

    SOHC engines 2A21

    2A

    30.2 Unscrewing the oil pick-up tubesecuring bolt

    30.4 Withdrawing the oil pump driveshaft30.3 Unscrewing an oil pump securing bolt

    29.18 Sump bolt tightening sequence -refer to text

    29.16 Locate the sump gasket end tabsbeneath the rubber sealing strips

    31.3 Exploded view of the oil pump

    A BodyB Outer rotorC Inner rotorD CoverE StrainerF Pick-up tubeG GasketH Pressure relief valve

  • 4 Mark the rotor faces so that the rotors canbe refitted in their original positions, then liftthe rotors from the pump body.5 Remove the pressure relief valve plug bypiercing it with a punch and levering it out,then withdraw the spring and plunger.6 Thoroughly clean all parts in petrol orparaffin and wipe dry using a non-fluffy rag.

    Reassembly and inspection7 Commence reassembly by lubricating therelief valve plunger. Fit the plunger and spring.8 Fit a new relief valve plug, flat sideoutwards and seat it with a drift until it is flushwith the pick-up mating face.9 Lubricate the rotors and fit them. Note themarks made when dismantling, if applicable.10 The necessary clearances may now bechecked using a machined straight edge (agood steel rule) and a set of feeler blades. Thecritical clearances are between the lobes ofthe centre rotor and convex faces of the outerrotor; between the outer and pump body; andbetween both rotors and the end cover plate(endfloat). The desired clearances are given inthe Specifications (see illustrations).11 Endfloat can be measured by placing astraight edge across the pump body andmeasuring the clearance between the tworotors and the straight edge using feelerblades (see illustration).12 New rotors are only available as a pair. Ifthe rotor-to-body clearance is excessive, acomplete new pump should be fitted. 13 Refit the pump cover and tighten thesecuring bolts. 14 Fit the pick-up tube and strainer, using anew gasket. 15 Temporarily insert the driveshaft into thepump and make sure that the rotors turn freely.

    16 Prime the pump before refitting.

    Removal1 Remove the sump and the cylinder head. 2 Check the big-end bearing caps foridentification marks and if necessary use acentre-punch to identify the caps andcorresponding connecting rods (seeillustration). 3 Turn the crankshaft so that No 1 crankpin isat its lowest point, then unscrew the nuts andtap off the bearing cap. Keep the bearingshells in the cap and connecting rod.4 Using the handle of a hammer, push thepiston and connecting rod up the bore andwithdraw from the top of the cylinder block.Loosely refit the cap to the connecting rod.5 Repeat the procedure in paragraphs 3 and4 on No 4 piston and connecting rod, thenturn the crankshaft through half a turn andrepeat the procedure on Nos 2 and 3 pistonsand connecting rods.

    Refitting6 Commence refitting as follows.7 Clean the backs of the bearing shells andthe recesses in the connecting rods and big-end caps.8 Press the bearing shells into the connectingrods and caps in their correct positions and oilthem liberally. Note that the lugs incorresponding shells must be adjacent toeach other (see illustration).9 Lubricate the cylinder bores with cleanengine oil.

    10 Fit a piston ring compressor to No 1piston, then insert the piston and connectingrod into No 1 cylinder (see illustration). WithNo 1 crankpin at its lowest point, drive thepiston carefully into the cylinder with thewooden handle of a hammer, and at the sametime guide the connecting rod onto thecrankpin. Make sure that the arrow on thepiston crown is facing the front of the engine.11 Oil the crankpin, then fit the big-endbearing cap in its previously noted position,and tighten the nuts to the specified torque. 12 Check that the crankshaft turns freely. 13 Repeat the procedure given in paragraphs11 to 13 inclusive on the remaining pistons. 14 Refit the cylinder head and the sump.

    1 Examine the pistons for ovality, scoring,and scratches. Check the connecting rods forwear and damage. The connecting rods carrya letter indicating their weight class; all therods fitted must be of the same class. 2 The gudgeon pins are an interference fit inthe connecting rods, and if new pistons are tobe fitted to the existing connecting rods, thework should be carried out by a Ford dealerwho will have the necessary tooling. Note thatthe oil splash hole in the connecting rod mustbe located on the right-hand side of the piston(the arrow on the piston crown faces forwards).3 If new rings are to be fitted to the existingpistons, expand the old rings over the top ofthe pistons. The use of two or three old feelerblades will be helpful in preventing the ringsdropping into empty grooves. Note that the oilcontrol ring is in three sections.

    33 Pistons and connecting rods- examination and renovation

    32 Pistons and connecting rods- removal and refitting

    2A22 SOHC engines

    31.10a Checking the oil pump outer rotor-to-body clearance

    31.11 Checking the oil pump rotor endfloat

    32.10 Fitting a piston ring compressor32.8 The bearing shell lugs (arrowed) mustbe adjacent to each other

    32.2 Big-end cap and connecting rodidentification numbers

    31.10b Checking the oil pump inner-to-outer rotor clearance

  • 4 Before fitting the new rings to the pistons,insert them into the cylinder bore and use afeeler blade to check that the end gaps arewithin the specified limits (see illustration).5 Clean out the piston ring groove using apiece of old piston ring as a scraper. Becareful not to scratch the aluminium surfaceof the pistons. Protect your fingers - pistonring edges are sharp.6 Fit the oil control ring sections with thespreader ends abutted opposite the front of thepiston. The side ring gaps should be 25 mm (1.0in) either side of the spreader gap. Fit thetapered lower compression ring with the TOPmark towards the top of the piston and the gap150 from the spreader gap, then fit the uppercompression ring with the gap 150 on theother side of the spreader gap. Note that thecompression rings are coated with amolybdenum skin which must not be damaged.Note also that the compression rings are madeof cast iron, and will snap if expanded too far.

    Removal1 With the engine removed from the vehicle,remove the timing belt, crankshaft sprocket,auxiliary shaft sprocket and theflywheel/driveplate.2 Remove the pistons and connecting rods. Ifno work is to be done on the pistons andconnecting rods, there is no need to push thepistons out of the cylinder bores.3 Unbolt the crankshaft front oil seal housingand the auxiliary shaft front cover and removethe gasket.

    4 Remove the oil pump and pick-up tube.5 Check the main bearing caps foridentification marks and if necessary use acentre-punch to identify them (seeillustration).6 Before removing the crankshaft, check thatthe endfloat is within the specified limits byinserting a feeler blade between the centrecrankshaft web and the thrustwashers (seeillustration). This will indicate whether or notnew thrustwashers are required.7 Unscrew the bolts and tap off the mainbearing caps complete with bearing shells. Ifthe thrustwashers are to be re-used identifythem for location. Recover the sealing wedgesfrom either side of the rear bearing cap.8 Lift the crankshaft from the crankcase andremove the rear oil seal. Recover theremaining thrustwashers (see illustration).9 Extract the bearing shells, keeping themidentified for location (see illustration).

    Refitting10 Commence refitting as follows.11 Wipe the bearing shell locations in thecrankcase with a soft, non-fluffy rag.12 Wipe the crankshaft journals with a soft,non-fluffy rag.13 If the old main bearing shells are to berenewed (not to do so is a false economy,unless they are virtually new) fit the five upperhalves of the main bearing shells to theirlocation in the crankcase.14 Identify each main bearing cap and placein order. The number is cast on to the cap andon intermediate caps an arrow is markedwhich points towards the front of the engine.15 Wipe each cap bearing shell location witha soft non-fluffy rag.

    16 Fit the bearing half shell onto each mainbearing cap.17 Apply a little grease to each side of thecentre main bearing so as to retain thethrustwashers.18 Fit the upper halves of the thrustwashersinto their grooves either side of the mainbearing. The slots must face outwards.19 Lubricate the crankshaft journals and theupper and lower main bearing shells withclean engine oil and locate the rear oil seal(with lip lubricated) on the rear of thecrankshaft.20 Carefully lower the crankshaft into thecrankcase.21 Lubricate the crankshaft main bearingjournals again, and then fit No 1 bearing cap. Fitthe two securing bolts but do not tighten yet.22 Make sure that the mating faces areclean, then apply sealant (Loctite 518 orequivalent) to the areas on the rear mainbearing cap shown (see illustration).23 Fit the rear main bearing cap. Fit the twosecuring bolts but as before do not tighten yet.24 Apply a little grease to either side of thecentre main bearing cap so as to retain thethrustwashers. Fit the thrustwashers with thetag located in the groove and the slots facingoutwards (see illustration).25 Fit the centre main bearing cap and thetwo securing bolts, then refit the intermediatemain bearing caps. Make sure that the arrowspoint towards the front of the engine.26 Lightly tighten all main bearing capsecuring bolts and then fully tighten in aprogressive manner to the specified torquewrench setting. 27 Check that the crankshaft rotates freely.Some stiffness is to be expected with new

    34 Crankshaft and main bearings- removal and refitting

    SOHC engines 2A23

    2A

    34.6 Checking crankshaft endfloat

    34.22 Coat the arrowed areas of the rearmain bearing cap with sealant

    34.9 Extract each main bearing shell34.8 Removing a thrustwasher from thecentre main bearing

    34.5 Main bearing cap identification marks.The arrow points to the front of the engine

    33.4 Checking a piston ring gap at the topof the cylinder bore

  • components, but there must be no tight spotsor binding.28 Check that the crankshaft endfloat iswithin the specified limits by inserting a feelerblade between the centre crankshaft web andthe thrustwashers.29 Make sure that the rear oil seal is fullylocated onto its seating. Coat the rear mainbearing cap sealing wedges with sealingcompound, then press them into positionusing a blunt screwdriver with the roundedred face towards the cap (see illustration).30 Refit the oil pump and pick-up tube.31 Refit the crankshaft front oil seal housingand the auxiliary shaft front cover using a newgasket, and tighten the securing bolts. Smearthe lip of the oil seal with clean engine oilbefore fitting; and using a straight edge, ensurethat the bottom face of the oil seal housing isaligned with the bottom face of the cylinderblock before finally tightening the bolts.32 Refit the pistons and connecting rods.33 Refit the flywheel/driveplate and theauxiliary shaft sprocket, crankshaft sprocket,and timing belt.

    1 Examine the bearing surfaces of thecrankshaft for scratches or scoring and, usinga micrometer, check each journal andcrankpin for ovality. Where this is found to bein excess of 0.0254 mm (0.001 in) thecrankshaft will have to be reground andundersize bearings fitted.2 Crankshaft regrinding should be carried outby a suitable engineering works, who willnormally supply the matching undersize mainand big-end shell bearings.3 Note that undersize bearings may alreadyhave been fitted, either in production or by aprevious repairer. Check the markings on thebacks of the old bearing shells, and if in doubttake them along when buying new ones.Production undersizes are also indicated bypaint marks as follows:White line on main bearing cap - parent bore

    0.40 mm oversizeGreen line on crankshaft front counterweight

    - main bearing journals 0.25 mmundersize

    Green spot on counterweight - big-endbearing journals 0.25 mm undersize

    4 If the crankshaft endfloat is more than themaximum specified amount, newthrustwashers should be fitted to the centremain bearings. These are usually suppliedtogether with the main and big-end bearingson a reground crankshaft.5 An accurate method of determining bearingwear is by the use of Plastigage. Thecrankshaft is located in the main bearings(and big-end bearings if necessary) and thePlastigage filament located across the journalwhich must be dry. The cap is then fitted andthe bolts/nuts tightened to the specifiedtorque. On removal of the cap the width of thefilaments is checked against a scale whichshows the bearing running clearance. Thisclearance is then compared with that given inthe Specifications (see illustration).6 If the spigot bearing in the rear of thecrankshaft requires renewal, extract it with asuitable puller. Alternatively fill it with heavygrease and use a close fitting metal doweldriven into the centre of the bearing. Drive thenew bearing into the crankshaft with a softmetal drift.

    1 The cylinder bores must be examined fortaper, ovality, scoring and scratches. Start byexamining the top of the bores; if these areworn, a slight ridge will be found which marksthe top of the piston ring travel. If the wear isexcessive, the engine will have had a high oilconsumption rate accompanied by bluesmoke from the exhaust.2 If available, use an inside dial gauge tomeasure the bore diameter just below theridge and compare it with the diameter at thebottom of the bore, which is not subject towear. If the difference is more than 0.152 mm(0.006 in), the cylinders will normally requirereboring with new oversize pistons fitted.3 Proprietary oil control rings can be obtainedfor fitting to the existing pistons if it is felt thatthe degree of wear does not justify a rebore.However, any improvement brought about bysuch rings may be short-lived.4 If new pistons or piston rings are to be fittedto old bores, deglaze the bores with abrasivepaper or a glaze buster tool. The object is toproduce a light cross-hatch pattern to assist

    the new rings to bed in.5 If there is a ridge at the top of the bore andnew piston rings are being fitted, either thetop piston ring must be stepped (ridgedodger pattern) or the ridge must beremoved with a ridge reamer. If the ridge isleft, the piston ring may hit it and break.6 Thoroughly examine the crankcase andcylinder block for cracks and damage and usea piece of wire to probe all oilways andwaterways to ensure that they areunobstructed.

    1 Make a final check to ensure thateverything has been reconnected to theengine and that no rags or tools have been leftin the engine bay. 2 Check that oil and coolant levels arecorrect.3 Start the engine. This may take a littlelonger than usual as fuel is pumped up to theengine.4 Check that the oil pressure light goes outwhen the engine starts.5 Run the engine at a fast tickover and checkfor leaks of oil, fuel or coolant. Also checkpower steering and transmission fluid coolerunions, where applicable. Some smoke andodd smells may be experienced as assemblylubricant burns off the exhaust manifold andother components.6 Bring the engine to normal operatingtemperature, then check the ignition timingand the idle speed (where applicable) andmixture.7 If splined type cylinder head bolts havebeen used, stop the engine after it has beenrunning for 15 minutes, then remove thecrankshaft cover and tighten the cylinderhead bolts to the fourth stage given in theSpecifications, in the correct order.8 When the engine has completely cooled,re-check the oil and coolant levels, andcheck, and if necessary adjust, the valveclearances.9 If new bearings, pistons etc have beenfitted, the engine should be run-in at reducedspeeds and loads for the first 500 miles (800km) or so. It is beneficial to change the engineoil and filter after this mileage.

    37 Initial start-up after overhaul ormajor repair

    36 Cylinder block and bores -examination and renovation

    35 Crankshaft and bearings -examination and renovation

    2A24 SOHC engines

    34.24 Fitting a thrustwasher to the centremain bearing cap

    35.5 Checking the width of the filamentagainst the scale of the packet

    34.29 Fitting a sealing wedge to the rearmain bearing cap

  • GeneralEngine type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four-cylinder, in-line, double overhead camshaftEngine code:

    Carburettor engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N8AFuel injection engine without catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N9AFuel injection engine with catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N9C

    Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.00 mmStroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.00 mmCubic capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 ccCompression ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 : 1Compression pressure at starter motor speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 13 barsMaximum continuous engine speed:

    N8A engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6050 rpmAll engines except N8A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5950 rpm

    Maximum engine power (DIN):N8A engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 kW at 5600 rpmN9A engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 kW at 5500 rpmN9C engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 kW at 5500 rpm

    Maximum engine torque:N8A engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Nm at 3000 rpmN9A engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Nm at 2500 rpmN9C engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Nm at 2500 rpm

    Cylinder bore diameterStandard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.000 to 86.010 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.010 to 86.020 mmOversize 0.15 class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.150 to 86.160 mmOversize 0.15 class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.160 to 86.170 mmOversize 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.500 to 86.510 mm

    Chapter 2 Part B:DOHC engine

    Camshafts and cam followers - removal, inspection and refitting . . .21Crankcase ventilation system - inspection and maintenance . . . . . . .2Crankshaft and bearings - examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . .31Crankshaft and main bearings - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . .30Crankshaft front oil seal - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Crankshaft rear oil seal - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Cylinder head - dismantling and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Cylinder head - inspection and renovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Cylinder head - removal and refitting (engine in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . .17Cylinder head - removal and refitting (engine removed) . . . . . . . . . . .18Engine/automatic transmission assembly - removal and separation . .8Engine/automatic transmission assembly - reconnection and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Engine dismantling, examination, renovation and reassembly - general

    information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Engine/manual gearbox assembly - removal and separation . . . . . . .7Engine/manual gearbox assembly - reconnection and refitting . . . . .11

    Engine - refitting (manual gearbox in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Engine - refitting (automatic transmission in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Engine - removal leaving manual gearbox in vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Engine - removal leaving automatic transmission in vehicle . . . . . . . .6Engine mountings - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Flywheel/driveplate - removal, inspection and refitting . . . . . . . . . . .22General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Initial start-up after overhaul or major repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Major operations possible with the engine in the vehicle . . . . . . . . . . .3Major operations requiring engine removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Oil pump drive chain and sprockets - examination and renovation . .28Oil pump - dismantling, inspection and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Oil pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Pistons and connecting rods - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Sump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Timing chain and sprockets - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Timing chain, sprockets and tensioner - examination and renovation .16

    2B1

    Specifications

    Contents

    2B

    Unless otherwise stated, procedures are as described for the SOHC engines in Part A of this Chapter.

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • CrankshaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.090 to 0.300 mm (0.004 to 0.012 in)Main bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.011 to 0.048 mmMain bearing journal diameter:

    Standard (yellow) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54.980 to 54.990 mmStandard (red) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54.990 to 55.000 mmUndersize 0.25 (green) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54.730 to 54.750 mm

    Main bearing thrustwasher thickness:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.301 to 2.351 mm (0.090 to 0.093 in)Oversize 0.38 (yellow) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.491 to 2.541 mm (0.098 to 0.100 in)

    Big-end bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.006 to 0.060 mmBig-end bearing journal diameter:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50.890 to 50.910 mmUndersize 0.25 (green) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50.640 to 50.660 mm

    Pistons and piston ringsPiston diameter:

    Standard 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85.970 to 85.980 mmStandard 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85.980 to 85.990 mmStandard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85.980 to 85.990 mmOversize 0.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.130 to 86.150 mmOversize 0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.470 to 86.490 mm

    Piston ring end gap:Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.300 to 0.600 mm (0.012 to 0.024 in)Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.500 to 0.800 mm (0.020 to 0.032 in)Bottom (oil control) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.400 to 1.500 mm (0.016 to 0.059 in)

    Cylinder headValve guide bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.063 to 7.094 mmCamshaft bearing parent bore diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.000 to 26.030 mm

    CamshaftsEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.020 to 0.260 mm (0.001 to 0.010 in)

    ValvesValve timing:

    Carburettor engines:Inlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 BTDCInlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ABDCExhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 BBDCExhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ATDC

    Fuel injection engines:Inlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 BTDCInlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 ABDCExhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 BBDCExhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ATDC

    Valve spring free length:Inner spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48.200 mm (1.899 in)Outer spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46.800 mm (1.844 in)

    Inlet valve stem diameter:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.025 to 7.043 mmOversize 0.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.225 to 7.243 mmOversize 0.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.425 to 7.443 mmOversize 0.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.625 to 7.643 mmOversize 0.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.825 to 7.843 mm

    Exhaust valve stem diameter:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.999 to 7.017 mmOversize 0.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.199 to 7.217 mmOversize 0.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.399 to 7.417 mmOversize 0.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.599 to 7.617 mmOversize 0.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.799 to 7.817 mm

    Lubrication systemOil type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multigrade engine oil, viscosity range SAE 10W/30 to 20W/50, to API

    SG/CD or better Oil capacity:

    With filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 litres (7.9 pints)Without filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 litres (7.0 pints)

    Oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C102

    2B2 DOHC engine

  • Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftMain bearing cap bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 to 104 66 to 77Connecting rod (big-end bearing cap) bolts:

    Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 to 17 11 to 13Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angle-tighten a further 85

    Crankshaft pulley bolt:Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 58 33 to 43Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angle-tighten a further 80

    Camshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 63 41 to 46Flywheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 to 92 61 to 68Oil pump bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 12 7 to 9Oil pump sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 19 12 to 14Oil pump chain tensioner bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 13 7 to 10Sump bolts and nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 10 6 to 7Sump studs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6Sump drain plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 28 15 to 21Sump front mounting plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 to 28 17 to 21Oil baffle nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 to 21 13 to 15Oil pick-up pipe-to-cylinder block bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 13 7 to 10Oil pressure warning lamp switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 22 13 to 16Cylinder head bolts:

    M11 bolts:Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 30Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 41Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angle-tighten a further 90Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angle-tighten a further 90

    M8 bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 to 39 27 to 29Camshaft cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6Camshaft bearing cap nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 to 26 16 to 19Lower timing chain guide upper bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 13 7 to 10Lower timing chain guide lower bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 to 28 18 to 21Upper and lower timing chain cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 10 5 to 7Crankshaft rear oil seal housing bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8Engine-to-gearbox/transmission bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 to 41 21 to 30

    The 2.0 litre DOHC (Double OverHeadCamshaft) engine was introduced in August1989 to replace the 2.0 litre SOHC engineused previously in the Sierra range. Theengine is of four-cylinder, in-line type.

    The crankshaft incorporates five mainbearings. Thrustwashers are fitted to thecentre main bearing in order to controlcrankshaft endfloat.

    The camshafts are driven by a chain fromthe crankshaft, and operate the angled valvesvia hydraulic cam followers. One camshaftoperates the inlet valves, and the otheroperates the exhaust valves. The operation ofthe cam followers is explained in Chapter 2,Part C, but note that no rollers are fitted andthe base of each cam follower is in directcontact with the cam profile.

    The distributor is driven directly from thefront of the inlet camshaft, and the oil pump isdriven by a chain from the crankshaft. Anelectric fuel pump is mounted in the fuel tank.

    Lubrication is by means of a bi-rotor pumpwhich draws oil through a strainer locatedinside the sump, and forces it through a full-flow filter into the engine oil galleries, fromwhere it is distributed to the crankshaft andcamshafts. The big-end bearings are suppliedwith oil via internal drillings in the crankshaft.The undersides of the pistons are suppliedwith oil from drillings in the connecting rods.The hydraulic cam followers are supplied withoil from passages in the cylinder head. Thecamshafts are lubricated by oil from spraytubes mounted above the camshaft bearingcaps.

    A closed crankcase ventilation system isemployed, whereby piston blow-by gases aredrawn from the crankcase, through a breatherpipe into the inlet manifold, where they areburnt with fresh air/fuel mixture.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 35.

    The following operations can be carried outwithout removing the engine from the vehicle:a) Removal of the camshafts.b) Removal and servicing of the cylinder headc) Removal of the timing chain and

    sprockets.d) Removal of the oil pump.e) Removal of the sump.f) Removal of the pistons and connecting

    rods.g) Removal of the big-end bearings.h) Removal of the engine mountingsi) Removal of the clutch and flywheel.j) Removal of the crankshaft front and rear

    oil seals.

    The following operation can only be carried outafter removing the engine from the vehicle:a) Removal of the crankshaft and main

    bearings.

    4 Major operations requiringengine removal

    3 Major operations possible withthe engine in the vehicle

    2 Crankcase ventilation system -inspection and maintenance

    1 General information

    DOHC engine 2B3

    2B

  • Note: A hoist and lifting tackle will berequired.1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the bonnet.3 On carburettor models, remove the aircleaner.4 On fuel injection models, remove the airinlet hose, plenum chamber, and air cleanerlid as an assembly.5 Disconnect the breather hose from thecamshaft cover, and unscrew the bolt securingthe hose support bracket to the left-hand sideof the cylinder head (see illustration).6 Drain the cooling system.7 To provide additional working space,remove the radiator.8 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thecoolant pump housing on the left-hand side ofthe engine.9 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thethermostat housing. 10 Disconnect the heater coolant hose fromthe inlet manifold. 11 Where applicable, release the coolanthose from the bracket under the carburettorautomatic choke housing.12 On carburettor models, disconnect thevacuum pipe from the engine managementmodule.13 Disconnect the brake servo vacuum hosefrom the inlet manifold.

    14 On fuel injection models, disconnect thevacuum pipes from the MAP sensor (locatedat the rear right-hand side of the enginecompartment) and, where applicable, from theair conditioning system.15 On carburettor models, disconnect thefuel supply and return hoses at thecarburettor, and plug the ends of the hoses tominimise petrol spillage. Take adequate fireprecautions.16 On fuel injection models, slowly loosenthe fuel feed union at the fuel rail, to relievethe pressure in the fuel system beforedisconnecting the union. Be prepared forpetrol spillage, and take adequate fireprecautions. Disconnect the fuel feed hose,and disconnect the fuel return hose from thefuel pressure regulator. Plug the ends of thehoses to minimise petrol spillage.17 Disconnect the throttle cable and move itto one side.18 Disconnect the HT lead from the ignitioncoil, and unclip it from the timing chain cover.19 Disconnect the wiring from the followingcomponents as applicable, depending onmodel:Alternator. Starter motor. Oil pressure warning lamp switch. Temperature gauge sender. Cooling fan switch. Anti-dieselling valve (carburettor models). Automatic choke heater (carburettor models).Engine coolant temperature sensor. Crankshaft speed/position sensor. Air charge temperature sensor. Throttle position sensor. Fuel temperature sensor. Fuel injectors.

    20 On models fitted with power steering,unbolt the power steering pump from itsmounting bracket and move it clear of theengine. Note that there is no need todisconnect the fluid hoses, but make sure thatthe pump is adequately supported to avoidstraining them.21 On models fitted with air conditioning,unbolt the air conditioning compressor fromits mounting bracket, and move it clear of theengine. Do not disconnect the hoses; makesure that the compressor is adequatelysupported to avoid straining them.22 Unscrew and remove the top engine-to-gearbox bolts which are accessible from the

    engine compartment. Note the location of thebolts, and note the positions of the earth strapand any wiring clips attached to the bolts (seeillustration).23 Unscrew the securing bolt, anddisconnect the earth lead from the rear left-hand side of the cylinder head.24 Unscrew the nuts securing the enginemountings to the engine mounting brackets.25 Apply the handbrake, jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support it securely on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).26 Drain the engine oil into a suitablecontainer. 27 Remove the starter motor.28 Remove the exhaust downpipe.29 Ensure that the steering wheel ispositioned in the straight-ahead position, thenremove the clamp bolt from the lower steeringcolumn clamp, swivel the plate to one side, anddisconnect the lower steering column from thelower flexible coupling (see illustration).30 Working inside the vehicle, place a woodenblock under the clutch pedal to raise it fullyagainst its stop, so holding the automaticadjuster pawl clear of the toothed quadrant.31 Disconnect the clutch cable from theclutch release arm, and pass the cablethrough the bellhousing.32 Support the gearbox with a trolley jack,using a block of wood between the jack andthe gearbox to spread the load.33 Unscrew and remove the remainingengine-to-gearbox bolts, and remove the boltfrom the engine adapter plate (seeillustration). Recover any shims fittedbetween the sump and the gearbox whenremoving the lower engine-to-gearbox bolts.

    5 Engine - removal leavingmanual gearbox in vehicle

    2B4 DOHC engine

    5.5 Removing the hose support bracketbolt from the cylinder head

    5.29 Removing the lower steering columnclamp bolt

    5.33 Engine adapter plate bolt (arrowed)

    5.22 Earth strap position on top engine-to-gearbox (arrowed)

    Warning: Vehicles equippedwith air conditioning:Components of the airconditioning system mayobstruct work being undertaken

    on the engine and it is not always possibleto unbolt and move them asidesufficiently, within the limits of theirflexible connecting pipes. In such a case,the system should be discharged by aFord dealer or air conditioning specialist.The refrigerant is harmless under normalconditions but in the presence of a nakedflame (or a lighted cigarette) it forms ahighly toxic gas. Liquid refrigerant spilledon the skin will cause frostbite. Ifrefrigerant enters the eyes, rinse themwith a diluted solution of boric acid andseek medical advice immediately.

  • 34 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate engine removal.35 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head, and carefully take the weight ofthe engine.36 To improve clearance in the enginecompartment when lifting the engine, unboltthe engine mounting brackets from thecylinder block, and remove them (seeillustration).37 Detach the brake lines from the frontsuspension crossmember (see illustration).38 Support the crossmember with a jack (donot remove the jack from under the gearbox),then loosen the bolts securing thecrossmember to the underbody. Remove thebolts from one side (see illustration), andcarefully lower the crossmember sufficientlyto allow the sump to clear the steering rackand crossmember when pulling the engineforwards from the gearbox.39 Gently raise the engine, then pull itforwards to disconnect it from the gearbox.Ensure that the gearbox is adequatelysupported, and take care not to strain thegearbox input shaft. It may be necessary torock the engine a little to release it from thegearbox.40 Once clear of the gearbox, lift the enginefrom the vehicle, taking care not to damagethe components in the engine compartment(see illustration).

    Note: Refer to the warning at the beginning ofSection 5 before proceeding. A suitable hoistand lifting tackle will be required for thisoperation.1 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to 21of Section 5.2 Unscrew and remove the top engine-to-transmission bolts which are accessible fromthe engine compartment. Note the location ofthe earth strap, vacuum pipe bracket, andtransmission dipstick tube bracket, asapplicable.3 Proceed as described in paragraphs 23 to 29of Section 5.4 Where applicable, remove the bolt securingthe transmission fluid dipstick tube to the left-hand side of the cylinder block.5 Working through the starter motor aperture,unscrew the four torque converter-to-driveplate nuts. It will be necessary to turn thecrankshaft, using a suitable spanner on thecrankshaft pulley bolt, in order to gain accessto each bolt in turn through the aperture.6 Support the transmission with a trolley jack,using a block of wood between the jack andthe transmission to spread the load.7 Unscrew and remove the remaining engine-to-transmission bolts, and remove the boltfrom the engine adapter plate. Recover anyshims fitted between the sump and thetransmission when removing the lower engine-to-transmission bolts. Where applicable, pullthe blanking plug from the adapter plate.8 Proceed as described in paragraphs 34 to 38of Section 5.9 Gently raise the engine, then pull the engineforwards to disconnect it from thetransmission. Ensure that the torque converteris held firmly in place in the transmissionhousing, otherwise it could fall out, resulting influid spillage and possible damage. It may benecessary to rock the engine a little to releaseit from the transmission.10 Once clear of the transmission, lift theengine from the vehicle, taking care not todamage the components in the enginecompartment.

    Note: Refer to the warning at the beginning ofSection 5 before proceeding. A suitable hoistand lifting tackle will be required for thisoperation.

    Removal1 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to 21of Section 5.2 Unscrew the securing bolt, and disconnectthe earth lead from the rear left-hand side ofthe cylinder head.3 Unscrew the nuts securing the enginemountings to the engine mounting brackets.4 Jack up the vehicle and support it securelyon axle stands (see Jacking and VehicleSupport).Ensure that there is enough working roombeneath the vehicle.5 To improve access, disconnect the exhaustdownpipe from the manifold, and remove theexhaust system.6 Drain the engine oil into a suitablecontainer.7 On models fitted with a catalytic converter,release the securing clips, and withdraw theexhaust heat shield from under the vehicle foraccess to the propeller shaft.8 Remove the propeller shaft.9 Where applicable, bend back the locktabs,then unscrew the two bolts in each casesecuring the two anti-roll bar U-clamps to thevehicle underbody. Lower the anti-roll bar asfar as possible.10 Working inside the vehicle, place awooden block under the clutch pedal to raiseit fully against its stop, so holding theautomatic adjuster pawl clear of the toothedquadrant.11 Disconnect the clutch cable from theclutch release arm, and pass the cablethrough the bellhousing.12 Support the gearbox with a trolley jack,using a block of wood between the jack andthe gearbox to spread the load.13 Unscrew the four nuts securing thegearbox crossmember to the vehicleunderbody. Unscrew the central bolt securing

    7 Engine/manual gearboxassembly - removal andseparation

    6 Engine - removal leavingautomatic transmission invehicle

    DOHC engine 2B5

    2B

    5.38 Removing a suspension crossmembersecuring bolt

    5.40 Lifting the engine from the vehicle

    5.37 Removing a brake line securing clipfrom the suspension crossmember

    5.36 Remove the engine mountingbrackets to improve clearance

  • the crossmember to the gearbox, and removethe crossmember. Note the position of theearth strap, where applicable. Recover themounting cup, and where applicable theexhaust mounting bracket and heat shield.14 Lower the gearbox slightly on the jack,then remove the securing circlip, anddisconnect the speedometer drive cable fromthe gearbox.15 Disconnect the wiring from the reversinglamp switch. On models with fuel injection,disconnect the wiring from the vehicle speedsensor mounted in the side of the gearbox.16 Unscrew the two securing bolts, anddisconnect the gear linkage support bracketfrom the gearbox.17 Using a suitable pin punch, drive out theroll-pin securing the gearchange rod to thegear linkage.18 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head, and carefully take the weight ofthe engine. Arrange the lifting tackle so thatthe engine/gearbox assembly will assume asteep angle of approximately 40 to 45 as it isbeing removed.19 To improve clearance in the enginecompartment when lifting the engine, unboltthe engine mounting brackets from thecylinder block, and remove them.20 Ensure that the steering wheel ispositioned in the straight-ahead position, thenremove the clamp bolt from the lower steeringcolumn clamp, swivel the plate to one side,and disconnect the lower steering columnfrom the lower flexible coupling.21 Detach the brake lines from the frontsuspension crossmember.22 Support the crossmember with a jack (donot remove the jack from under the gearbox),then loosen the bolts securing thecrossmember to the underbody. Remove thecrossmember securing bolts, and carefullylower the crossmember sufficiently to allowthe engine sump to clear the steering rack andcrossmember as the engine/gearboxassembly is removed.23 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate removal of the en-gine/gearbox assembly.24 Raise the engine/gearbox, at the sametime lowering the trolley jack which issupporting the gearbox.25 Place a suitable rod across the vehicleunderbody to support the gear linkagesupport bracket whilst the gearbox isremoved.26 Tilt the engine/gearbox assembly usingthe hoist and the trolley jack, until theassembly can be lifted from the vehicle. Takecare not to damage surrounding components.27 If the vehicle is to be moved while theengine/gearbox assembly is removed,temporarily refit the suspension crossmemberand the anti-roll bar to the underbody, andreconnect the steering column to theintermediate shaft.

    Separation28 To separate the engine from the gearbox,proceed as follows.29 Remove the starter motor.30 Support the engine and gearboxhorizontally on blocks of wood.31 Unscrew the engine-to-gearbox bolts,noting the locations of the bolts, and thepositions of the earth strap and any wiringclips attached to the bolts. Recover any shimsfitted between the sump and the gearboxwhen removing the lower engine-to-gearboxbolts.32 Unscrew the bolt from the engine adapterplate.33 Pull the engine and gearbox apart, takingcare not to strain the gearbox input shaft. Itmay be necessary to rock the units slightly toseparate them.

    Note: Refer to the warning at the beginning ofSection 5 before proceeding. A suitable hoistand lifting tackle will be required for thisoperation. Any suspected faults in theautomatic transmission should be referred to aFord dealer or automatic transmissionspecialist before removal of unit, as thespecialist fault diagnosis equipment isdesigned to operate with the transmission inthe vehicle.

    Removal1 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to 21of Section 5.2 Unscrew the securing bolt, and disconnectthe earth lead from the rear left-hand side ofthe cylinder head.3 Unscrew the nuts securing the enginemountings to the engine mounting brackets.4 Jack up the vehicle and support it securelyon axle stands. (see Jacking and VehicleSupport).Ensure that there is enough working roombeneath the vehicle.5 To improve access, disconnect the exhaustdownpipe from the manifold, and remove theexhaust system.6 Drain the engine oil into a suitablecontainer.7 On models fitted with a catalytic converter,release the securing clips and withdraw theexhaust heat shield from under the vehicle foraccess to the propeller shaft.8 Remove the propeller shaft.9 Where applicable, bend back the locktabs,then unscrew the two bolts in each casesecuring the two anti-roll bar U-clamps to thevehicle underbody. Lower the anti-roll bar asfar as possible.10 Support the transmission with a trolleyjack, using a block of wood between the jackand the transmission to spread the load.11 Unscrew the four bolts securing the

    transmission crossmember to the vehicleunderbody. Unscrew the central bolt securingthe crossmember to the transmission, andremove the crossmember. Note the positionof the earth strap, where applicable. Recoverthe mounting cup, and where applicable, theexhaust mounting bracket and heat shield.12 Lower the transmission slightly on thejack.13 Unscrew the unions and disconnect thefluid cooler pipes from the transmission. Plugthe open ends of the pipes and thetransmission, to prevent dirt ingress and fluidleakage. Where applicable, detach the fluidcooler pipe bracket from the engine mountingbracket, and move it to one side.14 Remove the two clips securing theselector rod, and detach the selector rod fromthe manual selector lever, and from theselector lever on the transmission.15 Disconnect the wiring from the starterinhibitor switch, kickdown solenoid, lock-upclutch, reversing lamp switch, and whereapplicable, the 3rd/4th gearchange solenoid.16 Remove the securing screw, anddisconnect the speedometer cable from thetransmission extension housing. Plug theopening in the transmission to prevent dirtingress.17 Proceed as described in paragraphs 18 to27 of Section 7, substituting transmission forgearbox, and ignoring paragraph 25.

    Separation18 To separate the engine from thetransmission, proceed as follows.19 Remove the starter motor.20 Support the engine and transmissionhorizontally on blocks of wood.21 Working through the starter motoraperture, unscrew the four torque converter-to-driveplate nuts. It will be necessary to turnthe crankshaft using a suitable spanner on thecrankshaft pulley bolt in order to gain accessto each nut in turn through the aperture.22 Where applicable, remove the boltsecuring the transmission fluid dipstick tubeto the left-hand side of the cylinder block.23 Unscrew the engine-to-transmissionbolts, noting the locations of the bolts, andthe positions of the earth strap and any wiringclips attached to the bolts. Recover any shimsfitted between the sump and the transmissionwhen removing the lower engine-to-transmission bolts.24 Unscrew the bolt from the engine adapterplate and, where applicable, pull the blankingplug from the adapter plate.25 Pull the engine and the transmissionapart, ensuring that the torque converter isheld firmly in place in the transmissionhousing, otherwise it could fall out, resulting influid spillage and possible damage. It may benecessary to rock the units slightly toseparate them.

    8 Engine/automatictransmission assembly -removal and separation

    2B6 DOHC engine

  • 1 Reverse the procedure described inparagraphs 1 to 40, Section 5, noting thefollowing points.2 Before attempting to refit the engine, checkthat the clutch friction disc is centralised.3 Check that the clutch release arm andbearing are correctly fitted, and lightly greasethe input shaft splines.4 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels. Ifnecessary, a cable-tie can be used totemporarily secure the adapter plate inposition on the cylinder block using one of theengine-to-gearbox bolt holes.5 If shims were fitted between the sump andthe gearbox, refit them in their originallocations when mating the engine to thegearbox. If the engine has been overhauled,where applicable fit the relevant shims ascalculated during engine reassembly.6 Reconnect the clutch cable to the releasearm, ensuring that it is routed as noted duringremoval. 7 Ensure that the roadwheels and thesteering wheel are in the straight-aheadposition before reconnecting the lowersteering column to the intermediate shaft, andtighten the clamp bolt to the specified torque.8 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.9 Check the throttle cable adjustment.10 Fill the cooling system. 11 Tighten all fixings to the specified torque,where applicable.

    1 Reverse the procedure in paragraphs 1 to10 of Section 6, noting the following points.2 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels. Ifnecessary, a cable-tie can be used totemporarily secure the adapter plate inposition on the cylinder block, using one ofthe engine-to-transmission bolt holes.3 As the torque converter is only looselyengaged in the transmission, care must betaken to prevent the torque converter fromfalling out forwards. When the torqueconverter hub is fully engaged with the fluidpump drivegear in the transmission, distanceA in illustration 2.24 of Chapter 7B must beas specified. Incorrect installation of thetorque converter will result in damage to thetransmission.4 If shims were fitted between the sump andthe transmission, refit them in their originallocations when mating the engine to thetransmission. If the engine has beenoverhauled, where applicable fit the relevantshims as calculated during enginereassembly.

    5 As the engine is installed, guide the torqueconverter studs through the holes in thedriveplate. When the engine is positionedflush with the engine adapter plate and thetransmission housing, check that the torqueconverter is free to move axially a smallamount before refitting and tightening theengine-to-transmission bolts.6 Do not tighten the torque converter-to-driveplate nuts until the lower engine-to-transmission bolts have been fitted andtightened.7 Ensure that the roadwheels and thesteering wheel are in the straight-aheadposition before reconnecting the lowersteering column to the intermediate shaft.8 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.9 Check the throttle cable adjustment.10 Fill the cooling system. 11 Tighten all fixings to the specified torque,where applicable.

    1 Reverse the procedure described inparagraphs 1 to 33 of Section 7, noting thefollowing points.2 Before attempting to reconnect the engineto the gearbox, check that the clutch frictiondisc is centralised.3 Check that the clutch release arm andbearing are correctly fitted, and lightly greasethe input shaft splines.4 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels. Ifnecessary, a cable-tie can be used totemporarily secure the adapter plate inposition on the cylinder block, using one ofthe engine-to-gearbox bolt holes.5 If shims were fitted between the sump andthe gearbox, refit them in their originallocations when mating the engine to thegearbox. If the engine has been overhauled,where applicable fit the relevant shims ascalculated during engine reassembly.6 Ensure that the roadwheels and thesteering wheel are in the straight-aheadposition before reconnecting the lowersteering column to the intermediate shaft.7 Reconnect the clutch cable to the releasearm, ensuring that it is routed as noted duringremoval. 8 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.9 Check the throttle cable adjustment.10 Fill the cooling system.11 Check and if necessary top-up thegearbox oil level.12 Tighten all fixings to the specified torque,where applicable.

    1 Reverse the procedure described inparagraphs 1 to 25 of Section 8, noting thefollowing points.2 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels. Ifnecessary, a cable-tie can be used totemporarily secure the adapter plate inposition on the cylinder block, using one ofthe engine-to-transmission bolt holes.3 As the torque converter is only looselyengaged in the transmission, care must betaken to prevent the torque converter fromfalling out forwards. When the torqueconverter hub is fully engaged with the fluidpump drivegear in the transmission, distanceA in illustration 2.24 of Chapter 7B must beas specified. Incorrect installation of thetorque converter will result in damage to thetransmission.4 If shims were fitted between the sump andthe transmission, refit them in their originallocations when mating the engine to thetransmission. If the engine has beenoverhauled, where applicable fit the relevantshims as calculated during enginereassembly.5 As the engine and transmission are matedtogether, guide the torque converter studsthrough the holes in the driveplate. When theengine is positioned flush with the engineadapter plate and the transmission housing,check that the torque converter is free tomove axially a small amount before refittingand tightening the engine-to-transmissionbolts.6 Do not tighten the torque converter-to-driveplate nuts until the lower engine-to-transmission bolts have been fitted andtightened.7 Ensure that the roadwheels and thesteering wheel are in the straight-aheadposition before reconnecting the lowersteering column to the intermediate shaft.8 Reconnect the selector rod and check forcorrect adjustment.9 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.10 Check the throttle cable adjustment.11 Fill the cooling system. 12 Check and if necessary top-up thetransmission fluid level.13 Tighten all fixings to the specified torque,where applicable.

    Proceed as described in Chapter 2, Part C,but note that on certain models it may benecessary to unbolt the engine mountingbrackets from the cylinder block to allowsufficient clearance to remove the mountings.

    13 Engine mountings - renewal

    12 Engine/automatictransmission assembly -reconnection and refitting

    11 Engine/manual gearboxassembly - reconnection andrefitting

    10 Engine - refitting (automatictransmission in vehicle)

    9 Engine - refitting (manualgearbox in vehicle)

    DOHC engine 2B7

    2B

  • Dismantling 1 Refer to Chapter 2, Part A, Section 18,paragraphs 1 to 8 inclusive.2 A suitable selection of splined and Torxsockets will be required to remove many ofthe bolts when dismantling the engine.3 Before dismantling the main enginecomponents, the following externally-mounted ancillary components can beremoved, with reference to the relevantChapters of this Manual and the relevantSections of this Chapter, where applicable.Inlet manifold (and carburettor, if applicable)Exhaust manifold Alternator.Coolant pump, and thermostatAlternator/coolant pump drivebelt tensionerDistributor cap, HT leads and spark plugsOil pressure warning lamp switchCrankshaft speed/position sensorOil filterDipstickEngine mounting brackets (if not already done)Crankcase ventilation pipe and hosesClutch Alternator mounting bracket.Air conditioning compressor mounting

    bracket (where applicable).Engine lifting brackets.

    Examination and renovation4 Refer to Chapter 2, Part A, Section 18, butnote that the connecting rod bolts should berenewed on reassembly, and when renewingthe cylinder head bolts, the latest type boltswith hexagonal heads should always be used.

    Reassembly 5 Proceed as described in Chapter 2, Part A,Section 18, noting the following:6 If they have been removed, new cylinderhead bolts (both M11 and M8, of the latesttype with hexagonal heads), flywheel bolts,and connecting rod bolts must be used.

    Note: Refer to the warning at the beginning ofSection 5 before proceeding. A suitable pullerwill be required to remove the crankshaft pulley.A new crankshaft pulley bolt, a new timing chaintensioner plunger assembly, new upper andlower timing chain cover gaskets, and a newcamshaft cover gasket and reinforcing sleevesealing rings, must be used on refitting.

    Removal1 If the engine is in the car, carry out thefollowing operations:a) Disconnect the battery negative lead.b) To improve access, remove the radiator. It

    will be difficult to remove the crankshaftpulley with the radiator in place.

    c) On carburettor models, remove the aircleaner.

    d) On fuel injection models, remove the airinlet hose, plenum chamber, and aircleaner lid as an assembly.

    e) Disconnect the breather hose from thecamshaft cover.

    f) Remove the distributor cap and HT leads,and the rotor arm and housing.

    2 Proceed as described in paragraphs 2 to 11inclusive of Section 18 (see illustration).3 Remove the alternator drivebelt.4 Slacken the crankshaft pulley bolt. Preventthe crankshaft from turning by engaging topgear (manual gearbox only) and having anassistant press the brake pedal hard, or byremoving the starter motor and jamming thering gear teeth with a lever.5 Unscrew the bolt part-way, and use a pullerto remove the crankshaft pulley. The legs of

    the puller must be suitably shaped to enablethem to rest on the metal surfaces of thepulley. Do not use a puller on the rubbersurface of the pulley (see illustrations).

    15 Timing chain and sprockets -removal and refitting

    14 Engine dismantling,examination, renovation andreassembly - general information

    2B8 DOHC engine

    15.2 Timing chain, oil pump drive chain and associated components

    1 Upper timing chain guide2 Exhaust camshaft sprocket3 Timing chain4 Lower timing chain guide5 Crankshaft sprocket (double)6 Crankshaft7 Oil pump chain tensioner8 Oil pump drive chain9 Oil pump

    10 Oil pressure relief valve11 Oil passage to timing chain tensioner

    plunger12 Plug13 Timing chain tensioner plunger14 Timing chain tensioner sprocket15 Timing chain tensioner arm16 Inlet camshaft sprocket17 Copper chain links

    15.5a Remove the crankshaft pulley usinga puller (viewed from under vehicle)

  • 6 Loosen the alternator lower mountingthrough-bolt, then remove the alternatorupper mounting bolt, and swing the alternatoraway from the engine.7 Unscrew the central securing bolt, andwithdraw the drivebelt tensioner assembly.8 Unscrew the eleven securing bolts, andremove the lower timing chain cover. Recoverthe rubber gasket.9 Using a suitable Torx socket, unscrew thesecuring screw, and carefully withdraw the oilpump chain tensioner (see illustration).10 Unscrew the Torx type securing bolt, andwithdraw the oil pump sprocket, completewith the oil pump drive chain.11 Unscrew the two lower timing chain guidesecuring bolts, noting their locations, andwithdraw the timing chain guide through thetop of the timing case (see illustration).12 Remove the Woodruff key from the end ofthe crankshaft, prising it free with ascrewdriver if necessary, then slide the doublechain sprocket from the end of the crankshaft,and lift the chain from the sprocket (seeillustration).13 Withdraw the timing chain through the topof the timing case and, where applicable,remove the cable-tie from the chain (seeillustration).

    Refitting14 Commence refitting as follows. Note thatcoppered links are provided in the timingchain to assist with refitting, but these can bedifficult to see on a chain which has alreadybeen in service. If possible, position the

    coppered links as described during thefollowing procedure. If the coppered links arenot visible, the chain should still be refitted asdescribed, but ignore the references to thecoppered links.15 Make sure that the slot for the Woodruffkey in the end of the crankshaft is pointingvertically downwards. If necessary,temporarily refit the crankshaft pulley bolt inorder to turn the crankshaft to the requiredposition.16 Lower the timing chain into the timingcase from above, with the single copperedlink at the bottom. If desired, use a cable-tieto prevent the chain from dropping into thetiming case, as during removal.17 Locate the double chain sprocket looselyover the end of the crankshaft (larger sprocketnearest the crankcase), with the timing markpointing vertically down.18 Fit the chain over the inner, largersprocket, aligning the coppered link in thechain with the timing mark on the sprocket(see illustration).19 Coat the threads of the lower timing chainguide lower securing bolt with a suitablethread-locking compound.20 Introduce the lower timing chain guidethrough the top of the timing case,manipulating the chain around the guide asnecessary, then fit the chain guide lowersecuring bolt and tighten it finger-tight.21 Push the double chain sprocket onto thecrankshaft, engaging the notch in thesprocket with the groove in the end of thecrankshaft.

    22 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 34 to 42of Section 18 but when fitting the chain overthe camshaft sprockets, align the timing markon each sprocket between the twocorresponding coppered links in the chain.23 Coat the threads of the lower timing chainguide upper securing bolt with a suitablethread-locking compound, then fit the boltand tighten it finger-tight.24 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 43 to 46of Section 18.25 Tighten the two chain guide securingbolts to the specified torque.26 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 47 to 55of Section 18.27 Fit the oil pump drive chain around theouter crankshaft sprocket and the oil pumpsprocket, then refit the oil pump sprocket, andtighten the securing bolt to the specifiedtorque. If necessary, a screwdriver can beinserted through one of the holes in thesprocket to prevent it from turning as thesecuring bolt is tightened.28 Refit the oil pump drive chain tensioner,and tighten the securing bolt to the specifiedtorque.29 Refit the Woodruff key to the end of thecrankshaft.30 Inspect the oil seal in the lower timingchain cover. If the oil seal is in good condition,the cover can be refitted as follows, but if theseal is damaged, or has been leaking, a newseal should be fitted to the cover. Ifnecessary, carefully prise the old oil seal fromthe cover using a screwdriver. The new seal

    DOHC engine 2B9

    2B

    15.11 Withdrawing the lower timing chainguide

    15.18 Coppered link in timing chain alignedwith crankshaft sprocket timing mark

    (arrowed)

    15.13 Withdrawing the timing chainthrough the top of the timing case

    15.9 Oil pump chain tensioner securingscrew (arrowed)

    15.5b Position the legs of the puller on themetal surfaces of the pulley (A), not the

    rubber surface (B)

    15.12 Sliding the double chain sprocketfrom the end of the crankshaft

  • should be fitted dry. Drive in the new sealusing a suitable metal tube, making sure thatthe seal lip faces into the engine, and takingcare not to damage the timing chain cover(see illustration).31 Fit the lower timing chain cover using anew rubber gasket (see illustration).32 Loosely refit the timing chain coversecuring bolts.33 Refit the crankshaft pulley to the end of thecrankshaft, and draw the pulley onto thecrankshaft using the original securing bolt, at thesame time centring the lower timing chain cover.34 With the lower timing chain covercentralised, and the pulley fully home on thecrankshaft, remove the old securing bolt, thenfit a new bolt.35 Tighten the new crankshaft pulley bolt tothe specified torque, in the two stages givenin the Specifications at the beginning of thisChapter. Prevent the crankshaft from turningas during removal.36 Tighten the lower timing chain coversecuring bolts.37 Refit the drivebelt tensioner assembly,ensuring that the lug on the rear of thetensioner bracket engages with thecorresponding hole in the cylinder block, andtighten the securing bolt.38 Swing the alternator into position to alignthe upper mounting bolt hole with thecorresponding hole in the drivebelt tensionerassembly, then refit the upper mounting bolt,and tighten the upper bolt and the lowerthrough-bolt.39 Refit the alternator drivebelt.40 If the engine is in the vehicle, reverse theoperations described in paragraph 1.41 If applicable, refill the cooling system.

    1 Examine alI the teeth on the camshaft andcrankshaft sprockets. If the teeth are hookedin appearance, renew the sprockets.2 Examine the chain tensioner plasticsprocket for wear. If excessive wear isevident, the complete tensioner assemblymust be renewed, as the sprocket cannot berenewed independently. Note that thetensioner plunger assembly must be renewedwhenever the timing chain is removed.

    3 Examine the timing chain for wear. If thechain has been in operation for a considerabletime, or if when held horizontally (rollersvertical) it takes on a deeply-bowedappearance, renew it.

    Note: Refer to the warning at the beginning ofSection 5 and the note at the beginning of thefollowing Section before proceeding. Thecylinder head must not be removed when theengine is warm.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 On carburettor models, remove the aircleaner.3 On fuel injection models, remove the airinlet hose, plenum chamber, and air cleanerlid as an assembly.4 Drain the cooling system.5 Disconnect the heater coolant hose fromthe inlet manifold (see illustration).6 Disconnect the breather hose from thecamshaft cover, and unbolt the hose bracketfrom the left-hand side of the cylinder head(see illustration).7 Unscrew the securing bolt and disconnectthe earth lead from the left-hand rear of thecylinder head (see illustration).8 Remove the distributor cap and HT leads,and the rotor arm and housing. If necessary,mark the HT leads to aid refitting.9 The cylinder head can be removed eitherwith or without the manifolds and fuel rail,where applicable (it is easiest to remove the

    head complete with the manifolds and fuelrail). If desired, the inlet manifold and the fuelrail can be unbolted and moved to one side,leaving the wires, hoses, pipes and cablesconnected, but care must be taken not toplace any strain on them.10 Unscrew the three securing nuts anddisconnect the exhaust downpipe from themanifold. It may be necessary to jack up thefront of the vehicle to gain access to the nuts(in which case, apply the handbrake andsupport the front of the vehicle securely onaxle stands). Recover the gasket.11 If the inlet manifold and the fuel rail (whereapplicable) are to be removed with thecylinder head, disconnect all relevant wires,hoses, pipes and cables. Otherwise, unboltthe manifold and the fuel rail, and move themto one side, ensuring that they are adequatelysupported. If the fuel rail is unbolted, beprepared for fuel spillage, and take adequatefire precautions.12 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 2 to 19of Section 18.

    Refitting13 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 20 to 55of Section 18.14 With the cylinder head refitted, reverse theprocedure described in paragraphs 1 to 11,noting the following points.15 Use a new gasket when reconnecting theexhaust downpipe to the manifold.16 Ensure that the HT leads are reconnectedcorrectly.17 Fill the cooling system.

    17 Cylinder head - removal andrefitting (engine in vehicle)

    16 Timing chain, sprockets andtensioner - examination andrenovation

    2B10 DOHC engine

    15.30 Fitting a new lower timing chaincover oil seal

    17.5 Disconnecting the heater coolanthose from the inlet manifold

    17.7 Disconnect the earth lead (arrowed)from the cylinder head

    17.6 Hose bracket bolted to cylinder head(arrowed)

    15.31 Lower timing chain cover rubbergasket in position. Ensure that lug ongasket engages with notch in cover

    (arrowed)

  • Note: New cylinder head bolts, a new cylinderhead gasket, a new timing chain tensionerplunger assembly, a new upper timing chaincover gasket, and a new camshaft covergasket and reinforcing sleeve sealing rings,must be used on refitting.

    Removal1 With the manifolds removed, proceed asfollows.2 Unscrew the eleven bolts and four nuts,and remove the camshaft cover. Recover thegasket.3 Unscrew the four securing bolts and threestuds, and remove the upper timing chaincover. Note the locations of the studs to aidrefitting. 4 Using a spanner on the crankshaft pulley,turn the crankshaft to bring No 1 piston to thefiring point. With No 1 piston at the firingpoint, the timing marks on the camshaftsprockets should be pointing away from eachother, and should be approximately level with

    the top edge of the cylinder head. Timingnotches are provided in the camshaftsprockets, and corresponding paint marks areprovided on the outside edges of thesprockets (see illustration).5 Hold the inlet camshaft sprocket stationaryusing an improvised tool similar to thatshown then unscrew the camshaft sprocketbolt and remove the distributor rotor shaft(see illustration).6 Repeat the procedure given in the previousparagraph for the exhaust camshaft, but notethat a spacer is fitted in place of thedistributor rotor shaft.7 Squeeze the upper timing chain guidesecuring lugs together, using pliers ifnecessary, and withdraw the guide from theplate at the front of the cylinder head (seeillustrations).8 Mark the position of the timing chain inrelation to the camshaft sprockets, so that thechain can be refitted in precisely its originalposition (ie, make alignment marks betweeneach sprocket and a corresponding link in thechain), then slide the camshaft sprockets fromthe camshafts. Withdraw the sprockets andlay the timing chain over the exhaust side ofthe timing case, having eliminated the slack in

    the chain. Secure the chain using a cable-tiethrough two of the chain links, to prevent itfrom dropping off the crankshaft sprocket.9 Using a suitable pair of pliers, extract thecirclip from the chain tensioner arm pivot pin,taking care not to drop it into the timing case,then withdraw the pivot pin from the tensionerarm (see illustrations). If the pivot pin provesdifficult to withdraw, an M6 bolt can bescrewed into its end to facilitate removal.10 Lift the chain tensioner arm from thetiming case.

    18 Cylinder head - removal andrefitting (engine removed)

    DOHC engine 2B11

    2B

    18.7a Upper timing chain guide securinglugs (arrowed)

    18.9b Withdrawing the pivot pin from thechain tensioner arm

    18.9a Removing the chain tensioner armpivot pin circlip

    18.7b Removing the upper timing chainguide

    18.5 Removing the inlet camshaft sprocket bolt and the distributorrotor shaft

    18.4 Timing mark positions with No 1cylinder at TDC

  • 11 Lift the chain tensioner plunger assemblyfrom the cylinder head, and discard it (seeillustration).

    12 Take note of the markings on thecamshaft bearing caps, then progressivelyunscrew the bearing cap securing nuts.13 Remove the bearing cap securing nuts,then lift off the camshaft oil spray bars (seeillustration), and the timing chain guide plate.14 Lift off the bearing caps, and then lift outthe two camshafts (see illustrations). Notethat the inlet camshaft is normally identifiedby a green paint mark. If necessary, identifythe camshafts so that they can be refitted intheir correct positions.15 Withdraw the cam followers from theirlocations in the cylinder head, keeping them inorder so that they can be refitted in theiroriginal locations (see illustration). It isadvisable to store the cam followers upright inan oil bath until they are to be refitted. Ensurethat the depth of oil is sufficient to fully coverthe cam followers.16 Working at the front of the cylinder head,unscrew the three small M8 cylinder headbolts which are accessible through the timingcase (see illustration).17 Working in the reverse order to thatshown for the tightening sequence,progressively loosen the remaining cylinderhead bolts and withdraw them from thecylinder head.18 Lift the cylinder head from the block. If the

    cylinder head is stuck, tap it free with a soft-faced mallet. Do not insert a lever into the jointbetween the cylinder head and block, as thismay result in damage to the mating faces.Place the cylinder head on blocks of wood toprevent damage to the valves.19 Recover the gasket, and the locatingdowels if they are loose, noting the positionsof the locating dowels.

    Refitting20 Commence refitting as follows.21 Turn the crankshaft so that No 1 piston isapproximately 20.0 mm (0.8 in) before TDC.This precaution will prevent possible contactbetween the valves and pistons.22 Make sure that the mating faces of thecylinder block and cylinder head are perfectlyclean, then refit the locating dowels (whereapplicable) and locate a new gasket over thedowels. Note that the gasket can only fit inone position (see illustration). Do not usejointing compound.

    23 Lower the cylinder head onto the gasket,making sure that the locating dowels engage.24 Oil the threads of the new main cylinderhead bolts, and insert them into their locationsin the cylinder head.25 Tighten the bolts in the order shown (seeillustrations) in the four stages given in theSpecifications.

    2B12 DOHC engine

    18.11 Lifting the chain tensioner plungerassembly from the cylinder head

    18.14a Lifting off a camshaft bearing cap

    18.25b Tightening a cylinder head boltusing an angle gauge

    18.25a Cylinder head bolt tighteningsequence

    A Long M8 bolt B Short M8 bolt18.22 Fitting a new cylinder head gasket

    18.16 M8 cylinder head bolts (arrowed)located at front of cylinder head

    18.15 Withdrawing a cam follower18.14b Lifting out the exhaust camshaft

    18.13 Lifting off a camshaft oil spray bar

    Warning: Take care whenremoving the plunger assembly,as there is a risk of injury if thepiston flies out.

  • 26 Insert the three smaller M8 cylinder headbolts through the top of the timing case andtighten them to the specified torque. Note thatnew bolts must be used, and that they shouldbe of the latest type, with hexagonal heads(see illustration).27 Lubricate the cam follower bores in thecylinder head, and the cam followersthemselves, then insert the cam followers intotheir original locations in the cylinder head.28 Lubricate the camshaft bearing surfacesin the cylinder head, and the bearing caps.29 Lubricate the surfaces of the camshafts,then carefully lay the camshafts in theiroriginal positions in the cylinder head.Position the camshafts with the slots in theirfront ends pointing away from each other.30 Fit and tighten the bearing caps L1, L3,L5, R1, R3, and R5 in the sequence shown(see illustration) then lay the camshaft oilspray bars and the timing chain guide plate inposition over the studs (see illustrations).31 Carefully tighten the bearing cap securingnuts by hand in the following sequence tolower the camshafts into position. Continue totighten the nuts in the sequence given, insmall amounts, until the bearing caps contactthe cylinder head.

    1 Tighten the nuts for bearing caps L1 andR1 by half-a-turn (180)

    2 Tighten the nuts for bearing caps L5 andR5 by half-a-turn (180)

    3 Tighten the nuts for bearing caps L3 andR3 by half-a-turn (180)

    32 Fit bearing caps L2, L4, R2 and R4, andtap them into position on the cylinder headusing light taps from a soft-faced mallet.Tighten the securing nuts evenly by hand.33 Tighten all the bearing cap nuts to thespecified torque in half-turn stages, using thefollowing sequence:1 L1 and R12 L5 and R53 L3 and R34 L2 and L45 R2 and R4

    34 Fit a new chain tensioner plungerassembly to the housing in the cylinder headwith the piston uppermost. Before fitting thenew plunger assembly, take note of theposition of the piston (see illustration). Theassembly is normally supplied with the pistonprotruding slightly from the cylinder, or slightlybelow the top surface of the cylinder (A). Ifthe new assembly is supplied with the pistonpartially unlatched (B), or fully unlatchedwith the latching ring visible (C), it must notbe used (see illustration).

    35 Locate the chain tensioner arm inposition, then insert the pivot pin, and secureit with the circlip. Take care not to drop thecirclip into the timing-case.36 Release the cable-tie securing the timingchain (if used), and lay the chain over theexhaust camshaft sprocket, aligning themarks made previously on the chain andsprocket, so that the timing chain is taut onthe exhaust side of the engine.37 Fit the sprocket to the exhaust camshaft,with the camshaft in the TDC position (ie withthe exhaust camshaft sprocket timing mark inline with the top edge of the cylinder head,pointing to the exhaust side of the engine -see paragraph 4. If necessary, use a pair ofpliers on one of the unmachined sections ofthe camshaft to turn the camshaft to the TDC

    position. Take care not to damage themachined surfaces of the camshaft.38 With the sprocket fitted, fit the spacer tothe end of the camshaft, and tighten thesecuring bolt finger-tight (see illustration).39 Lay the timing chain over the inletcamshaft sprocket, aligning the marks madepreviously on the chain and the sprocket.40 Fit the sprocket to the inlet camshaft, withthe camshaft in the TDC position (ie with theinlet camshaft sprocket timing mark in linewith the top edge of the cylinder head,pointing to the inlet side of the engine - seeparagraph 4). Again, turn the camshaft ifnecessary to enable the sprocket to be fitted.41 With the sprocket fitted, fit the distributorrotor shaft to the end of the camshaft, andtighten the securing bolt finger-tight. Note thatit is acceptable for the timing chain to sagslightly between the two pulleys.

    DOHC engine 2B13

    2B

    18.30b Camshaft oil spray bars correctlyfitted

    18.38 Spacer and sprocket securing boltfitted to end of camshaft, with camshaft in

    TDC position (timing marks arrowed)

    18.34 Timing chain tensioner plungerassembly

    A Piston retracted - plunger assemblyuseable

    B Piston partially unlatched - discard plungerassembly

    C Latching ring (1) visible - discard plungerassembly

    18.30c Fitting the timing chain guide plate

    18.30a Camshaft bearing cap tighteningsequence (see text)

    18.26 Use new M8 (auxiliary) cylinder headbolts with hexagonal heads (A), not earlier-

    type Torx bolts (B)

    Warning: Take care wheninstalling the plunger assembly,as there is a risk of injury if thepiston flies out.

  • 42 Fit a new upper timing chain guide to theplate at the front of the cylinder head.43 Turn the crankshaft clockwise until theinlet camshaft begins to turn.44 If the chain tensioner plunger pistonprotrudes from the cylinder, unlatch the pistonby pressing the chain tensioner arm down byhand.45 If the plunger piston is below the topsurface of the cylinder, a tool similar to thatshown (see illustration) must be fabricated tounlatch the piston. It is suggested that a 2.5mm diameter welding rod is used tomanufacture the tool. Use the tool to releasethe piston as follows.46 Carefully lift the chain tensioner arm witha screwdriver, and insert the tool between thetensioner arm and the piston. Remove thescrewdriver, and release the piston bypressing the tensioner arm down by hand.Carefully withdraw the tool once the pistonhas been released. 47 Tighten the camshaft sprocket securingbolts to the specified torque, holding thesprockets stationary as during removal.48 Turn the crankshaft clockwise throughtwo complete revolutions, and check that thetiming marks on the camshaft sprockets arestill aligned with the top face of the cylinderhead as described in paragraph 4.49 Turn the crankshaft clockwise throughanother complete revolution, and check thatthe timing marks on the camshaft sprocketsare facing each other, directly in line with thetop face of the cylinder head.

    50 If the timing marks do not align asdescribed, the timing chain has beenincorrectly fitted (probably one chain linkaway from the correct position on one of thecamshaft sprockets), and the chain should beremoved from the sprockets and refittedagain in the correct position as describedpreviously.51 Inspect the oil seal in the upper timingchain cover. If the oil seal is in good condition,the cover can be refitted as follows, but if theseal is damaged, or has been leaking, a newseal should be fitted to the cover. Ifnecessary, carefully prise the old oil seal fromthe cover using a screwdriver, and drive in thenew seal using a suitable metal tube. Makesure that the seal lip faces into the engine.Take care not to damage the timing chaincover.52 Fit the upper timing chain cover using anew rubber gasket. Great care must be takento avoid damage to the oil seal when passingthe seal over the end of the inlet camshaft.Careful manipulation will be required (possiblyusing a thin feeler blade) to avoid damage tothe oil seal sealing lip. Note that the oil sealshould be fitted dry.53 Refit the timing chain cover securing boltsand studs in their original locations, andtighten them to the specified torque (seeillustration).54 Remove the reinforcing sleeves from thecamshaft cover, and renew the rubber sealingrings. Note that the four short reinforcingsleeves fit at the front of the cover (seeillustration).55 Refit the camshaft cover using a newgasket, and tighten the securing bolts andstuds to the specified torque.

    Note: A valve spring compressor will berequired during this procedure. New valvestem oil seals should be used on reassembly.1 Proceed as described in Chapter 2, Part C,noting the following points:a) Ignore the references to removing and

    refitting the camshaft.b) Double valve springs are used on all the

    valves (see illustration).

    c) Ignore the reference to inlet valvedampers.

    d) Refer to the following Section if thecylinder head is to be inspected andrenovated.

    1 Refer to Chapter 2, Part A, noting thefollowing points:a) Valve and valve seat cutting and

    regrinding can be carried out usingconventional tools.

    b) The cylinder head cannot be resurfaced,and if the surface distortion exceeds thespecified limits, the cylinder head must berenewed.

    Note: Once the timing chain has beenremoved from the camshaft sprockets, do notturn the crankshaft until the timing chain hasbeen correctly refitted - this is to preventcontact between the valves and pistons. Anew timing chain tensioner plunger assembly,a new upper timing chain cover gasket, and anew camshaft cover gasket and reinforcingsleeve sealing rings, must be used on refitting.

    Removal1 If the engine is in the vehicle, carry out thefollowing operations:a) Disconnect the battery negative lead.b) On carburettor models, remove the air

    cleaner.c) On fuel injection models, remove the air

    inlet hose, plenum chamber, and aircleaner lid as an assembly.

    d) Disconnect the breather hose from thecamshaft cover.

    e) Remove the distributor cap and HT leads,and the rotor arm and housing. Ifnecessary, mark the HT leads to aidrefitting.

    2 Proceed as described in paragraphs 2 to 15inclusive of Section 18.

    21 Camshafts and camfollowers - removal, inspectionand refitting

    20 Cylinder head - inspectionand renovation

    19 Cylinder head - dismantlingand reassembly

    2B14 DOHC engine

    18.45 Fabricated tool used to unlatchtensioner plunger piston

    18.54 Fitting a camshaft cover reinforcingsleeve and sealing ring

    19.1 Withdrawing the double valve springsfrom the cylinder head

    18.53 Upper timing chain cover securingstud locations (arrowed)

  • Inspection3 Examine the surfaces of the camshaftjournals and lobes and the contact surfaces ofthe cam followers for wear. If wear isexcessive considerable noise would havebeen noticed from the top of the engine whenrunning, and new camshafts and followersmust be fitted. It is unlikely that this level ofwear will occur unless a considerable mileagehas been covered. Note that the camfollowers cannot be dismantled for renewal ofindividual components.4 Check the camshaft bearing surfaces in thecylinder head and the bearing caps for wear. Ifexcessive wear is evident, the only course ofaction available is to renew the cylinder headand bearing caps.5 Check the cam follower bores in thecylinder head for wear. If excessive wear isevident, the cylinder head must be renewed.6 Check the cam follower oil grooves and theoil ports in the cylinder head for obstructions.

    Refitting7 Refit the cam followers and the camshaftsas described in paragraphs 27 to 55 ofSection 18.8 If the engine is in the vehicle, reverse theoperations given in paragraph 1.

    Note: New flywheel/driveplate securing boltsmust be used on refitting.1 Refer to Chapter 2, Part A, noting thefollowing points.2 If the engine is in the car, refer to Chapter 6when removing and refitting the clutch.3 There is no need to make alignment marksbetween the flywheel/driveplate and the endof the crankshaft, as the securing bolt holesare offset, so the flywheel/driveplate can onlybe fitted to the crankshaft in one position.4 The flywheel/driveplate securing bolts mustbe renewed when refitting, and the new boltsare supplied ready-coated with threadlockingcompound (see illustration).5 Check on the availability of new partsbefore contemplating renewal of the ring gear.

    Note: A suitable puller will be required toremove the crankshaft pulley. A newcrankshaft pulley bolt, and a new lower timingchain cover gasket, must be used on refitting.1 The crankshaft front oil seal is located in thelower timing chain cover.2 If the engine is in the car, carry out thefollowing operations:a) Disconnect the battery negative lead.b) To improve access, remove the radiator. It

    will be difficult to remove the crankshaftpulley with the radiator in place.

    c) On fuel injection models, remove the airinlet hose, plenum chamber, and aircleaner lid as an assembly.

    3 Proceed as described in paragraphs 3 to 8of Section 15.4 With the lower timing chain cover removed,prise the old oil seal from the cover using ascrewdriver, and drive in the new seal using asuitable metal tube. Make sure that the seallip faces into the engine. Take care not todamage the timing chain cover.5 Refit the lower timing chain cover asdescribed in paragraphs 31 to 39 of Section15.6 If the engine is in the vehicle, reverse theoperations given in paragraph 2.

    Note: New flywheel/driveplate bolts must beused on refitting.1 Remove the flywheel/driveplate and theengine adapter plate.2 Extract the seal using an oil seal removaltool if available. It may also be possible toremove the oil seal by drilling the outer faceand using self-tapping screws and a pair ofgrips.3 Clean the oil seal housing, then carefullywind a thin layer of tape around the edge ofthe crankshaft to protect the oil seal lip as theseal is installed.

    4 Ideally, the new oil seal should be installedusing a tool similar to that shown (seeillustration). A suitable tool can beimprovised using a metal tube of suitablediameter, a metal disc or flat bar, and twoflywheel bolts. Draw the seal into positionusing the two flywheel bolts. Make sure thatthe seal lip faces into the engine.5 With the oil seal installed, carefully pull thetape from the edge of the crankshaft.6 Refit the engine adapter plate and theflywheel/driveplate.

    Removal1 Sump removal and refitting is far easier ifthe engine is removed from the vehicle - if so,proceed to paragraph 9. However, if theengine is in the vehicle, proceed as follows.2 Remove the gearbox and clutch, orautomatic transmission, as applicable.3 Remove the flywheel/driveplate and theengine adapter plate.4 Drain the engine oil into a container.5 Ensure that the steering wheel is positionedin the straight-ahead position, then removethe clamp bolt from the lower steering columnclamp, swivel the plate to one side, anddisconnect the lower steering column fromthe lower flexible coupling.6 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head, and carefully take the weight ofthe engine.7 Detach the brake lines from the frontsuspension crossmember.8 Support the crossmember with a jack, thenloosen the bolts securing the crossmember tothe underbody. Remove the bolts, andcarefully lower the crossmember sufficientlyto allow the sump to be removed.9 If the engine has been removed, it ispreferable to keep it upright until the sumphas been removed, to prevent sludge in thesump from entering the engine internals.10 Unscrew the sump securing nuts andbolts, and withdraw the sump from theengine. If the sump is stuck, gently tap itsideways to free it (the sump will not move farsideways, as it locates on studs in the cylinderblock). Do not prise between the mating facesof the sump and block. Recover the gasket.11 Thoroughly clean the mating faces of thecylinder block and sump.

    Refitting12 Commence refitting by locating a newgasket in the grooves in the sump.

    25 Sump - removal and refitting

    24 Crankshaft rear oil seal -renewal

    23 Crankshaft front oil seal -renewal

    22 Flywheel/driveplate - removalinspection and refitting

    DOHC engine 2B15

    2B

    24.4 Tool used to fit crankshaft rear oilseal

    A Rear oil seal housingB Special tool

    22.4 Improvised tool used to hold flywheelwhen tightening securing bolts

    Warning: A new sump gasket willbe required on refitting, andsuitable sealing compound willbe required to coat the sump andcylinder block mating faces.

    Shims may be required when mating theengine and gearbox/transmission - see text.

  • 13 Apply a suitable sealing compound to thefaces of the cylinder block and sump, at thepoints indicated (see illustration).14 Locate the sump on the cylinder block,then apply suitable thread-locking compoundto the sump securing studs and bolts. Fit thesecuring nuts and bolts, but do not fullytighten them at this stage.15 Align the sump so that its end faces andthe cylinder block are flush. To do this, use astraight-edge. If the sump cannot bepositioned so that the faces of the cylinderblock and sump are flush, measure thedifference in height using a feeler blade asshown (see illustration).16 Tighten the sump securing nuts and boltsto the specified torque, then repeat themeasurement made in paragraph 15. If theend faces of the sump and cylinder block arenot flush, suitable shims (available from a Forddealer) must be fitted between the sump andthe gearbox/transmission to eliminate theclearance when mating the engine to thegearbox/transmission. Note that shims shouldbe fitted at both sides of the sump, asrequired. Select suitable shims from thoselisted in the following table:

    Clearance measured Shims required0 to 0.25 mm No shims required0.25 to 0.29 mm 0.15 mm (silver)0.30 to 0.44 mm 0.30 mm (light blue)0.45 to 0.59 mm 0.45 mm (red)0.60 to 0.75 mm 0.60 mm (black)

    17 If the engine is in the vehicle, proceed asfollows.18 Reverse the procedure described inparagraphs 2 to 8, noting the following points.

    19 Ensure that the roadwheels and thesteering wheel are in the straight-aheadposition before reconnecting the lowersteering column to the intermediate shaft.20 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.21 Refit the engine adapter plate and theflywheel/driveplate.22 Refit the gearbox or automatictransmission, ensuring that the required shimsare fitted between the sump and thegearbox/transmission. 23 Tighten all fixings to the specified torque,where applicable.

    Note: A suitable puller will be required toremove the crankshaft pulley. A newcrankshaft pulley bolt, a new lower timingchain cover gasket, and a new oil pumpgasket, must be used on refitting.

    Removal1 If the engine is in the car, carry out thefollowing operations:a) Disconnect the battery negative lead.b) To improve access, remove the radiator. It

    will be difficult to remove the crankshaftpulley with the radiator in place.

    c) On fuel injection models, remove the airinlet hose, plenum chamber, and aircleaner lid as an assembly.

    2 Proceed as described in paragraphs 3 to 10of Section 15.3 Unscrew the four securing bolts, andwithdraw the oil pump from the cylinder block(see illustrations). Recover the gasket.

    Refitting4 Thoroughly clean the mating faces of thepump and the cylinder block.5 Prime the pump by injecting clean engineoil into it and turning it by hand.6 Place a new gasket on the oil pump flange,ensuring that the gasket is correctly locatedso that its holes align with the oil passages inthe pump.7 Fit the oil pump, and tighten the securingbolts to the specified torque.

    8 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 27 to 39of Section 15.9 If the engine is in the vehicle, reverse theoperations described in paragraph 1.

    Dismantling1 The oil pump can be dismantled forcleaning, but if any of the components areworn, the pump must be renewed as anassembly.2 To dismantle the pump, proceed as follows.3 Unscrew the two securing bolts, andremove the pump cover (see illustration).4 Lift the inner and outer rotors from thepump casing.

    27 Oil pump - dismantling,inspection and reassembly

    26 Oil pump - removal andrefitting

    2B16 DOHC engine

    25.13 Apply sealing compound to thesump/cylinder block mating faces at the

    points indicated (2)Dimensions are for guidance only

    26.3b Withdrawing the oil pump

    26.3a Oil pump securing bolts (arrowed)25.15 Measuring the clearance betweenthe cylinder block and sump end faces

    27.3 Removing the oil pump cover

  • 5 Unscrew the pressure relief valve plug fromthe pump cover, recover the washer, andwithdraw the spring and plunger (seeillustrations).

    Inspection6 Thoroughly clean all components in petrol orparaffin, and wipe dry using a non-fluffy rag.7 Examine the rotors and the pump casing forsigns of excessive wear on the machinedsurfaces. If wear is evident, the completepump assembly must be renewed, as spareparts are not available individually.

    Reassembly8 Commence reassembly by lubricating therelief valve plunger. Fit the plunger and thespring, and screw the plug into place,ensuring that the washer is in place under theplug.9 Lubricate the rotors, and fit them to thepump casing with the punch marks facing thepump cover (see illustration).10 Refit the pump cover and tighten thesecuring bolts.11 Prime the pump before refitting.

    1 Examine all the teeth on the sprockets. Ifthe teeth are hooked in appearance, renewthe sprockets.2 Examine the chain tensioner for wear, andrenew it if necessary.

    3 Examine the chain for wear. If it has been inoperation for a considerable time, or if whenheld horizontally (rollers vertical) it takes on adeeply-bowed appearance, renew it.

    Note: New connecting rod bolts and a new oilpick-up pipe gasket must be used on refitting.

    Removal1 Remove the sump and the cylinder head.2 Unscrew the two securing bolts, andremove the oil pick-up pipe (see illustration).Recover the gasket.3 Unscrew the four securing nuts, andwithdraw the oil baffle from the studs on themain bearing caps (see illustration).4 Proceed as described in Chapter 2, Part A,Section 32, paragraphs 2 to 5.

    Refitting5 Proceed as described in Chapter 2, Part A,Section 32, paragraphs 6 to 13, noting thefollowing points:6 Take note of the orientation of the bearingshells during dismantling, and ensure thatthey are fitted correctly during reassembly.7 When fitting the pistons, ensure that thearrow on the piston crown and the letter Fon the face of the connecting rod are pointingtowards the front of the engine.8 Use new connecting rod bolts onreassembly, and before fitting, oil the threadsand the contact faces of the bolts. Tighten the

    bolts in the three stages given in theSpecifications at the beginning of thisChapter. 9 Refit the oil baffle, and tighten the securingnuts.10 Clean the mating faces of the cylinderblock and the oil pick-up pipe, and refit thepick-up pipe using a new gasket.11 Refit the cylinder head and the sump.

    Note: A new crankshaft rear oil seal and a newrear oil seal housing gasket should be used onrefitting.

    Removal1 With the engine removed from the vehicle,remove the timing chain and crankshaftsprocket, and the flywheel/driveplate.2 Remove the pistons and connecting rods. Ifno work is to be done on the pistons andconnecting rods, there is no need to push thepistons out of the cylinder bores.3 Unbolt the crankshaft rear oil seal housing,and remove it from the rear of the cylinderblock. Recover the gasket.4 Unscrew the two securing bolts, andremove the sump mounting plate from thefront of the cylinder block (see illustration).5 Check the main bearing caps foridentification marks, and if necessary, use acentre-punch to identify them (seeillustration).

    30 Crankshaft and main bearings- removal and refitting

    29 Pistons and connecting rods- removal and refitting

    28 Oil pump drive chain andsprockets - examination andrenovation

    DOHC engine 2B17

    2B

    27.5b . . . and withdraw the spring andplunger

    30.4 Unscrewing a sump mounting platesecuring bolt

    29.3 Withdrawing the oil baffle29.2 Removing the oil pick-up pipe

    27.9 The punch marks (arrowed) on the oilpump rotors must face the pump cover

    27.5a Unscrew the pressure relief valveplug and washer . . .

  • 6 Before removing the crankshaft, check thatthe endfloat is within the specified limits byinserting a feeler blade between the centrecrankshaft web and one of the thrustwashers(the thrustwashers are fitted to the crankcase,not the bearing cap). This will indicate whetheror not new thrustwashers are required.7 Unscrew the bolts, and tap off the mainbearing caps complete with bearing shells.8 Lift the crankshaft from the cylinder block,and remove the rear oil seal if it is still in placeon the crankshaft.9 Extract the bearing shells, and recover thethrustwashers, keeping them identified forlocation.

    Refitting10 Commence refitting as follows (seeillustration).11 Wipe the bearing shell locations in thecrankcase, and the crankshaft journals with asoft non-fluffy rag.12 If the old main bearing shells are to berenewed (not to do so is a false economy,unless they are virtually new) fit the five upperhalves of the main bearing shells to theirlocations in the crankcase.13 Fit the thrustwashers to the centre mainbearing location, using a little grease to retainthem if necessary. The oil grooves in thethrustwashers must face outwards (ie facingthe crankshaft webs). Note that wherestandard thrustwashers have been fitted inproduction, the centre main bearing isunmarked. If oversize (0.38 mm)thrustwashers have been fitted, the centremain bearing will carry a yellow paint mark. 14 Lubricate the crankshaft journals and theupper and lower main bearing shells withclean engine oil, then carefully lower thecrankshaft into the crankcase.15 Lubricate the crankshaft main bearingjournals again, and then fit the main bearingcaps in their correct locations, with the arrowson the caps pointing to the front of the engine.

    16 Fit the main bearing cap bolts, noting thatthe studded bolts secure bearing caps Nos 3and 5.17 Lightly tighten all the securing bolts, thenprogressively tighten all bolts to the specifiedtorque.18 Check that the crankshaft rotates freely.Some stiffness is to be expected with newcomponents, but there must be no tight spotsor binding.19 Check that the crankshaft endfloat iswithin the specified limits by inserting a feelerblade between the centre crankshaft web andthe thrustwashers.20 Refit the sump mounting plate to the frontof the cylinder block, and tighten the securingbolts to the specified torque.21 Carefully wind a thin layer of tape aroundthe rear edge of the crankshaft, to protect theoil seal lips as the rear oil seal is installed.22 Refit the crankshaft rear oil seal housing,using a new gasket, and tighten the securingbolts to the specified torque.23 Ideally, the new oil seal should beinstalled using a tool similar to that used forfitting the crankshaft rear oil seal. A suitabletool can be improvised using a metal tube ofsuitable diameter, a metal disc or flat bar, andtwo flywheel bolts. Draw the seal into positionusing the two flywheel bolts. Make sure thatthe seal lip faces into the engine.24 With the oil seal installed, carefully pull thetape from the edge of the crankshaft.25 Refit the pistons and connecting rods.26 Refit the flywheel/driveplate, and thetiming chain and crankshaft sprocket.

    1 Proceed as described in Chapter 2, Part A,noting the following.2 Production bearing undersizes areindicated as follows:Yellow or red paint marks on crankshaft -

    standard-diameter main bearing journals.Green line on crankshaft front counterweight

    - main bearing journals 0.25 mmundersize.

    Green spot on counterweight - big-endbearing journals 25 mm undersize.

    1 Refer to Chapter 2, Part A, but note thatwhen the engine is first started, a metallictapping noise may be heard. This is due to thetiming chain tensioner plunger assemblytaking time to pressurise with oil, resulting in atemporarily slack chain. The noise shouldstop after a short time, once oil pressure hasbuilt up.

    32 Initial start-up after overhaul ormajor repair

    31 Crankshaft and bearings -examination and renovation

    2B18 DOHC engine

    30.5 Main bearing cap identification mark(arrowed)

    30.10 Crankshaft main bearings and associated components

    1 Bearing cap2 Thrustwasher3 Stud for oil baffle

    4 Identification markings5 Bearing shell without oil

    groove

    6 Bearing shell with oilgroove

    7 Bearing seat in cylinderblock

  • 1.6 litre engineNote: Unless otherwise stated, the Specifications for the 1.6 litre CVH engine are as given for the 1.8 litre (R2A type) which follow.

    General Engine code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L6BBore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.960 mmStroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.520 mmCubic capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1596 ccCompression ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0 :1Compression pressure at starter motor speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 to 14.3 barsMaximum continuous engine speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6000 rpmMaximum engine power (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 kW at 5500 rpmMaximum engine torque (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Nm at 3500 rpm

    Cylinder bore diameterStandard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.940 to 79.950 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.950 to 79.960 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.960 to 79.970 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.970 to 79.980 mmOversize class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.230 to 80.240 mmOversize class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.240 to 80.250 mmOversize class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.250 to 80.260 mm

    Chapter 2 Part C:CVH engines

    Camshaft and cam followers - removal, inspection and refitting . . . .23Compression test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Crankcase ventilation system - inspection and maintenance . . . . . . .3Crankshaft and bearings - examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . .33Crankshaft and main bearings - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . .32Crankshaft front oil seal - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Crankshaft rear oil seal - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Cylinder block and bores - examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . .34Cylinder head - dismantling and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Cylinder head - inspection and renovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Cylinder head - removal and refitting (engine in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . .19Cylinder head - removal and refitting (engine removed) . . . . . . . . . . .20Engine - refitting (automatic transmission in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Engine - refitting (manual gearbox in vehicle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Engine - removal leaving automatic transmission in vehicle . . . . . . . .9Engine - removal leaving manual gearbox in vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Engine/automatic transmission assembly - reconnection and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Engine/automatic transmission assembly - removal and separation .11

    Engine dismantling, examination, renovation and reassembly - generalinformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

    Engine/manual gearbox assembly - reconnection and refitting . . . . .14Engine/manual gearbox assembly - removal and separation . . . . . .10Engine mountings - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Engine oil and filter - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Flywheel/driveplate - removal, inspection and refitting . . . . . . . . . . .24General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Initial start-up after overhaul or major repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35Major operations possible with the engine in the vehicle . . . . . . . . . . .5Major operations requiring engine removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Method of engine removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Oil pump - dismantling, inspection and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Oil pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Pistons and connecting rods - examination and renovation . . . . . . .31Pistons and connecting rods - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Sump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Timing belt and sprockets - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

    2C1

    Specifications

    Contents

    2C

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • CrankshaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.09 to 0.30 mm (0.004 to 0.012 in)Main bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.011 to 0.058 mmMain bearing journal diameter:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.980 to 58.000 mmUndersize 0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.730 to 57.750 mmUndersize 0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.480 mmUndersize 0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.230 to 57.250 mm

    Main bearing thrustwasher thickness:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.301 to 2.351 mmOversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.491 to 2.541 mm

    Big-end bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.006 to 0.060 mmBig-end bearing journal diameter:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.890 to 47.910 mmUndersize 0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.640 to 47.660 mmUndersize 0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.390 to 47.410 mmUndersize 0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.140 to 47.160 mmUndersize 1.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46.890 to 46.910 mm

    Pistons and piston ringsPiston diameter:

    Standard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.915 to 79.925 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.925 to 79.935 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.935 to 79.945 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.945 to 79.955 mmOversize class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.205 to 80.215 mmOversize class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.215 to 80.225 mmOversize class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.225 to 80.235 mm

    Piston ring end gap:Top and centre rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.300 to 0.500 mm (0.012 to 0.020 in)Bottom (oil control) ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.250 to 0.400 mm (0.010 to 0.016 in)

    CamshaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.150 mm (0.002 to 0.006 in)Thrustplate thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.990 to 5.010 mm (0.1966 to 0.1974 in)Bearing journal diameter:

    Bearing No 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44.750 mmBearing No 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.000 mmBearing No 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.250 mmBearing No 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.500 mmBearing No 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.750 mm

    ValvesValve timing:

    Inlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ATDCInlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 ABDCExhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 BBDCExhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 BTDC

    Valve spring free length:Colour code blue/blue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.200 mmColour code white/blue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.400 mm

    Inlet valve stem diameter:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.025 to 8.043 mmOversize 0.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.225 to 8.243 mmOversize 0.40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.425 to 8.443 mm

    Exhaust valve stem diameter:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.999 to 8.017 mmOversize 0.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.199 to 8.217 mmOversize 0.40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.399 to 8.417 mm

    Lubrication systemOil type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multigrade engine oil, viscosity range SAE 10W/30 to 20W/50, to API

    SG/CD or better Oil capacity:

    With filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 litres (6.2 pints)Without filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.25 litres (5.7 pints)

    Oil pump clearances:Outer rotor-to-body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.060 to 0.190 mm (0.002 to 0.007 in)Inner rotor-to-outer rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.180 mm (0.002 to 0.007 in)Rotor endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.014 to 0.100 mm (0.001 to 0.004 in)

    2C2 CVH engines

  • Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftMain bearing cap bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 to 100 66 to 74Connecting rod (big-end bearing cap) bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 to 36 22 to 27Crankshaft pulley bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 115 74 to 85Camshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 to 59 40 to 44Flywheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 to 92 61 to 68Oil pump bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8Oil pump cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 12 6 to 9Sump bolts (in two stages) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 8 4 to 6Rocker arm nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 29 18 to 21Cylinder head bolts:

    Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 40 15 to 30Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 60 30 to 44Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angle-tighten a further 90Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angle-tighten a further 90

    Camshaft cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6Timing cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 11 7 to 8Timing belt tensioner bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15Oil pick-up tube/strainer-to-oil pump bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 12 6 to 9Oil pick-up tube/strainer-to-cylinder block bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 to 23 13 to 17Camshaft thrustplate bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 13 7 to 10Crankshaft rear oil seal housing bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8

    1.8 litre (R2A type) engine

    GeneralEngine type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four-cylinder, in-line, single overhead camshaftFiring order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3-4-2Engine code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R2ABore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.00 mmStroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.00 mmCubic capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1769 ccCompression ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3:1Compression pressure at starter motor speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 13 barMaximum continuous engine speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5850 rpmMaximum engine power (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 kW at 5250 rpmMaximum engine torque (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Nm at 3000 rpm

    Cylinder bore diameterStandard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.940 to 79.950 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.950 to 79.960 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.960 to 79.970 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.970 to 79.980 mmStandard class 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.980 to 79.990 mmStandard class 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.990 to 80.000 mmOversize class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.000 to 80.010 mmOversize class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.010 to 80.020 mmOversize class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.020 to 80.030 mm

    CrankshaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.10 to 0.20 mm (0.004 to 0.008 in)Main bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.028 to 0.067 mmMain bearing journal diameter:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.980 to 54.000 mmUndersize 0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.730 to 54.750 mmUndersize 0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.480 to 53.500 mmUndersize 0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.230 to 53.250 mm

    Centre main thrust bearing shell width:Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.825 to 28.875 mmUndersize 0.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.675 to 28.725 mm

    Big-end bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.020 to 0.065 mmBig-end bearing journal diameter:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43.890 to 43.910 mmUndersize 0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43.640 to 43.660 mmUndersize 0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43.390 to 43.410 mmUndersize 0.75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43.140 to 43.160 mmUndersize 1.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.890 to 42.910 mm

    CVH engines 2C3

    2C

  • Pistons and piston ringsPiston diameter:

    Standard class 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.910 to 79.920 mmStandard class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.920 to 79.930 mmStandard class 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.930 to 79.940 mmStandard class 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.940 to 79.950 mmStandard class 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.950 to 79.960 mmStandard class 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.960 to 79.970 mmOversize class A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.970 to 79.980 mmOversize class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.980 to 79.990 mmOversize class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.990 to 80.000 mm

    CamshaftEndfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.15 to 0.20 mm (0.006 to 0.008 in)Thrustplate thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.99 to 5.01 mm (0.1966 to 0.1974 in)Bearing journal diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.7625 to 45.7375 mm

    ValvesValve timing:

    Inlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 BTDCInlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ABDCExhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 BBDCExhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 ATDC

    Valve spring free length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.20 mm (1.86 in)Inlet valve stem diameter:

    Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.025 to 8.043 mmOversize 0.38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.405 to 8.423 mmOversize 0.76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.825 to 8.843 mm

    Exhaust valve stem diameter (standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.996 to 8.017 mm

    Lubrication systemOil type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multigrade engine oil, viscosity range SAE 10W/30 to 20W/50, to API

    SG/CD or betterOil capacity:

    With filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 litres (7.0 pints)Without filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 litres (6.2 pints)

    Oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C104Oil pump clearances:

    Outer rotor to body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.074 to 0.161 mm (0.003 to 0.006 in)Inner rotor to outer rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.180 mm (0.002 to 0.007 in)Rotor endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.013 to 0.070 mm (0.0005 to 0.0028 in)

    Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftMain bearing cap bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 to 108 66 to 80Big-end bearing caps:

    With retaining nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 to 34 19 to 25With retaining bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 41 26 to 30

    Crankshaft pulley bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 to 130 81 to 96Camshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 to 115 70 to 85Flywheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 to 91 54 to 67Oil pump bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 to 16 8 to 12Oil pump cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 12 7 to 9Sump bolts:

    M6 bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8M8 bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 30 15 to 22

    Sump drain plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 30 15 to 22Rocker arm bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 to 30 17 to 22Cylinder head bolts:

    Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 60 30 to 44Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slacken bolts by half a turnStage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 60 30 to 44Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten through a further 90Stage 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten through a further 90

    Camshaft cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8Timing cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8Timing cover nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 7 4 to 5Timing belt tensioner bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 to 30 17 to 22Oil pick-up tube/strainer-to-oil pump bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 13 7 to 9Camshaft thrustplate bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 13 6 to 9Crankshaft rear oil seal housing bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 30 15 to 22

    2C4 CVH engines

  • 1.8 litre (R6A type) engineNote: Unless otherwise stated, the Specifications for this later version of the 1.8 litre CVH engine are as given for the earlier R2A type above.

    GeneralEngine code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R6AMaximum continuous engine speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5700 rpmMaximum engine power (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 kW at 5200 rpmMaximum engine torque (DIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Nm at 3000 rpm

    Valve timingInlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 BTDCInlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 BTDCExhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ATDCExhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ATDC

    1.6 litre engineThe 1.6 litre CVH engine was introduced in

    September 1991, to replace the 1.6 litreSOHC engine used previously in the Sierrarange. The engine is broadly similar to the 1.8litre (R2A type) CVH engine described below.The main differences are outlined in thefollowing paragraphs.

    The centre main bearing is fitted withthrustwashers to control crankshaft endfloat,instead of a flanged bearing shell.

    The hydraulic cam followers operate in asimilar manner to those described for the 1.8litre (R2A) engine but no rollers are fitted, andthe base of each cam follower is in directcontact with the cam profile.

    A distributorless ignition system is used anda blanking plate is therefore fitted to the cylinderhead in place of the distributor drive. Theelectric fuel pump is mounted in the fuel tank.

    A comprehensive emissions control systemis fitted, comprising Central Fuel Injection(CFI), a sophisticated engine managementsystem, a crankcase ventilation system, acatalytic converter, and a pulseair system (toreduce exhaust gas emissions).

    Unless otherwise stated, all procedures areas described for the 1.8 litre (R2A) engine.

    1.8 litre (R2A type) engineThe CVH (Compound Valve angle,

    Hemispherical combustion chambers) engineis of four-cylinder, in-line, single overheadcamshaft type. The engine was introduced toreplace the 1.8 SOHC engine previously usedin the range.

    The crankshaft incorporates five mainbearings. The centre main bearing has aflanged bearing shell (thrust bearing) fitted tothe cylinder block to control crankshaft endfloat

    The camshaft is driven by a toothed belt andoperates the compound angled valves via rollertype hydraulic cam followers, which eliminatesthe need for valve clearance adjustment. Thecam followers operate in the following way.When the valve is closed, pressurised engineoil passes through ports in the body of the camfollower and the plunger into the cylinder feedchamber. From this chamber, oil flows througha ball type non-return valve into the pressure

    chamber. The tension of the coil spring causesthe plunger to press the rocker arm against thevalve and to eliminate any free play.

    As the cam lifts the cam follower, the oilpressure in the pressure chamber increasesand causes the non-return valve to close theport to the feed chamber. As oil cannot becompressed, it forms a rigid link between thebody of the cam follower, the cylinder and theplunger which then rise as one component toopen the valve.

    The clearance between the body of the camfollower and the cylinder is accurately designedto meter a specific quantity of oil as it escapesfrom the pressure chamber. Oil will only passalong the cylinder bore when pressure is highduring the moment of valve opening. Once thevalve has closed, the escape of oil will producea small amount of free play and no pressure willexist in the pressure chamber. Oil from the feedchamber can then flow through the non-returnvalve into the pressure chamber so that thecam follower cylinder can be raised by thepressure of the coil spring, thus eliminating anyplay in the arrangement until the valve isoperated again.

    As wear occurs between rocker arm andvalve stem, the quantity of oil which flows intothe pressure chamber will be slightly morethan the quantity lost during the expansioncycle of the cam follower. Conversely, whenthe cam follower is compressed by theexpansion of the valve, a slightly smallerquantity of oil will flow into the pressurechamber than was lost.

    To reduce valve clatter when the engine isstarted, a small plastic stand pipe retains oilinside the plunger. When the engine is started,the reservoir in the plunger (and via the non-return valve, the pressure chamber) areimmediately filled with oil. This reduces thenoise often associated with hydraulic camfollowers as they pressurise with oil afterengine start-up.

    The cam follower rollers run in needlebearings, which greatly reduces friction as therollers follow the cam profile.

    The distributor and fuel pump are drivendirectly from the camshaft and the oil pump isdriven directly from the front of the crankshaft.

    The cylinder head is of crossflow design,with the inlet manifold mounted on the right-hand side and the exhaust manifold mountedon the left-hand side.

    Lubrication is by means of a bi-rotor pump

    which draws oil through a strainer locatedinside the sump and forces it through a full-flow filter into the oil galleries where it isdistributed to the crankshaft and camshaft.The big-end bearings are supplied with oil viainternal drillings in the crankshaft. Theundersides of the pistons are supplied with oilfrom drillings in the big-ends. The hydrauliccam followers are supplied with oil from thecamshaft bearings via short passages in thecylinder head.

    A semi-closed crankcase ventilation systemis employed whereby piston blow-by gasesare drawn from the crankcase, through thecamshaft cover via an external vent hose, outto an oil separator built into the base of the aircleaner.

    1.8 litre (R6A type) engineThe 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH engine,

    introduced in March 1992, is a furtherdevelopment of the earlier 1.8 litre (R2A type)unit described above. Apart from minorengineering modifications to provideincreased fuel economy, reliability and poweroutput, the engine is mechanically identical tothe earlier version.

    In common with the 1.6 litre unit, adistributorless ignition system is used,together with a comprehensive emissionscontrol system comprising Central FuelInjection (CFI), a sophisticated enginemanagement system, a crankcase ventilationsystem, a catalytic converter, and additionally,an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system.

    Unless otherwise stated, all procedures areas described for the 1.8 litre (R2A type)engine.

    Refer to Section 2, Chapter 2, Part A.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 35.

    Refer to Section 5, Chapter 2, Part A.

    4 Compression test

    3 Crankcase ventilation system -inspection and maintenance

    2 Engine oil and filter - renewal

    1 General information

    CVH engines 2C5

    2C

  • a) Removal of the cylinder headb) Removal of the camshaftc) Removal of the timing belt and sprocketsd) Removal of the engine mountingse) Removal of the clutch and flywheelf) Removal of the crankshaft oil seals

    a) Removal of the sumpb) Removal of the oil pumpc) Removal of the pistons/connecting rodsd) Removal of the big-end bearingse) Removal of the crankshaft main bearingsf) Removal of the crankshaft

    Refer to Section 8, Chapter 2, Part A.

    Note: A suitable hoist and lifting tackle will berequired for this operation.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the bonnet.3 Remove the air cleaner.4 Disconnect the cooling fan wiring plug, thenunscrew the retaining nuts and washers andwithdraw the fan shroud and cooling fanassembly.5 Drain the cooling system.6 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thecoolant pump elbow, and detach the heaterhose from the clip on the front of the timingcover.7 Disconnect the upper radiator hose and theexpansion tank hose from the thermostathousing (see illustration).

    8 Disconnect the heater hose from theautomatic choke.9 Disconnect the brake servo vacuum hosefrom the inlet manifold (see illustration).10 Disconnect the throttle damper solenoidvacuum pipes (noting their locations) from thethrottle damper and the carburettor T-piececonnector.11 Disconnect the engine managementmodule vacuum pipe from the inlet manifold.12 Disconnect the fuel hoses from thecarburettor and fuel pump, and plug the endsof the hoses to minimise petrol spillage. Takeadequate fire precautions.13 Disconnect the throttle cable.14 Disconnect the HT leads from the coil andspark plugs, unclip the leads from thecamshaft cover, and remove the distributorcap, rotor arm and housing.15 Disconnect the wiring from the followingcomponents:

    Alternator Starter motor Oil pressure warning lamp switch Temperature gauge sender Engine coolant temperature sensor Automatic choke Cooling fan switch Crankshaft speed/position sensor Engine earth strap to battery tray

    16 Unscrew and remove the top engine-to-gearbox bolts which are accessible from theengine compartment.17 Apply the handbrake (if not already done),jack up the front of the vehicle and support onaxle stands (see Jacking and VehicleSupport).18 Drain the engine oil into a container.19 Remove the starter motor.20 Remove the exhaust downpipe.21 Unscrew the two nuts securing the enginemountings to the crossmember. Recover thewashers.22 Unscrew and remove the remainingengine-to-gearbox bolts, noting the locationof the earth strap (see illustration), andremove the two bolts from the engine adapterplate (see illustration).23 Working inside the vehicle, place awooden block under the clutch pedal to raiseit fully against its stop which will hold theautomatic adjuster pawl clear of the toothedquadrant.24 Disconnect the clutch cable from therelease arm, and pass the cable through thebellhousing. Remove the clip securing theclutch cable to the right-hand enginemounting bracket. Note the cable routing foruse when refitting.25 Lower the vehicle to the ground, andsupport the gearbox with a trolley jack using ablock of wood between the jack and thegearbox to spread the load.26 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate engine removal.27 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head, and carefully take the weight ofthe engine. The engine should be supportedhorizontally, ie do not allow it to tilt front torear.28 Raise the engine until the enginemounting studs are clear of the crossmember,then pull the engine forwards to disconnect itfrom the gearbox. Ensure that the gearbox isadequately supported, and take care not tostrain the gearbox input shaft. It may benecessary to rock the engine a little to releaseit from the gearbox.

    8 Engine - removal leavingmanual gearbox in vehicle

    7 Method of engine removal

    6 Major operations requiringengine removal

    5 Major operations possible withthe engine in the vehicle

    2C6 CVH engines

    8.9 Disconnecting the brake servo vacuumhose from the inlet manifold -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    8.22b Remove the two bolts (arrowed) fromthe engine adapter plate - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    8.22a Earth strap location under engine-to-gearbox bolt - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    8.7 Disconnect the upper radiator hose (1)and the expansion tank hose (2) from the

    thermostat housing - 1.8 litre (R2A)

  • 29 Once clear of the gearbox, lift the enginefrom the vehicle, taking care not to damagethe radiator fins (see illustration).

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)30 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to 5.31 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thethermostat housing, noting their locations.32 Disconnect the lower radiator hose fromthe coolant pump elbow and, whereapplicable, disconnect the heater hose fromthe T-piece on the lower radiator hose.33 On 1.6 engines, disconnect the coolanthose from the central fuel injection (CFI) unit.34 Disconnect the brake servo vacuum hosefrom the inlet manifold by carefully pressingthe clip on the inlet manifold connector intothe manifold using a screwdriver, andwithdrawing the hose.35 Disconnect the vacuum hoses from theinlet manifold, noting their locations.36 On 1.6 litre engines, disconnect the twohoses from the pulse-air system check valves(see illustration).37 Gradually loosen the fuel inlet pipe unionon the CFI unit, to relieve the pressure in thefuel system. Be prepared for fuel spray, andtake adequate fire precautions. Once thepressure has reduced, disconnect the fuelinlet and return hoses. Plug the ends of thehoses to minimise petrol spillage.38 Disconnect the throttle cable, ifnecessary.39 Disconnect the wiring from the followingcomponents, as applicable.

    Alternator Starter motor Oil pressure warning lamp switch Temperature gauge sender Engine coolant temperature sensor Inlet air temperature sensor Ignition coil Throttle stepper motor Throttle position sensor Fuel injector Cooling fan switch Air charge temperature sensor Engine earth strap to battery tray

    40 On 1.8 litre engine models with powersteering, slacken the power steering pumppulley bolts, then remove the alternator/powersteering pump drivebelt. Remove the pulley,unbolt the power steering pump from itsbracket, and move it clear of the engine.

    41 Unscrew and remove the top engine-to-gearbox bolts which are accessible from theengine compartment.42 Apply the handbrake (if not already done),jack up the front of the vehicle and support iton axle stands (see Jacking and VehicleSupport).43 Drain the engine oil into a suitablecontainer.44 Remove the starter motor.45 Disconnect the exhaust gas oxygensensor wiring connector, then remove theexhaust downpipe.46 Disconnect the wiring plug from thecrankshaft speed/position sensor.47 Unscrew the two nuts securing the enginemountings to the crossmember. Recover thewashers.48 Unscrew and remove the remainingengine-to-gearbox bolts, noting the locationof the earth strap and any wiring brackets,and remove the two bolts from the engineadapter plate (see illustration).49 Unscrew the securing bolt, and removethe crankshaft speed/position sensor shroud(where fitted).50 On 1.6 litre engines, working inside thevehicle, place a wooden block under theclutch pedal to raise it fully against its stop.This will hold the automatic adjuster pawlclear of the toothed quadrant. Disconnect theclutch cable from the release arm, and passthe cable through the bellhousing. Note thecable routing for use when refitting.51 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 25 to 29.

    Note: A suitable hoist and lifting tackle will berequired for this operation.1 Proceed as described in Section 8,paragraphs 1 to 15 inclusive. Additionally, ifapplicable disconnect the kickdown cablefrom the carburettor.2 Unscrew and remove the top engine-to-transmission bolts which are accessible fromthe engine compartment. Note the location ofthe vacuum pipe bracket and transmissiondipstick tube bracket.3 Proceed as described in Section 8,paragraphs 17 to 21 inclusive.4 Working through the starter motor aperture,unscrew the four torque converter-to-driveplate nuts. It will be necessary to turn thecrankshaft using a suitable spanner on thecrankshaft pulley bolt in order to gain accessto each nut in turn through the aperture.5 Unscrew and remove the remaining engine-to-transmission bolts, noting the location ofthe earth strap, and remove the two boltsfrom the engine adapter plate. Whereapplicable pull the blanking plug from theadapter plate.6 Lower the vehicle to the ground andsupport the transmission with a trolley jack,using a block of wood between the jack andthe transmission to spread the load.7 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate engine removal.8 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head, and carefully take the weight ofthe engine. The engine should be supportedhorizontally, ie do not allow it to tilt front to rear.9 Raise the engine until the engine mountingstuds are clear of the crossmember, then pullthe engine forwards to disconnect it from thetransmission. Ensure that the torque converteris held firmly in place in the transmissionhousing, otherwise it could fall out resulting influid spillage and possible damage. It may benecessary to rock the engine a little to releaseit from the transmission.10 Once clear of the transmission, lift theengine from the vehicle, taking care not todamage the radiator fins.

    Note: A suitable hoist and lifting tackle will berequired for this operation.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)

    Removal1 Proceed as described in Section 8,paragraphs 1 to 15 inclusive.2 Working inside the vehicle, unscrew thegear lever knob and remove the centre

    10 Engine/manual gearboxassembly - removal andseparation

    9 Engine - removal leavingautomatic transmission invehicle

    CVH engines 2C7

    2C

    8.48 Engine adapter plate bolts (A) andcrankshaft speed/position sensor shroud

    (B) - 1.6 litre

    8.36 Pulse-air system check valves(arrowed) - 1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)

    8.29 Lifting the engine from the vehicle -1.8 litre (R2A)

  • console. Where a full-length console is fitted,it is only necessary to remove the front tray.3 Detach the outer gaiter from the retainingframe and withdraw it over the gear lever.4 Release the clips and remove the gaiterretaining frame and inner gaiter.5 Using a suitable Torx key, remove thescrews securing the gear lever to the gearboxextension housing, and withdraw the gearlever. Note how the base of the gear leverlocates over the selector shaft.6 Jack up the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).Ensure that there is sufficient working roombeneath the vehicle.7 To improve access, disconnect the exhaustdownpipe from the manifold and remove theexhaust system.8 Remove the propeller shaft.9 Where applicable bend back the locktabs,then unscrew the two bolts securing each ofthe two anti-roll bar U-clamps to the vehicleunderbody. Lower the anti-roll bar as far aspossible.10 Proceed as described in Section 8,paragraphs 23 and 24. 11 Drain the engine oil into a container.12 Unscrew the two nuts securing the enginemountings to the crossmember. Recover thewashers.13 Disconnect the wiring from the reversinglamp switch.14 Remove the retaining circlip, andwithdraw the speedometer cable from thegearbox extension housing.15 Support the gearbox with a trolley jack,using a block of wood between the jack andthe gearbox to spread the load.16 Unscrew the four bolts securing thegearbox crossmember to the vehicleunderbody. Unscrew the central bolt securingthe crossmember to the gearbox and removethe crossmember. Note the position of theearth strap, where applicable. Recover themounting cup and where applicable theexhaust mounting bracket and heat shield.17 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate removal of theengine/gearbox assembly.18 Attach a hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head. Arrange the lifting tackle so thatthe engine/gearbox assembly will assume asteep angle of approximately 40 to 45 as it isbeing removed.19 Raise the engine/gearbox so that theengine mounting studs are clear of thecrossmember, then ease the assemblyforwards, at the same time lowering the trolleyjack which is supporting the gearbox. Lift theassembly from the vehicle, taking care not todamage the surrounding components.20 With the engine/gearbox assemblyremoved, temporarily reconnect the anti-rollbar to the underbody if the vehicle is to bemoved.

    Separation21 To separate the engine from the gearbox,proceed as follows.

    22 Remove the starter motor.23 Support the engine and gearboxhorizontally on blocks of wood.24 Unscrew and remove the engine-to-gearbox bolts, noting the location of the earthstrap, and remove the two bolts from theengine adapter plate.25 Pull the engine and gearbox apart, takingcare not to strain the gearbox input shaft. Itmay be necessary to rock the units slightly toseparate them.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)26 Proceed as described in paragraphs 30 to40 inclusive of Section 8.27 Proceed as described in paragraphs 2 to25 inclusive of Section 10, noting thefollowing points.28 Disconnect the wiring from the vehiclespeed sensor mounted on the gearbox beforeremoving the engine/gearbox assembly.29 Note that on 1.6 litre engines, thecrankshaft speed/position sensor shroud(which is secured by a single bolt) must beremoved before separating the engine fromthe gearbox.

    Note: A suitable hoist and lifting tackle will berequired for this operation. Any suspectedfaults in the automatic transmission should bereferred to a Ford dealer or automatictransmission specialist before removal of theunit, as the specialist fault diagnosisequipment is designed to operate with thetransmission in the vehicle.

    Removal1 Proceed as described in Section 8,paragraphs 1 to 15 inclusive, but additionally,where applicable disconnect the kickdowncable from the carburettor.2 Jack up the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).Ensure that there is sufficient working roombeneath the vehicle.3 To improve access, disconnect the exhaustdownpipe from the manifold and remove theexhaust system.4 Remove the propeller shaft.5 Where applicable bend back the locktabs,then unscrew the two bolts securing each ofthe two anti-roll bar U-clamps to the vehicleunderbody. Lower the anti-roll bar as far aspossible.6 Unscrew the unions and disconnect thefluid cooler pipes from the transmission. Plugthe open ends of the pipes and thetransmission to prevent dirt ingress and fluidleakage. Remove the fluid cooler pipe bracketfrom the engine mounting bracket and place itto one side.7 Remove the two clips securing the selectorrod, and detach the selector rod from themanual selector lever, and the selector leveron the transmission,8 If applicable, disconnect the kickdown cablefrom the transmission and withdraw the cable.

    9 Disconnect the wiring from the starterinhibitor/reversing lamp switch, the lock-upclutch and where applicable the kickdownsolenoid. 10 Remove the securing screw, anddisconnect the speedometer cable from thetransmission extension housing. Plug theopening in the transmission to prevent dirtingress.11 Disconnect the vacuum pipe from thevacuum diaphragm unit, and unclip the pipefrom its securing bracket on the transmissionhousing.12 Drain the engine oil into a container.13 Unscrew the two nuts securing the enginemountings to the crossmember. Recover thewashers.14 Support the transmission with a trolleyjack using a block of wood between the jackand the transmission to spread the load.15 Unscrew the four bolts securing thetransmission crossmember to the vehicleunderbody. Note the position of the earthstrap, where applicable. Unscrew the centralbolt securing the crossmember to thetransmission and remove the crossmember.Recover the mounting cup and the exhaustmounting bracket.16 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate removal of theengine/transmission assembly.17 Attach a suitable hoist to the engine liftingbrackets located at the front and rear of thecylinder head. Arrange the lifting tackle so thatthe engine/transmission assembly will assumea steep angle of approximately 40 to 45 as itis being removed.18 Raise the engine/transmission so that theengine mounting studs are clear of thecrossmember, then ease the assemblyforwards, at the same time lowering the trolleyjack which is supporting the transmission. Liftthe assembly from the vehicle, taking care notto damage surrounding components.19 With the engine/transmission assemblyremoved, temporarily reconnect the anti-rollbar to the underbody if the vehicle is to bemoved.

    Separation20 To separate the engine from thetransmission, proceed as follows. 21 Remove the starter motor.22 Support the engine and transmissionhorizontally on blocks of wood.23 Working through the starter motoraperture, unscrew the four torque converter-to-driveplate nuts. It will be necessary to turnthe crankshaft using a suitable spanner on thecrankshaft pulley bolt in order to gain accessto each nut in turn through the aperture.24 Unscrew and remove the engine-to-transmission bolts, noting the locations of theearth strap, vacuum pipe bracket, andtransmission dipstick tube bracket. Removethe two bolts from the engine adapter plate,and where applicable pull the blanking plugfrom the adapter plate.25 Pull the engine and transmission apart,ensuring that the torque converter is held

    11 Engine/automatictransmission assembly -removal and separation

    2C8 CVH engines

  • firmly in place in the transmission housing,otherwise it could fall out resulting in fluidspillage and possible damage. It may benecessary to rock the units slightly toseparate them.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)1 Reverse the procedure described inSection 8, noting the following points.2 Before attempting to refit the engine, checkthat the clutch friction disc is centralised. Thisis necessary to ensure that the gearbox inputshaft splines will pass through the splines inthe centre of the friction disc.3 Check that the clutch release arm andbearing are correctly fitted, and lightly greasethe input shaft splines.4 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels.5 Reconnect the clutch cable to the releasearm, ensuring that it is routed as noted duringremoval. 6 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.7 Fill the cooling system.8 Check and if necessary adjust the tensionof the alternator drivebelt.9 Adjust the throttle cable.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)10 Reverse the procedure described inSection 8, noting the points made above.

    1 Reverse the procedure described inSection 9, noting the following points.2 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels.3 As the torque converter is only looselyengaged in the transmission, care must betaken to prevent the torque converter fromfalling out forwards. When the torqueconverter hub is fully engaged with the fluidpump drivegear in the transmission, distanceA in illustration 2.24 of Chapter 7B must beas specified. Incorrect installation of thetorque converter will result in damage to thetransmission.4 As the engine is installed, guide the torqueconverter studs through the holes in thedriveplate. When the engine is positionedflush with the engine adapter plate and thetransmission housing, check that the torqueconverter is free to move axially a smallamount before refitting and tightening theengine-to-transmission bolts.5 Do not tighten the torque converter-to-driveplate nuts until the lower engine-to-transmission bolts have been fitted andtightened.6 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.

    7 Fill the cooling system.8 Check and if necessary adjust the tensionof the alternator drivebelt.9 Adjust the throttle cable.10 If applicable, adjust the kickdown cable.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)1 Reverse the procedure described in Section10, noting the following points.2 Before attempting to reconnect the engineto the gearbox, check that the clutch frictiondisc is centralised. This is necessary to ensurethat the gearbox input shaft splines will passthrough the splines in the centre of the frictiondisc.3 Check that the clutch release arm andbearing are correctly fitted, and lightly greasethe input shaft splines.4 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels.5 Reconnect the clutch cable to the releasearm, ensuring that it is routed as noted duringremoval. 6 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil.7 Fill the cooling system.8 Check and if necessary top-up the gearboxoil level.9 Check and if necessary adjust the tensionof the alternator drivebelt.10 Adjust the throttle cable.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)11 Reverse the procedure described inSection 10, noting the points made above.Ensure that the vehicle speed sensor wiringplug is reconnected.

    1 Reverse the procedure described in Section11, noting the following points.2 Check that the engine adapter plate iscorrectly positioned on its locating dowels.3 As the torque converter is only looselyengaged in the transmission, care must betaken to prevent the torque converter fromfalling out forwards. When the torqueconverter hub is fully engaged with the fluidpump drivegear in the transmission, distanceA in illustration 2.24 of Chapter 7B must beas specified. Incorrect installation of thetorque converter will result in damage to thetransmission.4 As the engine and transmission arereconnected, guide the torque converterstuds through the holes in the driveplate.When the engine is positioned flush with theengine adapter plate and the transmissionhousing, check that the torque converter isfree to move axially a small amount before

    refitting and tightening the engine-to-transmission bolts.5 Do not tighten the torque converter-to-driveplate nuts until the lower engine-to-transmission bolts have been fitted andtightened.6 Reconnect and adjust the selector rod.7 Fill the engine with the correct grade andquantity of oil. 8 Fill the cooling system.9 Check and if necessary top-up thetransmission fluid level.10 Check and if necessary adjust the tensionof the alternator drivebelt.11 Adjust the throttle cable.12 Where applicable, adjust the kickdowncable.

    1 The engine mountings incorporatehydraulic dampers and must be renewed ifexcessive engine movement is evident.2 Working in the engine compartment,unscrew the central nuts securing the enginemounting brackets to the tops of themountings. Recover the washers.3 Apply the handbrake, jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).4 Working underneath the vehicle, removethe central nuts securing the mountings to thecrossmember. Recover the washers.5 Raise the engine using a suitable hoist andlifting tackle attached to the engine liftingbrackets on the cylinder head, or a jack andinterposed block of wood under the sump,until the mountings can be withdrawn.6 Fit the new mountings, then lower theengine onto them. Note that the locating pinson the mountings must engage with thecorresponding holes in the engine mountingbrackets (see illustration).7 Fit the nuts and washers securing themountings to the crossmember and tightenthe nuts.8 Lower the vehicle to the ground and fit thenuts and washers securing the enginemounting brackets to the mountings. Tightenthe nuts.

    16 Engine mountings - renewal

    15 Engine/automatictransmission assembly -reconnection and refitting

    14 Engine/manual gearboxassembly - reconnection andrefitting

    13 Engine - refitting (automatictransmission in vehicle)

    12 Engine - refitting (manualgearbox in vehicle)

    CVH engines 2C9

    2C

    16.6 Locating pin on mounting mustengage with hole (arrowed) in engine

    mounting bracket

  • 1.8 litre (R2A type)

    Dismantling1 It is best to mount the engine on adismantling stand, but if this is not available,stand the engine on a strong bench at acomfortable working height. Failing this, it willhave to stripped down on the floor.2 Cleanliness is most important, and if theengine is dirty, it should be cleaned withparaffin while keeping it in an upright position.3 Avoid working with the engine directly on aconcrete floor, as grit presents a real sourceof trouble.4 As parts are removed, clean them in aparaffin bath. However, do not immerse partswith internal oilways in paraffin as it is difficultto remove, usually requiring a high pressurehose. Clean oilways with nylon pipe cleaners.5 It is advisable to have suitable containersavailable to hold small items according totheir use, as this will help when reassemblingthe engine and also prevent possible losses.6 Always obtain a complete set of newgaskets for use during engine reassembly, butretain the old gaskets with a view to usingthem as a pattern to make a replacement if anew one is not available.7 Where possible, refit securing nuts, boltsand washers to their locations after removingthe relevant components. This will help toprotect the threads and will also preventpossible losses.8 Retain unserviceable components in orderto compare them with the new componentssupplied.9 A suitable Torx socket will be required toremove the oil pump cover securing screws.10 Before dismantling the main enginecomponents, the following externally mountedancillary components can be removed:

    Inlet manifold and carburettor Exhaust manifold Fuel pump and operating pushrod Alternator Spark plugs Oil pressure warning lamp switch (seeillustration)Oil filter Dipstick Engine mounting brackets Clutch Alternator mounting bracket Crankshaft speed/position sensor Engine lifting brackets

    Examination and renovation11 Refer to Section 18 in Chapter 2, Part A.

    Reassembly12 To ensure maximum life with minimumtrouble from a rebuilt engine, not only musteverything be correctly assembled, but it must

    also be spotlessly clean. All oilways must beclear, and locking washers and springwashers must be fitted where indicated. Oil allbearings and other working surfacesthoroughly with engine oil during assembly.13 Before assembly begins, renew any boltsor studs with damaged threads.14 Gather together a torque wrench, oil can,clean rag, and a set of engine gaskets and oilseals, together with a new oil filter.15 If they have been removed, new cylinderhead bolts, big-end bolts/nuts and newflywheel bolts will be required.16 After reassembling the main enginecomponents, refer to paragraph 10 and refitthe ancillary components listed. Delicateitems such as the alternator may be left untilafter the engine has been refitted.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)

    Dismantling17 Refer to paragraphs 1 to 9 inclusive.18 Before dismantling the main enginecomponents, the following ancillarycomponents can be removed:

    Inlet manifold and CFI unit.Exhaust manifold .Alternator.Spark plugs and HT leads.Ignition coil and mounting bracket.Oil pressure warning lamp switch.Oil filter.Dipstick and tube.Engine mounting brackets.Clutch.Alternator mounting bracket.

    Crankshaft speed/position sensor.Engine lifting brackets.Crankcase ventilation hose.

    Examination and renovation19 Refer to Section 18 in Chapter 2, Part A.

    Reassembly20 Refer to paragraphs 12 to 16 but note thatnew rocker arm nuts will be required, if theyhave been removed.

    Note: The belt tension should be checkedusing Ford special tool No 21-113 afterrefitting. A suitable puller may be required toremove the sprockets. If the camshaftsprocket is removed, a new retaining boltmust be used on refitting, and suitable sealant(Loctite 74 or 274, or Omnifit 30M blue) will berequired to coat the bolt threads.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)

    Removal1 If the engine is in the vehicle, carry out thefollowing operations:a) Disconnect the battery negative leadb) Remove the alternator drivebeltc) Remove the distributor cap, rotor arm and

    housingd) Disconnect the wiring plug from the

    crankshaft speed/position sensore) Unclip the coolant hoses from the timing

    cover, and position them across the topof the camshaft cover out of the way

    f) If desired for improved access, removethe fan shroud and cooling fan assembly,although this is not essential

    2 Slacken the crankshaft pulley bolt. Preventthe crankshaft from turning by engaging topgear (manual gearbox only) and having anassistant apply the brake pedal hard, or byremoving the starter motor and jamming thering gear teeth with a lever.3 Remove the bolt and washer and withdrawthe pulley (see illustration). If the pulley willnot come off easily, refit the bolt part way anduse a puller, but take care not to damage thesensor toothed disc.

    18 Timing belt and sprockets -removal and refitting

    17 Engine dismantling,examination, renovation andreassembly - general information

    2C10 CVH engines

    17.10 Removing the oil pressure warninglamp switch - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.5 Withdrawing the timing cover - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.3 Withdrawing the crankshaft pulley -1.8 litre (R2A)

  • 4 Unscrew the two timing cover securingnuts, and recover the earth tag and thecoolant hose clip.5 Unscrew the two securing bolts andwithdraw the timing cover (see illustration).6 Refit the crankshaft pulley bolt, and using asocket on the bolt, turn the engine clockwiseuntil the TDC (top dead centre) lug on thecrankshaft sprocket is uppermost, and in linewith the notch in the oil pump flange, and thepointer on the camshaft sprocket is alignedwith the dot on the cylinder head front face(see illustrations).7 Loosen the two timing belt tensioner bolts,press the tensioner to the left against thespring tension, and tighten the two bolts toretain the tensioner in the released position.8 Mark the running direction of the belt if it isto be re-used, then slip it off the sprockets,

    and withdraw the belt (see illustration).9 If desired, the camshaft and crankshaftsprockets can be removed as follows,otherwise proceed to paragraph 19. Thecoolant pump sprocket is integral with thepump and cannot be removed separately.10 Unscrew the crankshaft pulley bolt,preventing the crankshaft from turning asbefore if necessary, then remove thecrankshaft sprocket. Refit the bolt part wayand use a puller if necessary. Recover theWoodruff key from the end of the crankshaftand remove the thrustwasher (seeillustrations).11 Unscrew the camshaft sprocket bolt whileholding the sprocket stationary with a 41 mmring spanner. Alternatively, make up a toolsimilar to that shown for tightening the boltand hold the sprocket using two bolts

    engaged in the sprockets holes. Recover thedistributor rotor shaft which is held in place bythe camshaft sprocket bolt (see illustration).12 Remove the camshaft sprocket, refittingthe bolt part way and using a puller ifnecessary (see illustration).13 If desired, the timing belt backplate canbe removed by lifting it from the studs (seeillustration) and the timing belt tensioner andcoolant pump can be removed.14 If required, the camshaft oil seal can beremoved using self-tapping screws and a pairof grips. A new seal can be fitted using asuitable tube drift to press it into place.Lubricate the seal lips with clean engine oilbefore installation.

    Refitting15 Refit the sprockets as follows.

    CVH engines 2C11

    2C

    18.8 Withdrawing the timing belt - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.13 Removing the timing belt backplate -1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.12 Using a puller to remove thecamshaft sprocket - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.11 Removing the camshaft sprocketbolt and distributor rotor shaft -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.10c . . . and the thrustwasher - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.10b . . . the Woodruff key . . .18.10a Remove the crankshaft sprocket . . .

    18.6b TDC pointer on camshaft sprocketaligned with dot on cylinder head -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.6a TDC lug on crankshaft sprocketaligned with notch in oil pump flange -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

  • 16 Where applicable, refit the timing belttensioner and coolant pump, locate the timingbelt backplate over the studs, then fit thecamshaft sprocket and the distributor rotorshaft.17 The camshaft sprocket bolt must becoated with sealant before installation. Themanufacturers recommend Loctite 74 or 274,or Omnifit 30M blue. With the sealant applied,insert the bolt, hold the camshaft sprocketstationary as during removal, and tighten thebolt to the specified torque (see illustration).18 Refit the thrustwasher with the convexside facing forwards, and refit the Woodruffkey, then refit the crankshaft sprocket with theFRONT mark facing forwards.19 Fit the timing belt over the crankshaftsprocket, but do not engage it with the othersprockets yet. Be careful not to kink the belt,and if the old belt is being refitted, observe thepreviously noted running direction.

    20 Make sure that the TDC pointer on thecamshaft sprocket is still aligned with the doton the cylinder head front face.21 Check that the TDC lug on the crankshaftsprocket is still in line with the notch in the oilpump flange. If necessary, refit the crankshaftpulley bolt, if not already done, and using asocket on the bolt, turn the crankshaft by theshortest possible route to align the lug andnotch.22 Starting at the crankshaft and working inan anti-clockwise direction, fit the timing beltover the camshaft sprocket, round thetensioner roller, and over the coolant pumpsprocket.23 Slacken the tensioner bolts, allow thetensioner roller to rest against the belt, thentighten the tensioner bolts.24 Refit the crankshaft pulley bolt, if notalready done, and using a socket on the bolt,turn the engine through two revolutions in aclockwise direction (to bring No 1 cylinderback to TDC), then turn the crankshaft 60anti-clockwise (No 1 cylinder at 60 BTDC).25 The belt tension should now be checkedby applying Ford tension gauge, tool No 21-113 to the longest belt run. Desired gaugereadings are:Used belt - 4 to 6New belt - 10 to 11

    If the tension gauge is not available, a roughguide is that the belt tension is correct whenthe belt can be twisted 90 in the middle of thelongest run with the fingers using moderatepressure (see illustration). In this case, thevehicle should be taken to a Ford dealer sothat the belt tension can be checked using thespecial gauge at the earliest opportunity.26 If adjustment of belt tension is necessary,turn the crankshaft clockwise to bring No 1cylinder to TDC, then slacken the tensionerbolts and move the tensioner to increase ordecrease the belt tension. Tighten thetensioner bolts to the specified torque.27 Turn the crankshaft 90 clockwise pastTDC, then anti-clockwise back to the 60BTDC position (No 1 cylinder at 60 BTDC).Check the belt tension again (seeillustration).

    28 Repeat the procedure given in paragraphs26 and 27 until the belt tension is correct.29 Refit the timing cover and secure with thetwo bolts and nuts. Ensure that the earth tagand the coolant hose clip are fitted under therelevant nuts (see illustration).30 Unscrew the crankshaft pulley bolt, thenrefit the crankshaft pulley and the bolt andwasher. Tighten the crankshaft pulley bolt tothe specified torque, preventing thecrankshaft from turning as described inparagraph 2.31 If the engine is in the vehicle, reverse theoperations described in paragraph 1.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)32 If the engine is in the vehicle, carry out thefollowing operations.a) Disconnect the battery negative lead.b) Remove the alternator drivebelt.c) Disconnect the HT leads from the spark

    plugs, noting their locations; detach theHT lead bracket from the camshaft cover,and position the leads out of the way.

    d) Move the coolant hoses from the front ofthe timing cover, and position themacross the top of the camshaft cover outof the way.

    e) If desired for improved access, removethe fan shroud and the cooling fanassembly, although this is not essential.

    33 Proceed as described in paragraphs 2 to30 inclusive, noting the following differencesfor the 1.6 litre engine (see illustrations).a) There is no sensor toothed disc on the

    crankshaft pulley.b) A two-piece timing cover is fitted,

    consisting of upper and lower sections,each secured by two bolts. No earth tagor coolant hose clip is fitted to the bolts.

    c) The TDC datum on the oil pump takes theform of a lug instead of a notch.

    d) There is no distributor rotor shaft fitted tothe camshaft sprocket bolt.

    e) There is no timing belt backplate.34 On completion, if the engine is in thevehicle, reverse the operations given inparagraph 32.

    2C12 CVH engines

    18.17 Tightening the camshaft sprocketbolt. Hold the sprocket stationary using animprovised tool with two bolts engaged in

    the sprocket holes - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.27 No 1 cylinder at 60 BTDC forchecking of timing belt tension -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.29 Earth tag (1) and coolant hose clip (2)locations on timing cover -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.25 Twisting the timing belt to assess itstension - 1.8 litre (R2A)

  • Note: Refer to the note at the beginning ofSection 20 before proceeding.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Drain the cooling system.3 Disconnect the heater coolant hose fromthe coolant pump elbow, and the coolantbypass hose from the left-hand side of thecylinder head, then unclip the hoses from thetiming cover and move them to one side outof the way (see illustrations).4 Remove the air cleaner.

    5 Disconnect the HT leads from the sparkplugs and coil, identifying them for position ifnecessary, unclip the leads from the camshaftcover, then remove the distributor cap, rotorarm and housing. Remove the spark plugs.6 Disconnect the cylinder head earth leadfrom the battery tray.7 The cylinder head can be removed either withor without the manifolds. If desired, the inletmanifold can be unbolted and moved to oneside, leaving the wires, hoses, pipes and cablesconnected, but care must be taken not to strainany of the wires, hoses, pipes or cables.8 Unscrew the three securing nuts anddisconnect the exhaust downpipe from themanifoid flange. Recover the gasket.9 If desired, remove the exhaust manifold.10 If the inlet manifold is to be removed withthe cylinder head, disconnect all relevant

    wires, hoses, pipes and cables, otherwiseunbolt the manifold and move it to one side,ensuring that it is adequately supported (seeillustration).11 If desired, remove the fuel pump andoperating pushrod.12 Proceed as described in Section 20 tocomplete cylinder head removal.

    Refitting13 With the cylinder head refitted asdescribed in Section 20, proceed as follows.14 Where applicable, refit the fuel pump andoperating pushrod.15 Refit the manifolds and/or reconnect allwires, hoses, pipes and cables, as applicable.16 Reconnect the exhaust downpipe to themanifold, using a new gasket.17 Reconnect the earth lead to the batterytray.18 Refit the spark plugs, then refit thedistributor cap, rotor arm and housing, andreconnect the HT leads.19 Refit the air cleaner.20 Reconnect the coolant hoses to thecoolant pump elbow and the cylinder head,and locate them in the clip on the timingcover.21 Fill the cooling system.22 Reconnect the battery negative lead.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)

    Removal23 Disconnect the battery negative lead.24 Drain the cooling system.25 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thethermostat housing, and the bypass hosefrom the left-hand side of the cylinder head,then move them to one side out of the way.26 Remove the air cleaner. 27 Disconnect the HT leads from the sparkplugs, identifying them for position ifnecessary. Unclip them from the camshaftcover, and move them to one side out of theway.28 Remove the spark plugs.29 Disconnect the cylinder head earth leadfrom the battery tray.30 The cylinder head can be removed eitherwith or without the manifolds. If desired, theinlet manifold can be unbolted and moved toone side (after unbolting the dipstick tube),

    19 Cylinder head - removal andrefitting (engine in vehicle)

    CVH engines 2C13

    2C

    19.10 Withdraw the inlet manifold - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    19.3b Coolant bypass hose connection atcylinder head - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    19.3a Disconnecting the heater coolanthose from the coolant pump elbow -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    18.33d Oil pump TDC lug (A) andcrankshaft sprocket lug (B) -

    1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)

    18.33c Removing the lower timing cover -1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)

    18.33b Removing the upper timing cover -1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)

    18.33a Upper timing cover securing bolts(arrowed) - 1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)

  • leaving the wires, hoses, pipes and cablesconnected. However, care must be taken notto strain any of the wires, hoses or cables.31 Disconnect the exhaust gas oxygensensor wiring connector (see illustration)then unscrew the three securing bolts anddisconnect the exhaust downpipe from themanifold flange. Recover the gasket.32 If desired, remove the exhaust manifold.33 If the inlet manifold is to be removed withthe cylinder head, disconnect all relevantwires, hoses, pipes and cables, otherwiseunbolt the manifold and move it to one side,ensuring that it is adequately supported. 34 Note the information given in paragraphs18 to 21 inclusive of Section 20.

    Refitting35 With the cylinder head refitted, proceedas follows.36 Refit the manifolds and/or reconnect allwires, hoses, pipes and cables as applicable.37 Reconnect the exhaust downpipe to themanifold using a new gasket, and reconnectthe exhaust gas oxygen sensor wiringconnector. 38 Reconnect the earth lead to the batterytray.39 Refit the spark plugs and reconnect theHT leads.40 Refit the air cleaner.41 Reconnect the coolant hoses to thethermostat housing and cylinder head.42 Fill the cooling system. 43 Reconnect the battery negative lead.

    Note: The cylinder head bolts must always berenewed after slackening, and a new cylinderhead gasket and camshaft cover gasket mustbe used on refitting. If the engine has recentlyrun, the cylinder head must be allowed to coolto room temperature before it is removed.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)

    Removal1 With the manifolds removed, proceed asfollows.2 Remove the timing belt, camshaft sprocket,and timing belt backplate.3 Disconnect the crankcase ventilation hosefrom the camshaft cover. 4 Unscrew the nine securing bolts andremove the camshaft cover and gasket (seeillustration).5 Unscrew the ten cylinder head bolts half aturn at a time in the reverse order to thatshown for tightening.6 With the bolts removed, lift the cylinderhead from the block (see illustration). If thecylinder head is stuck, tap it free with awooden mallet. Do not insert a lever into thejoint between the cylinder head and block asthis may result in damage to the mating faces.Place the cylinder head on blocks of wood toprevent damage to the valves.

    7 Recover the gasket, and the locatingdowels if they are loose (see illustration).

    Refitting8 Commence refitting as follows.9 Turn the crankshaft so that No 1 piston isapproximately 20.0 mm (0.8 in) before TDC.This precaution will prevent any damage toopen valves.10 Make sure that the mating faces of thecylinder block and cylinder head are perfectlyclean, then refit the locating dowels to theblock where applicable, and locate a newgasket over the dowels with the red sealingbead and the 1.8 mark uppermost (seeillustrations). Do not use jointing compound.11 Turn the camshaft so that the TDC pointeron the camshaft sprocket is aligned with thedot on the cylinder head front face.12 Lower the cylinder head onto the gasket,making sure that the locating dowels engage.13 Insert the new cylinder head bolts intotheir locations in the cylinder head, thentighten the bolts in the order shown to the fivestages given in the Specifications (seeillustrations).14 Fit a new camshaft cover gasket to thecylinder head, ensuring that the gasketlocates correctly over the edges of thecylinder head (see illustration).15 Refit the camshaft cover and tighten thebolts evenly, ensuring that the studded boltswhich retain the HT lead clips are refitted totheir correct positions (see illustration).

    20 Cylinder head - removal andrefitting (engine removed)

    2C14 CVH engines

    19.31 Disconnecting the exhaust gasoxygen sensor wiring connector -

    1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)

    20.6 Withdraw the cylinder head bolts andlift the cylinder head from the block -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    20.10b . . . then locate a new gasket withthe red sealing bead and 1.8 mark

    uppermost - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    20.10a Fit the locating dowels (arrowed) tothe block . . .

    20.7 Recover the cylinder head gasket - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    20.4 Remove the camshaft cover andgasket - 1.8 litre (R2A)

  • 16 Reconnect the crankcase ventilation hoseto the camshaft cover. 17 Refit the timing belt backplate, camshaftsprocket and timing belt.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)18 With the manifolds removed, proceed asfollows.19 Remove the timing belt.20 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 3 to 16inclusive, noting the following differences forthe 1.6 litre engine only:a) Unscrew the cylinder head bolts in the

    reverse order to that shown for tightening.b) The cylinder head gasket is identified by a

    single tooth on its edge, and the gasketmust be fitted with the tooth nearest the

    oil filter end of the engine, as shown (seeillustration).

    c) Tighten the cylinder head bolts in theorder shown (see illustration), to the fourstages given in the Specifications at thebeginning of this Chapter.

    d) Ignore the reference to the studdedcamshaft cover bolts.

    21 On completion, refit the timing belt.

    Note: A valve spring compressor will berequired during this procedure. New valvestem oil seals should be used onreassembly.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)

    Dismantling1 With the cylinder head removed, removethe camshaft. 2 Using a valve spring compressor, compressone of the valve springs until the split colletscan be removed from the grooves in the valvestem. Release the compressor and removethe cap and spring, identifying them forlocation. If the cap is difficult to release, donot continue to tighten the compressor, butgently tap the top of the tool with a hammer.Always make sure that the compressor isfirmly located on the valve head and the cap(see illustrations).3 Prise the oil seal from the valve stem, andremove the spring seat, then withdraw thevalve (see illustrations).

    21 Cylinder head - dismantlingand reassembly

    CVH engines 2C15

    2C

    20.14 Ensure that the camshaft covergasket locates over the edges of the

    cylinder head - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    21.2c . . . then remove the cap and spring -1.8 litre (R2A)

    21.2b . . . to free the split collets . . .

    20.20b Cylinder head bolt tighteningsequence - 1.6 litre

    20.20a Cylinder head gasket correctlylocated - 1.6 litre

    A Locating dowels B Identification teeth

    21.2a Compress the valve spring . . .

    20.13b Tighten the cylinder head boltsusing an angle gauge - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    20.13a Cylinder head bolt tighteningsequence - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    20.15 Fit the camshaft cover, ensuring thatthe studded bolts (arrowed) are correctly

    located - 1.8 litre (R2A)

  • 4 Repeat the procedure given in paragraphs2 and 3 for the remaining valves, keeping allcomponents identified for location so thatthey can be refitted in their original positions.Note that the inlet valve springs are fitted withmetal dampers. The damper is an integral partof the spring and cannot be removed (seeillustration).

    Reassembly5 Commence reassembly by lubricating thevalve stems and guides with SAE 80/90hypoid oil, then insert the valves into theiroriginal guides.6 Refit the spring seats over the valve stems.7 Wrap a thin layer of adhesive tape over thecollet grooves of each valve, then smear thenew oil seals with a little hypoid oil and slidethem down the valve stems onto the springseats. Use a suitable metal tube to seat theseals, then remove the adhesive tape from thevalves (see illustration). 8 Working on each valve in turn, fit the valvespring and cap, then compress the springusing the valve spring compressor and fit thesplit collets to the groove in the valve stem.Release the compressor and tap the end ofthe valve stem with a soft-faced mallet tosettle the components. If the originalcomponents are being refitted, ensure thatthey are refitted in their original locations.9 Refit the camshaft.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)10 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to 9inclusive, but note that no dampers are fittedto the inlet valve springs on the 1.6 litre engine.

    Refer to Section 23, Chapter 2, Part A butpay particular attention to the note at thebeginning of the Section as all CVH enginesare fitted with hardened valve seats.

    Note: A new camshaft oil seal and new rockerarm securing nuts should be used whenrefitting.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)

    Removal1 Remove the cylinder head.2 Unscrew the securing bolts and remove therocker arm guides, rocker arms, and camfollower guide retainers, then lift out the camfollower guides and the cam followers. Keepall components in the correct order so thateach component can be refitted in the originalposition if it is to be re-used. It is advisable tostore the cam followers upright in an oil bathuntil they are to be refitted. Ensure that thedepth of oil is sufficient to fully cover the camfollowers.3 Prise out the camshaft oil seal, taking carenot to damage the surface of the camshaft. Ifnecessary use self-tapping screws and asuitable pair of grips to withdraw the seal.

    4 Unscrew the two securing bolts andwithdraw the camshaft thrustplate from thefront of the cylinder head.5 Carefully withdraw the camshaft from thefront of the cylinder head, taking care not todamage the bearings. If necessary, looselyrefit the camshaft sprocket and bolt to aidremoval.

    Inspection6 Examine the surfaces of the camshaftjournals and lobes, and the cam follower rollersfor wear. If wear is excessive, considerablenoise would have been noticed from the top ofthe engine when running, and a new camshaftand followers must be fitted. It is unlikely thatthis level of wear will occur unless aconsiderable mileage has been covered. Notethat the cam followers cannot be dismantledfor renewal of individual components.7 Check the camshaft bearings in the cylinderhead for wear. If excessive wear is evident, itmay be possible to have the head machined bya suitably equipped engineering workshop toenable a camshaft with oversize bearingjournals to be fitted. The only other course ofaction available is renewal of the cylinder head.8 Check the cam follower bores in thecylinder head for wear. If excessive wear isevident, the cylinder head must be renewed.9 Check the cam follower oil ports and the oilholes in the cylinder head for obstructions(see illustrations).

    Refitting10 Commence refitting by lubricating thecamshaft, bearings and thrustplate with

    23 Camshaft and cam followers- removal, inspection andrefitting

    22 Cylinder head - inspection andrenovation

    2C16 CVH engines

    21.3a Remove the spring seat . . . 21.4 Inlet valve components. Springdamper arrowed - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.9b Cam follower supply hole (arrowed)in cylinder head - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.9a Hydraulic cam follower oil port(arrowed) - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    21.7 Seat each new valve seal using ametal tube - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    21.3b . . . and valve - 1.8 litre (R2A)

  • hypoid oil, then carefully insert the camshaftfrom the front of the cylinder head, taking carenot to damage the bearings (see illustration).

    11 Locate the thrustplate in the camshaftgroove, then refit the bolts and tighten them.Note that the stamped number on thethrustplate should face forwards (seeillustrations).12 Using a dial test indicator if available, orfeeler blades, check that the camshaftendfloat is within the limits given in theSpecifications. If not, renew the thrustplateand re-check. If this does not bring theendfloat within limits, the camshaft must berenewed.13 Remove the thrustplate bolts, coat thethreads with sealing compound, then refit andtighten the bolts.14 Smear the lip of the new camshaft oil sealwith clean engine oil, then fit the seal using thecamshaft sprocket bolt and a suitable tool

    similar to that shown (see illustration).Draw theseal into position so that it rests on the shoulder.

    15 Lubricate the cam followers with hypoidoil, refit them to their original locations, withthe colour marking pointing to the oil feedhole in the cylinder head. The oil feed port inthe cam follower should be opposite the oilfeed hole in the cylinder head (seeillustrations).16 Lubricate the tops of the cam followers,then refit the four cam follower guides to their

    CVH engines 2C17

    2C

    23.11b . . . and tighten the securing bolts -1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.14 Using a special tool to fit thecamshaft oil seal - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.11a Refit the camshaft thrustplate . . .23.10 Refitting the camshaft - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.15a Hydraulic cam follower and rocker assembly orientation - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    1 Cam follower colour markings2 Oil port in cam follower3 Oil supply hole in cylinder head4 Securing bolt

    5 Rocker arm guide6 Rocker arm7 Cam follower guide retainer -

    stepped end to inlet side

    8 Cam follower guide - stepped end toexhaust side

    9 Cam follower10 Front of engine

    The tool can be improvisedusing a metal tube ofsuitable diameter and a largewasher or metal disc.

  • original locations with their stepped endspointing towards the exhaust side of thecylinder head (see illustration).17 Refit the four cam follower guide retainersto their original locations with their steppedends pointing towards the inlet side of thecylinder head (see illustration).18 Temporarily refit the camshaft sprocket,and turn the camshaft so that the TDC pointeron the sprocket is aligned with the dot on thecylinder head front face (ie the pointer is at the12 oclock position).19 Refit rocker arms Nos 1, 2, 4 and 5together with their rocker arm guides andsecuring bolts, to their original locations (seeillustration). Lubricate the contact faces ofthe rocker arms and guides and the valvestems with hypoid oil, and ensure that theguides seat correctly in their locations in thecylinder head (see illustration). Tighten thesecuring bolts to the specified torque.20 Turn the camshaft through 180 so thatthe camshaft sprocket keyway is aligned withthe dot on the cylinder head front face (ie theTDC pointer on the sprocket is at the 6oclock position) (see illustration).21 Repeat the procedure given in paragraph19 for rocker arms Nos 3, 6, 7 and 8.22 Remove the camshaft sprocket and refitthe cylinder head.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)

    Removal23 Remove the cylinder head.

    24 Unscrew the securing nuts and removethe rocker arm guides, rocker arms, andspacer plates, then lift out the cam followers.Keep all components in the correct order sothat they can be refitted in their originallocations on reassembly. It is advisable tostore the cam followers upright in an oil bathuntil they are to be refitted. Ensure that thedepth of oil is sufficient to fully cover the camfollowers.25 Prise out the camshaft oil seal, taking carenot to damage the surface of the camshaft. Ifnecessary, use self-tapping screws and asuitable pair of grips to withdraw the seal.26 Unscrew the two securing bolts, andwithdraw the camshaft thrustplate from thefront of the cylinder head.27 Carefully withdraw the camshaft from thefront of the cylinder head, taking care not todamage the bearings. If necessary, looselyrefit the camshaft sprocket and bolt to aidremoval.

    Inspection28 Proceed as described in paragraphs 6 to9 inclusive.

    Refitting29 Commence refitting by lubricating thecamshaft, bearings and thrustplate withhypoid oil, then carefully insert the camshaftfrom the front of the cylinder head, taking carenot to damage the bearings.30 Locate the thrustplate in position in thecylinder head, then refit the bolts and tightenthem. Note that the oil groove in the

    thrustplate must face the front of the engine.31 Using a dial test indicator (if available) orfeeler blades, check that the camshaftendfloat is within the limits given in theSpecifications. If not, renew the thrustplateand re-check. If this does not bring theendfloat within limits, the camshaft must berenewed.32 Smear the lip of the new camshaft oil sealwith clean engine oil, then refit the seal usingthe camshaft sprocket bolt and a suitabletool. The tool can be improvised using a metaltube of suitable diameter and a large washeror metal disc. Draw the seal into position sothat it rests on the shoulder.33 Lubricate the cam followers with hypoidoil, then refit them to their original locations inthe cylinder head.34 Before each rocker arm is fitted and its(new) nut tightened, it is essential to ensurethat the relevant cam follower is positioned atits lowest point (in contact with the cam basecircle, not the tip of the cam lobe). Turn thecamshaft (by means of the camshaft sprocketbolt if necessary) as necessary to achieve this.35 Lubricate the tops of the cam followers,then refit the spacer plates, rocker arms androcker arm guides to their original locations.36 Secure the rocker arms using new nutstightened to the specified torque, bearing inmind the point made in paragraph 34.37 Refit the cylinder head.

    2C18 CVH engines

    23.17 . . . and retainers - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.20 Camshaft sprocket keyway alignedwith dot on cylinder head - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.19b Lubricate the valve stem contactfaces and refit the rocker arms and guides

    - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.19a Rocker arm numbering sequence -1.8 litre (R2A)

    23.16 . . . guides . . .23.15b Refit the cam followers . . .

  • Note: New flywheel securing bolts must beused on refitting.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)1 Refer to Section 26, Chapter 2, Part A butalso note the following points.2 The flywheel/driveplate securing bolts mustbe renewed when refitting, and the new boltsare supplied ready-coated with threadlockingcompound (see illustration).3 The ring gear cannot be renewedindependently of the flywheel/driveplate. If thering gear is badly worn or has missing teeth, anew flywheel/driveplate must be fitted.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)4 Refer to Section 26, Chapter 2, Part A,noting the following points.5 If the engine is in the vehicle, refer toChapter 6 when removing the clutch.6 The flywheel securing bolts must berenewed when refitting, and the new bolts aresupplied ready-coated with thread-lockingcompound.7 The ring gear cannot be renewedindependently of the flywheel. If the ring gearis badly worn or has missing teeth, a newflywheel must be fitted. Similarly, the flywheelmust be renewed if the crankshaftspeed/position sensor toothed disc isdamaged.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)1 Remove the timing belt and the crankshaftsprocket and thrustwasher.2 Withdraw the oil seal using an oil sealremoval tool or by drilling the oil seal outerface and using self-tapping screws and a pairof grips.3 Clean the oil seal housing, then smear thelip of a new oil seal with clean engine oil.4 Fit the oil seal using the crankshaft pulleybolt and a suitable tool similar to that shown(see illustration).

    5 As the seal is drawn into position, the inneredge of the seal may be damaged as it passesover the end of the shaft. To prevent this, assoon as the seal begins to locate in thehousing remove the tools being used to fit theseal, and carefully work the inner edge of theseal over the end of the crankshaft, using asmall screwdriver or similar blunt tool. Theseal can then be pushed home using the toolsdescribed previously (see illustration).6 Refit the thrustwasher, crankshaft sprocketand timing belt.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)7 Remove the timing belt, and the crankshaftsprocket and thrustwasher.8 Proceed as described in paragraphs 2 to 4inclusive.9 Refit the thrustwasher, crankshaft sprocketand timing belt.

    1 Remove the flywheel/driveplate.2 Prise out the oil seal. If necessary, drill theouter face of the oil seal and use self-tapping

    screws and a pair of grips to withdraw theseal (see illustration).3 Clean the oil seal housing, then fit the newoil seal using two flywheel/driveplate securingbolts and a tool similar to that shown (seeillustration). A suitable tool can beimprovised using a narrow strip of metal sheetbent to form a circle of the correct diameter,and a large metal disc with appropriate holesdrilled to allow the flywheel/driveplatesecuring bolts to pass through. Make surethat the seal lip faces into the engine andlightly smear the lip with clean engine oil.4 Refit the flywheel/driveplate.

    Note: A new gasket and new sump bolts mustbe used when refitting, and suitable sealant willbe required (available from a Ford dealer). Notethat it is preferable to keep the engine uprightuntil the sump has been removed to preventsludge from entering the engine internals.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)Removal1 With the engine removed, proceed asfollows.2 Remove the flywheel/driveplate and theengine adapter plate.3 Unscrew the fourteen securing bolts andwithdraw the two reinforcing strips and thesump. If the sump is stuck, carefully tap itsideways to free it. Do not prise between themating faces.

    27 Sump - removal and refitting

    26 Crankshaft rear oil seal -renewal

    25 Crankshaft front oil seal -renewal

    24 Flywheel/driveplate - removal,inspection and refitting

    CVH engines 2C19

    2C

    25.5 Crankshaft front oil seal (arrowed)located in oil pump housing - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    26.3 Using a special tool to fit thecrankshaft rear oil seal - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    26.2 Crankshaft rear oil seal location(arrowed)

    25.4 Using a special tool to fit thecrankshaft front oil seal - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    24.2 Using an improvised tool to hold theflywheel stationary while tightening the

    securing bolts - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    A tool can be improvised to fitthe crankshaft front oil sealby using a metal tube ofsuitable diameter and a large

    washer or metal disc. Do not attempt todrive the seal home using a tube drift.

  • 4 Recover the gasket.5 Thoroughly clean the mating faces of thecylinder block and sump.

    Refitting6 Commence refitting by applying sealingcompound (available from a Ford dealer) tothe cylinder block, oil pump housing andcrankshaft rear oil seal housing mating facesat the points shown (see illustration). Notethat the sump must be fitted within tenminutes of applying the sealing compound.7 Fit a new gasket, ensuring that it engagescorrectly in the grooves in the crankshaft rearoil seal carrier and the oil pump housing (seeillustration).8 Locate the sump on the gasket and looselyfit the securing bolts.9 Tighten all the bolts slightly to obtain a lightand even gasket preload.10 Tighten the bolts to the specified torque inthe sequence shown (see illustration). Notethat the ten M8 bolts and the four M6 boltsare tightened to different torques.11 Refit the engine adapter plate and theflywheel/driveplate.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)Note: The following procedure applies to the1.6 litre CVH engine. For the 1.8 litre (R6A

    type) engine, proceed as described above forthe 1.8 litre (R2A type).

    Removal12 Sump removal and refitting is easier if theengine is removed from the vehicle. However,if the engine is in the vehicle, proceed asfollows. If the engine has been removed fromthe vehicle, proceed to paragraph 15.13 Remove the clutch.14 Drain the engine oil into a suitablecontainer.15 Remove the flywheel and the engineadapter plate.16 Unscrew the eighteen securing bolts andwithdraw the sump. If the sump is stuck,carefully tap it sideways to free it. Do not prisebetween the mating faces. Recover thegasket.17 Thoroughly clean the mating faces of thecylinder block and sump.

    Refitting18 Apply sealing compound to the jointsbetween the oil pump and the cylinder block,and the crankshaft rear oil seal housing andthe cylinder block, as shown (seeillustration).19 Without applying any further sealer, locatethe gasket into the grooves of the oil pumpand the rear oil seal housing. To hold thegasket in position, studs can be insertedtemporarily in the bolt hole positions circled inthe illustration indicating the bolt tighteningsequence. Make sure that the gasket spacingpips are seated correctly.

    20 Locate the sump on the gasket, takingcare not to displace the gasket, then looselyfit the securing bolts. With the sump inposition, where applicable remove the studsfrom the bolt holes, and loosely fit theremaining securing bolts.21 Tighten the bolts to the torque given in theSpecifications at the beginning of thisChapter, in two stages, and in the sequenceshown (see illustration).22 Refit the engine adapter plate and theflywheel.23 If the engine is in the vehicle, refit theclutch. Refill the engine with oil.

    Note: New oil pump and oil pick-up tubegaskets should be used when refitting.

    Removal1 With the engine removed, proceed asfollows. 2 Remove the timing belt, crankshaftsprocket and thrustwasher. 3 Remove the sump. 4 Unscrew and remove the nut securing theoil strainer/pick-up tube to No 4 main bearingcap (see illustration). 5 Using a suitable Allen key, unscrew the twobolts securing the oil pick-up tube to the oilpump, and withdraw the oil strainer/pick-uptube. Recover the washers and gasket (seeillustration).

    28 Oil pump - removal andrefitting

    2C20 CVH engines

    27.6 Apply sealing compound to the areasshown before fitting the sump gasket -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    27.10 Sump bolt tightening sequence - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    27.21 Sump bolt tightening sequence - 1.6 litre

    Arrow indicates front of engine

    27.18 Apply sealing compound at thepoints arrowed before refitting the sump -

    1.6 litre

    A Oil pump/cylinder block jointB Crankshaft rear oil seal

    housing/cylinder block joint

    27.7 Ensure that the gasket locatescorrectly on the oil pump housing -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    28.4 Oil strainer/pick-up tube securing nut(arrowed) on No 4 main bearing cap

  • 6 Unscrew and remove the six securing bolts,and withdraw the oil pump over the front ofthe crankshaft. Recover the gasket.

    Refitting7 Commence refitting by prising thecrankshaft front oil seal from the pumphousing.8 Prime the pump by injecting clean engineoil into it and turning it by hand.9 Using a new gasket, fit the oil pump overthe front of the crankshaft, ensuring that thecentral rotor engages with the flats on thecrankshaft (see illustration). Fit the securingbolts, and using a straight-edge, ensure thatthe bottom face of the oil pump is aligned withthe bottom face of the cylinder block beforefinally tightening the bolts.10 Using a new gasket, fit the oil pick-uptube to the oil pump and secure with the twobolts.

    11 Refit the oil strainer/pick-up tube securingnut to No 4 main bearing cap.12 Refit the sump.13 Fit the crankshaft front oil seal using asuitable tool.14 Refit the thrustwasher, crankshaftsprocket and timing belt.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)1 If oil pump wear is suspected, check thecost and availability of new parts and the costof a new pump. Examine the pump asdescribed in this Section and then decidewhether renewal or repair is the best course ofaction.2 Using a suitable Torx socket, unscrew theseven securing bolts and remove the oil pumpcover (see illustration).3 Mark the rotor faces so that the rotors canbe refitted in their original positions, then liftthe rotors from the pump housing (seeillustration).4 Unscrew the pressure relief valve plug andwithdraw the spring and plunger (seeillustration).5 Thoroughly clean all parts in petrol orparaffin and wipe dry using a non-fluffy rag.6 Commence reassembly by lubricating therelief valve plunger. Fit the plunger and spring,and screw the plug into place.7 Lubricate the rotors and fit them, observing

    the marks made when dismantling, ifapplicable.8 The necessary clearances may now bechecked using a machined straight-edge(such as a good steel rule) and a set of feelerblades. The critical clearances are betweenthe lobes of the centre rotor and convex facesof the outer rotor; between the outer rotor andpump body; and between both rotors and thecover plate (endfloat). The serviceableclearances are given in the Specifications.9 Endfloat can be measured by placing astraight-edge across the pump body andmeasuring the clearance between the tworotors and the straight-edge using feelerblades.10 Refit the pump cover and tighten thesecuring bolts.11 Prime the pump before refitting.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)12 The procedure is as described above butrefer to the Specifications at the beginning ofthis Chapter for the rotor clearances.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)

    Removal1 With the engine removed from the vehicle,remove the sump and the cylinder head.2 Check the big-end caps for identificationmarks and if necessary use a centre-punch toidentify the caps and connecting rods (seeillustration).3 Turn the crankshaft so that No 1 crankpin isat its lowest point, then unscrew the nuts orbolts and tap off the cap. Keep the bearingshells in the cap and connecting rod.4 Using the handle of a hammer, push thepiston and connecting rod up the bore andwithdraw from the top of the cylinder block.Loosely refit the cap to the connecting rod.5 Repeat the procedure in paragraphs 3 and4 on No 4 piston and connecting rod, thenturn the crankshaft through half a turn andrepeat the procedure on Nos 2 and 3 pistonsand connecting rods.

    30 Pistons and connecting rods- removal and refitting

    29 Oil pump - dismantling,inspection and reassembly

    CVH engines 2C21

    2C

    29.2 Remove the oil pump cover

    30.2 Big-end cap and connecting rodidentification marks (arrowed) -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    29.4 Unscrew the pressure relief valve plugand withdraw the spring and plunger

    29.3 Lifting out the oil pump inner rotor

    28.9 Refitting the oil pump28.5 Removing the oil pick-up tube fromthe oil pump

  • Refitting6 Commence refitting as follows.7 Clean the backs of the bearing shells andthe recesses in the connecting rods and big-end caps.8 Press the bearing shells into the connectingrods and caps in their correct positions and oilthem liberally. Note that the lugs must beadjacent to each other (see illustration).9 Lubricate the cylinder bores with engine oil.10 Fit a ring compressor to No 1 piston theninsert the piston and connecting rod into No 1cylinder. With No 1 crankpin at its lowestpoint, drive the piston carefully into thecylinder with the wooden handle of a hammer,and at the same time guide the connectingrod onto the crankpin. The piston must befitted with the cut-out in the piston crown (andthe lug on the piston skirt), facing the front ofthe engine, with the oil hole in the connectingrod on the inlet manifold side of the engine(see illustrations).11 Oil the crankpin, then fit the big-endbearing cap in its previously noted position,and tighten the nuts or bolts to the specifiedtorque.12 Check that the crankshaft turns freely.13 Repeat the procedure given inparagraphs 11 to 12 inclusive on theremaining pistons.14 Refit the cylinder head and the sump.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)15 The procedure is as described above,noting the following points:a) On the 1.6 litre engine, when refitting a

    piston/connecting rod assembly, thepiston must be fitted with the arrow onthe piston crown and the cast pip on thepiston skirt facing the front (timing beltend) of the engine (see illustration).

    b) On the 1.6 litre engine, the big-endbearing caps locate on dowels in theconnecting rods, and can only be fitted inone position.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)1 Examine the pistons for ovality, scoring,and scratches. Check the connecting rods forwear or damage.2 The gudgeon pins are an interference fit inthe connecting rods, and if new pistons are tobe fitted to the existing connecting rods thework should be carried out by a Ford dealerwho will have the necessary tooling. Note thatthe oil hole in the connecting rod must belocated on the right-hand side of the piston(the cut-out in the piston crown and the lug onthe piston skirt face forwards).3 If new rings are to be fitted to the existingpistons, expand the old rings over the top of

    the pistons (see illustration). Note that the oilcontrol ring is in three sections.

    4 Before fitting the piston rings, clean out thepiston ring grooves using a piece of old pistonring as a scraper. Be careful not to scratch thealuminium surface of the pistons. Protect yourfingers - piston ring edges are sharp. Alsoprobe the groove oil return holes.5 Fit the oil control ring sections with thespreader ends abutted opposite the front ofthe piston. The side ring gaps should be 25mm (1.0 in) either side of the spreader gap. Fit

    31 Pistons and connecting rods- examination and renovation

    2C22 CVH engines

    30.8 Bearing shell lug (arrowed) mustengage with groove in big-end cap -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    30.10b . . . and lug (arrowed) on piston skirtmust face the front of the engine

    31.3 Using an old feeler gauge to aid thefitting of a piston ring - 1.8 litre (R2A)30.15 The arrow (A) and the cast pip (B)

    must face the front of the engine - 1.6 litre

    30.10d Fitting a piston and connecting rodinto the cylinder bore - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    30.10c Connecting rod oil hole (arrowed)must face inlet manifold side of engine -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    30.10a Cut-out (arrowed) in piston crown . . .

    The use of two or three oldfeeler blades will be helpfulin preventing the ringsdropping into empty grooves.

  • the tapered lower compression ring with theTOP mark towards the top of the piston andthe gap 150 from the spreader gap, then fitthe upper compression ring with the gap 150on the other side of the spreader gap. Notethat the compression rings are coated with amolybdenum skin which must not bedamaged.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)6 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to 5inclusive, but note the following differencesfor the 1.6 litre engine.7 Before fitting the new rings to the pistons,insert them into the relevant cylinder bore anduse a feeler blade to check that the end gapsare within the limits given in the Specificationsat the beginning of this Chapter. Check theend gaps with the ring at the top and thebottom of the cylinder bore.

    8 Fit the oil control ring sections with thespreader ends abutted opposite the front ofthe piston, making sure that the ends do notoverlap. The side ring gaps should be offset120 either side of the spreader gap. Fit thetapered lower compression ring with theTOP mark uppermost and the gap 120from the spreader gap, then fit the uppercompression ring with the gap 120 on theother side of the spreader gap. Note that thecompression rings are coated with amolybdenum disulphide skin, which must notbe damaged.

    1.8 litre (R2A type)Removal1 With the engine removed from the vehicle,remove the timing belt, crankshaft sprocketand thrustwasher.2 Remove the pistons and connecting rods. Ifno work is to be done on the pistons andconnecting rods, there is no need to push thepistons out of the cylinder bores.3 Remove the oil pump and pick-up tube.4 Unscrew the four securing bolts andremove the crankshaft rear oil seal housing.5 Check the main bearing caps foridentification marks and if necessary use acentre-punch to identify them.6 Before removing the crankshaft, check thatthe endfloat is within the specified limits by

    inserting a feeler blade between the centrecrankshaft web and the thrust bearing shell(see illustration). This will indicate whether anew thrust bearing shell is required.7 Unscrew the bolts and tap off the mainbearing caps complete with bearing shells.8 Lift the crankshaft from the crankcase.9 Extract the bearing shells, keeping themidentified for location.

    Refitting10 Commence refitting as follows.11 Wipe the bearing shell locations in thecrankcase with a soft, non-fluffy rag.12 Wipe the crankshaft journals with a soft,non-fluffy rag.13 If the old main bearing shells are to berenewed (not to do so is a false economy,unless they are virtually new) fit the five upperhalves of the main bearing shells to theirlocation in the crankcase. Note the flangedthrust bearing shell should be fitted to thecentre bearing location (see illustrations).14 Identify each main bearing cap and placein order. The number is cast on to the cap andan arrow is also marked which should pointtowards the front of the engine.15 Wipe the cap bearing shell location with asoft non-fluffy rag. 16 Fit the bearing half shell onto each mainbearing cap.17 Lubricate the crankshaft journals and theupper and lower main bearing shells withclean engine oil.18 Carefully lower the crankshaft into thecrankcase (see illustration).19 Lubricate the crankshaft main bearingjournals again, then fit No 1 bearing cap. Fitthe two securing bolts but do not tighten yet.20 Fit the rear bearing cap, then the centrebearing cap, but as before do not tighten thebolts yet.21 Fit the intermediate bearing caps andsecuring bolts, noting that the studded boltwhich retains the oil strainer/pick-up tube fitson the inlet manifold side of No 4 bearing cap.Again, do not tighten the bolts yet.22 Check that the arrows on the bearingcaps all point towards the front of the engine,and lightly tighten all the bearing cap bolts,then finally tighten the bolts in a progressivemanner to the specified torque (seeillustrations).

    32 Crankshaft and main bearings- removal and refitting

    CVH engines 2C23

    2C

    32.13b Centre main thrust bearing shell incylinder block - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    32.22b Tightening a main bearing cap bolt.Note studded bolt location (arrowed) on

    No 4 bearing cap - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    32.22a The arrows on the bearing capsmust point towards the front of the engine

    - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    32.18 Lowering the crankshaft into thecrankcase - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    32.13a Rear main bearing shell in cylinderblock - 1.8 litre (R2A)

    32.6 Checking crankshaft endfloat - 1.8 litre (R2A)

  • 23 Check that the crankshaft rotates freely.Some stiffness is to be expected with newcomponents, but there must be no tight spotsor binding.24 Check that the crankshaft endfloat iswithin the specified limits by inserting a feelerblade between the centre crankshaft web andthe thrust bearing cap.25 Lubricate the oil seal lip with clean engineoil, then carefully fit the crankshaft rear oil sealhousing. Using a straight-edge, ensure thatthe bottom face of the oil seal housing isaligned with the bottom face of the cylinderblock before finally tightening the securingbolts (see illustration).26 Carefully prise the crankshaft front oil sealfrom the oil pump housing, then refit the oilpump, oil strainer/pick-up tube andcrankshaft front oil seal.27 Refit the pistons and connecting rods.28 Refit the thrustwasher, crankshaftsprocket and timing belt.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)29 Proceed as described above, noting thefollowing point:

    On the 1.6 litre engine, note thatthrustwashers are used at the centre mainbearing (one each side of the bearing)instead of a thrust bearing shell to controlcrankshaft endfloat. Oversizethrustwashers are available tocompensate for wear if necessary. Thethrustwashers should be fitted with the oilgrooves visible

    1.8 litre (R2A type)1 Examine the bearing surfaces of thecrankshaft for scratches or scoring and, usinga micrometer, check each journal andcrankpin for ovality. Where this is found to bein excess of 0.0254 mm (0.001 in) thecrankshaft will have to be reground andundersize bearings fitted.2 Crankshaft regrinding should be carried outby a suitable engineering works, who willnormally supply the matching undersize mainand big-end shell bearings.3 Note that undersize bearings may alreadyhave been fitted either in production or by aprevious repairer. Check the markings on thebacks of the old bearing shells, and if in doubttake them along when buying new ones.4 If the crankshaft endfloat is more than themaximum specified amount, a new thrustbearing shell should be fitted to the centremain bearing.5 An accurate method of determining bearingwear is by the use of Plastigage. Thecrankshaft is located in the main bearings(and big-end bearings if necessary) and thePlastigage filament located across the journalwhich must be dry. The cap is then fitted andthe bolts/nuts tightened to the specifiedtorque. On removal of the cap the width of thefilament is checked with a plastic gauge and

    the running clearance compared with thatgiven in the Specifications.6 If the spigot bearing in the rear of thecrankshaft requires renewal extract it with asuitable puller. Alternatively fill it with heavygrease and use a close fitting metal doweldriven into the centre of the bearing. Drive thenew bearing into the crankshaft with a softmetal drift.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)7 Proceed as described above but note that ifthe crankshaft endfloat is more than themaximum specified amount, newthrustwashers should be fitted to the centremain bearing.

    Refer to Section 36, Chapter 2, Part A butnote that the crankcase ventilation baffleshould be removed from its location at therear of the cylinder block and cleaned ifnecessary (see illustration).

    Refer to Section 37, Chapter 2, Part A.

    35 Initial start-up after overhaul ormajor repair

    34 Cylinder block and bores -examination and renovation

    33 Crankshaft and bearings -examination and renovation

    2C24 CVH engines

    32.25 Fit the crankshaft rear oil sealhousing and tighten the securing bolts -

    1.8 litre (R2A)

    34.1 Removing the crankcase ventilationbaffle

  • System typeSOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressurised, with belt-driven coolant pump, crossflow radiator,

    thermo-viscous fan, thermostat, and expansion tankCVH and DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressurised, with belt-driven coolant pump, crossflow radiator,

    electric fan, thermostat, and expansion tank

    ThermostatNominal temperature rating (fully open):

    SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88C (190 F)CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100C (212F)DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102C (216F)

    Opening temperature:SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 to 89C (185 to 192F)CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88C (190F)CVH (R6A type) models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 to 89C (185 to 192F)DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 to 89C (185 to 192F)

    Expansion tank cap opening pressureSOHC models:

    Up to 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.85 to 1.1 bar (12 to 16 lbf/in2)From 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 to 1.25 bar (15 to 18 lbf/in2)

    CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 to 1.25 bar (15 to 18 lbf/in2)DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 to 1.4 bar (15 to 20 lbf/in2)

    Coolant mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See Chapter 1 SpecificationsSystem capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See Chapter 1 Specifications

    Drivebelt tensionsAir conditioning system compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0 mm (0.4 in) deflection at the midpoint of the belts longest run

    under firm thumb pressureCoolant pump/alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0 mm (0.4 in) deflection midway between coolant pump and

    alternator (or power steering pump) pulleys under firm thumb pressure

    Chapter 3Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems

    Air conditioning system - component renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Coolant pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Coolant pump/alternator drivebelt(s) - checking, renewal and

    tensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Coolant pump/alternator drivebelt tensioner (DOHC models with

    power steering) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Cooling fan switch - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Cooling system - draining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Cooling system - filling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Cooling system - flushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Electric cooling fan - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Expansion tank and coolant level sensor - removal and refitting . . . .15

    General information and precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Heater controls - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Heater motor - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Heater unit - overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Heater unit - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Radiator - inspection and cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Radiator - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Temperature gauge sender - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Thermostat - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Thermostat - testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Thermo-viscous cooling fan (SOHC models) - removal and refitting .12

    31

    Specifications

    Contents

    3

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftRadiator upper mounting nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 25 15 to 18Radiator lower mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 12 6 to 9Coolant pump bolts:

    SOHC models:M8 bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 to 21 13 to 15M10 bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 42 26 to 31

    CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8CVH (R6A type) models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 10 5 to 7DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 28 15 to 21

    Thermostat housing bolts:SOHC/DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 to 20 13 to 15CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8CVH (R6A type) models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 12 6 to 9

    Cooling fan shroud-to-radiator nuts/bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8Coolant pump pulley bolts:

    SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 28 15 to 21DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18

    Coolant pump/alternator drivebelt tensioner bolt:CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 to 30 17 to 22DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 97 52 to 72

    Cooling fan blades-to-fan hub bolts (SOHC models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 10 6 to 7Air conditioning compressor-to-bracket bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 to 75 48 to 55Air conditioning compressor bracket-to-engine bolts:

    M10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 to 92 63 to 68M12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 to 120 81 to 89

    Air conditioning condenser fan assembly-to-condenser bolts:Models up to 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 to 3 1 to 2Models from 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8

    Air conditioning condenser securing bolts (models from 1987) . . . . . . . 27 to 33 20 to 24

    General informationThe cooling system is of pressurised type,

    and consists of a front mounted radiator,coolant pump, cooling fan, wax typethermostat, and an expansion tank.

    The radiator matrix is manufactured fromhoneycombed metal, and the end tanks aremade of plastic. On automatic transmissionmodels, the right-hand end tank incorporatesthe transmission fluid cooler.

    The coolant pump is located on the frontface of the engine block, and is belt-driven.The pump is of the impeller type.

    The cooling fan draws cold air over theradiator matrix to assist the cooling processwhen the forward speed of the vehicle is toolow to provide sufficient cooling airflow, or theambient temperature is unusually high. SOHCmodels have a thermo-viscous fan, whereasCVH and DOHC models have anelectrically-operated fan.

    The thermo-viscous fan is controlled by thetemperature of the air behind the radiator.When the air temperature reaches apredetermined level, a bi-metallic coilcommences to open a valve within the unit,and silicon fluid is fed through a system ofvanes. Half the vanes are driven directly bythe coolant pump, and the remaining half areconnected to the fan blades. The vanes arearranged so that drive is transmitted to the fanblades in relation to the viscosity of the siliconfluid, and this in turn depends on ambient

    temperature and engine speed. The fan istherefore only operating when required, andcompared with direct-drive type fansrepresents a considerable improvement in fueleconomy, drivebelt wear and fan noise.

    The electrically-operated fan is switched onby a temperature sensor mounted in thethermostat housing when the temperaturereaches a predetermined level. The fan istherefore only operating when required, and likethe thermo-viscous fan, offers a considerableadvantage over direct-drive type fans.

    A thermostat is fitted. Its purpose is toensure rapid engine warm-up by restrictingthe flow of coolant to the engine when coldand also to assist in regulating the normaloperating temperature of the engine.

    The expansion tank incorporates a pressurecap which effectively pressurises the coolingsystem as the coolant temperature rises,thereby increasing the boiling point of thecoolant. The tank also has a further degasfunction. Any accumulation of air bubbles in thecoolant is returned to the tank and released inthe air space, thus maintaining the efficiency ofthe coolant. The pressure cap also incorporatesa vacuum relief valve which prevents a vacuumforming in the system as it cools.

    The system functions as follows. Coldcoolant in the bottom of the radiator circulatesthrough the bottom hose to the coolant pumpwhere the pump impeller pushes the coolantthrough the passages within the cylinderblock, cylinder head and inlet manifold. Aftercooling the cylinder bores, combustionchambers and valve seats, the coolantreaches the underside of the thermostatwhich is initially closed. A small proportion of

    the coolant passes from the thermostathousing to the expansion tank, but the maincirculation is through the inlet manifold,automatic choke (where applicable), andheater matrix, finally returning to the coolantpump. When the coolant reaches apredetermined temperature, the thermostatopens and hot water passes through the tophose to the top of the radiator. As the coolantcirculates through the radiator, it is cooled bythe flow of air to the vehicles forward motion,supplemented by the action of the cooling fanwhere necessary. By the time it reaches thebottom of the radiator the coolant is cooled,and the cycle is repeated. Circulation ofcoolant continues through the expansiontank, inlet manifold, automatic choke (whereapplicable) and heater at all times, the heatertemperature being controlled by an air flap.

    An air conditioning system is available asan optional extra on certain models. Inconjunction with the heater, the systemenables any reasonable air temperature to beachieved inside the vehicle; it also reducesthe humidity of the incoming air, aidingdemisting even when cooling is not required.

    The refrigeration side of the air conditioningsystem functions in a similar way to adomestic refrigerator. A compressor, belt-driven from the crankshaft pulley, drawsrefrigerant in its gaseous phase from anevaporator. The compressed refrigerantpasses through a condenser where it losesheat and enters its liquid phase. After passingthrough the dehydrator, which acts as areservoir and filter to extract moisture fromthe circuit, the refrigerant returns to theevaporator where it absorbs heat from the air

    1 General information andprecautions

    32 Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems

  • passing over the evaporator fins on its way tothe vehicle interior. The refrigerant becomes agas again and the cycle is repeated.

    Various subsidiary controls and sensorsprotect the system against excessivetemperature and pressures. Additionally,engine idle speed is increased when thesystem is in use to compensate for theadditional load imposed by the compressor.

    PrecautionsAir conditioning refrigerant

    Although the refrigerant is not itself toxic, inthe presence of a naked flame (or a lightedcigarette) it forms a highly toxic gas. Liquidrefrigerant spilled on the skin will causefrostbite. If refrigerant enters the eyes, rinsethem with a dilute solution of boric acid andseek medical advice immediately.

    In view of the above points, and of the needfor specialised equipment for evacuating andrecharging the system, any work whichrequires the disconnection of a refrigerant linemust be left to a specialist.

    Do not allow refrigerant lines to be exposedto temperatures above 230F (110C) - egduring welding or paint drying operations anddo not operate the air conditioning system if itis known to be short of refrigerant, or furtherdamage may result.

    Antifreeze mixtureAntifreeze mixture is poisonous. Keep it out

    of reach of children and pets. Wash splashesoff skin and clothing with plenty of water.Wash splashes off vehicle paintwork to avoiddiscolouration.

    Antifreeze/water mixture must be renewedat the specified intervals to preserve its anti-corrosive properties. In climates whereantifreeze protection is unnecessary, acorrosion inhibitor may be used instead -consult a Ford dealer. Never run the enginefor long periods with plain water as coolant.Only use the specified antifreeze as inferiorbrands may not contain the necessarycorrosion inhibitors, or may break down athigh temperatures. Antifreeze containingmethanol is particularly to be avoided, as themethanol evaporates.

    The specified mixture is 45 to 50%antifreeze and 50 to 55% clean soft water (byvolume). Mix the required quantity in a cleancontainer.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 46.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 46.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 46.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Drain the cooling system.3 If not already done, disconnect the bottomhose from the radiator.4 Disconnect the top hose and the expansiontank hose from the radiator.5 On automatic transmission models, place asuitable container beneath the fluid coolerpipe connections at the radiator. Unscrew theunion and plug the upper pipe, then repeatthe procedure on the lower pipe.6 Apply the handbrake, jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).7 To improve access, remove the cooling fanshroud as follows, according to model.8 On SOHC models, remove the fourretaining clips and unscrew the two retainingscrews, then withdraw the upper section ofthe fan shroud. Unclip and remove the lowersection of the shroud.9 On CVH and DOHC models, unclip thewiring connector from the fan motor(s) thenunscrew the retaining nuts and washers, andwithdraw the fan shroud(s) and cooling fanassembly(s) (see illustration).10 On early models, unscrew and remove theupper radiator mounting nuts and washers(see illustration). Unscrew and remove thelower mounting bolts and washers andwithdraw the radiator from under the vehicle(see illustration).

    11 On all later models, the radiator is securedto the engine compartment front panel usingclips and locking pegs. To release the top ofthe radiator, work through the cut-outs in theengine compartment front panel and removethe two radiator upper locking pegs (seeillustration). Working under the front of thevehicle, remove the two radiator lowermounting bolts. Support the radiator fromunderneath. Squeeze the upper radiatorlocking pegs to release them from the enginecompartment front panel and lower theradiator assembly from the vehicle.

    Refitting12 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.13 Refill the cooling system.14 On automatic transmission models, checkand if necessary top-up the transmission fluidlevel.

    1 If the radiator has been removed becauseof suspected blockage, reverse-flush it.2 Clean dirt and debris from the radiator finsusing an air jet or water and a soft brush. Becareful not to damage the fins or cut yourfingers.

    6 Radiator - inspection andcleaning

    5 Radiator - removal and refitting

    4 Cooling system - filling

    3 Cooling system - flushing

    2 Cooling system - draining

    Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems 33

    3

    5.10a Radiator and cooling fan shroudupper mountings

    A Radiator mounting nutB Shroud securing screwC Shroud securing clipsD Radiator top hose clip

    5.11Removing a radiator upper locking peg5.10b Lower radiator mounting bolt

    5.9 Unscrew the fan shroud/radiatorretaining nuts

  • 3 A radiator specialist can perform a flowtest on the radiator to establish whether aninternal blockage exists.4 A leaking radiator must be referred to aspecialist for permanent repair. Do notattempt to weld or solder a leaking radiator,as damage to the plastic parts may result.5 In an emergency, minor leaks from theradiator can be cured by using a sealant.

    1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2 Drain the cooling system. 3 Proceed as follows according to model:

    SOHC models4 Disconnect the radiator top hose andexpansion tank hose from the thermostat

    housing situated at the front of the cylinderhead (see illustrations).5 Unscrew the two securing bolts andremove the housing and gasket.6 Using a screwdriver, prise the retaining clipfrom the housing, and extract the thermostatand sealing ring (see illustrations).7 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.8 Clean the housing and the mating face ofthe cylinder head. Check the thermostatsealing ring for condition and renew it ifnecessary. Use a new gasket when refittingthe housing.9 The thermostat wax capsule must face intothe cylinder head with the flow direction arrowfacing forward (see illustration). 10 Refill the cooling system.

    CVH models11 Disconnect the wiring plug from the

    cooling fan switch on the thermostat housingsituated at the front of the inlet manifold.12 Disconnect the automatic choke hose,radiator top hose and expansion tank hosefrom the thermostat housing. Whereapplicable, take care not to strain the wiringwhich is routed around the housing. Ifnecessary, disconnect the wiring connector(see illustrations).13 Unscrew the three securing bolts andremove the housing and gasket (seeillustration).14 Lift the thermostat from the housing, andcarefully prise out the sealing ring.15 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.16 Clean the housing and the mating face ofthe inlet manifold. Check the thermostatsealing ring for condition and renew it ifnecessary. Use a new gasket when refittingthe housing.

    7 Thermostat - removal andrefitting

    34 Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems

    7.4a Radiator top hose connection atthermostat housing

    7.6a Prise out the retaining clip . . .

    7.12c . . . and the expansion tank hose7.12b . . . the radiator top hose . . .7.12a Disconnect the automatic chokehose . . .

    7.4b Disconnect the expansion tank hosefrom the thermostat housing

    7.6b . . . and extract the thermostat . . . 7.9 Thermostat flow direction markings(arrowed)

    7.6c . . . and sealing ring

  • 17 Note that the thermostat wax capsulemust face into the inlet manifold, with the flowdirection arrow pointing forward, in line withthe pressure relief valve in the housing (seeillustration). 18 Refill the cooling system.

    DOHC models19 On fuel injection models, for access to thethermostat housing loosen the clips andremove the air inlet tube which connects theplenum chamber to the inlet manifold.20 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thethermostat housing (see illustrations).21 Disconnect the wiring plug from thecooling fan switch mounted in the thermostathousing (see illustration).22 Unscrew the three securing bolts, andwithdraw the thermostat housing (seeillustration).23 Manipulate the thermostat from the inletmanifold, and recover the O-ring. If it is

    necessary to prise the thermostat out, takecare not to damage the surface of the housingin the inlet manifold.24 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.25 Ensure that the O-ring seal is correctlyfitted around the edge of the thermostat.26 When fitting the thermostat to the inletmanifold, ensure that the relief valve is locatedin the 12 oclock position (see illustration).27 Tighten the thermostat housing securingbolts to the specified torque.28 Refill the cooling system.

    1 To test the thermostat, suspend it by apiece of string in a container of water (seeillustration).

    2 Gradually heat the water, and using athermometer with a range of at least 100C,note the temperature at which the thermostatstarts to open. 3 Remove the thermostat from the water andcheck that it is fully closed when cold.4 Renew the thermostat if the openingtemperature is not as given in theSpecifications, or if the unit does not fullyclose when cold.

    1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2 Drain the cooling system.3 Proceed as follows according to model:

    SOHC models 4 Disconnect the heater and radiator bottomhoses from the coolant pump. 5 Remove the thermo-viscous fan (Section 12). 6 If not already done, remove the coolantpump drivebelt, then unscrew the fourretaining bolts and remove the coolant pumppulley. If necessary, the pulley can beprevented from turning using a strap wrench.

    7 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover.

    9 Coolant pump - removal andrefitting

    8 Thermostat - testing

    Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems 35

    3

    7.20a Disconnect the coolant hoses . . .

    8.1 Testing the thermostat openingtemperature

    7.26 Thermostat relief valve (arrowed)should be in the 12 oclock position

    7.22 Withdrawing the thermostat housing

    7.21 Disconnect the cooling fan switchwiring plug

    7.20b . . . from the thermostat housing

    7.17 Correct orientation of thermostat withflow direction arrow pointing towards

    pressure relief valve

    7.13 Removing the thermostat housing andgasket

    Holding the pulley can beimprovised using an olddrivebelt, and a suitablesocket and wrench.

  • 8 Unscrew the three retaining bolts andremove the coolant pump and gasket from thefront of the cylinder block. Note that oncertain models, the alternator adjusting link issecured by the right-hand retaining bolt (seeillustration).9 If the coolant pump is faulty, it must berenewed, as it is not possible to obtainindividual components.10 Before refitting, clean the mating faces ofthe coolant pump and cylinder block.11 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.12 Use a new gasket, and tighten theretaining bolts to the specified torque.13 Before fitting the coolant pump pulley,ensure that the timing belt cover support boltis located in its hole in the pump.

    14 Refill the cooling system.

    CVH models15 Unscrew the two securing nuts, anddisconnect the coolant elbow from theleft-hand side of the coolant pump (seeillustration).16 Remove the timing belt.17 Unscrew the camshaft sprocket bolt andwithdraw the distributor drive sleeve.18 Screw the camshaft sprocket bolt partway back into the end of the camshaft, andusing a suitable puller, pull the sprocket fromthe camshaft.19 Remove the plastic rear timing belt cover.20 Unscrew the two retaining bolts, andremove the timing belt tensioner (seeillustration).21 Unscrew the four securing bolts, andwithdraw the coolant pump (see illustration).22 If the coolant pump is faulty it must berenewed, as it is not possible to obtainindividual components.23 Before refitting, clean the mating faces ofthe coolant pump and cylinder block.24 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.25 Use a new gasket, and tighten thesecuring bolts to the specified torque.26 Before refitting the camshaft sprocketbolt, the threads must be coated with sealer(Loctite 74 or 274, or Omnifit 30M blue), as thebolt acts as an oil seal for the hollowcamshaft. Do not forget to fit the distributordrive sleeve.27 Correctly tension the timing belt.28 Refill the cooling system.

    DOHC modelsNote: Before proceeding, take note of thefollowing modifications: On models up to May1990, the coolant hoses were connected to thecoolant pump housing as shown (seeillustration). On models from May 1990, theheater hose (A) and the expansion tank hose (B)connections were swapped over. If the hosesare disconnected on earlier models,they shouldbe reconnected as on later models, ie connectthe heater hose to connection B, and connectthe expansion tank hose to connection A.This will prevent the possibility of noises fromthe heater matrix due to air in the system.29 On fuel injection models, for access to thecoolant pump, remove the air inlet hose,plenum chamber, and air cleaner lid as anassembly.30 Remove the coolant pump/alternatordrivebelt.31 If the pump pulley is to be removed, it iseasiest to do this with the pump in position, asfollows. Prevent the pulley from rotating usinga strap wrench and unscrew the four pulleysecuring bolts. Withdraw the pulley.32 Position a suitable container beneath thecoolant pump, to catch the coolant which willbe released as the pump is removed. Unscrewthe five securing bolts, and withdraw the pumpfrom the housing in the cylinder block (seeillustration). Recover the O-ring seal.33 Before refitting, clean the mating faces ofthe coolant pump and the cylinder block. 34 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points. 35 Use a new O-ring seal (see illustration).

    36 Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems

    9.8 Location of the alternator adjustinglink under the right-hand retaining bolt

    9.20 Remove the timing belt tensioner

    9.35 Coolant pump O-ring (arrowed)9.32 Withdrawing the coolant pump fromthe cylinder block (engine removed)

    9.29 Coolant pump housing hoseconnections

    A Heater hose connection - up to May 1990B Expansion tank hose connection - up to

    May 1990C Bottom radiator hose

    9.21 Withdraw the coolant pump

    9.15 Disconnect the coolant elbow fromthe coolant pump

  • 36 Tighten the coolant pump securing bolts,and where applicable the pump pulleysecuring bolts, to the specified torque. 37 On completion, refill the cooling system.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 21.

    Removal1 Remove the alternator drivebelt.2 Loosen the alternator lower mountingthrough-bolt, then remove the alternatorupper mounting bolt and swing the alternatoraway from the engine.3 Unscrew the central securing bolt, andwithdraw the drivebelt tensioner assembly(see illustration).

    Refitting4 Commence refitting by positioning thetensioner on the cylinder block, ensuring thatthe lug on the rear of the tensioner bracketengages with the corresponding hole in thecylinder block. Tighten the securing bolt.5 Swing the alternator into position, to alignthe upper mounting bolt hole with thecorresponding hole in the drivebelt tensioner

    assembly. Refit the upper mounting bolt, andtighten the upper bolt and lower through-bolt.6 Fit the drivebelt by reversing the removalprocedure, and release the tensioner totension the drivebelt.7 Observe the tensioner indicator, whichshould be central in its slot (see illustration).

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the four retaining clips andunscrew the two retaining screws, thenwithdraw the upper section of the fan shroud(see illustrations).3 The cooling fan hub nut must now beunscrewed from the coolant pump driveflange. A thin cranked 32.0 mm (1.25 in AF)spanner with a jaw thickness not exceeding5.0 mm (0.2 in) will be required (seeillustration). Alternatively, if two of thecoolant pump pulley bolts are removed, anormal thickness spanner can be used. Notethat the fan hub nut has a left-hand thread, (ieit is undone in a clockwise direction.) If thepulley turns as the nut is undone, remove thedrivebelt, and clamp an old drivebelt roundthe pulley to restrain it, using self-lockingpliers. Tap the spanner with a mallet ifrequired to remove the nut.

    4 If required, the fan blades can be separatedfrom the fan hub by unscrewing the foursecuring bolts.

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but whereapplicable, take care not to overtighten thebolts securing the fan blades to the fan hub,as thread damage may require the whole unitto be renewed. Where applicable, refit andtension the drivebelt.

    CVH models 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.Unclip the wiring connector from the fanmotor then unscrew the retaining nuts andwashers. Withdraw the fan shroud andcooling fan assembly (see illustration).2 To remove the fan blades, prise thesecuring clip from the end of the motor shaft(see illustration).3 The motor can be separated from the fanshroud by unscrewing the three securing nutsand bolts.4 Where two cooling fans are fitted, both fansare secured to the fan shroud in the samemanner. 5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but whenrefitting the fan blades, ensure that thedirection of rotation arrow faces away fromthe motor, towards the radiator.

    13 Electric cooling fan - removaland refitting

    12 Thermo-viscous cooling fan(SOHC models) - removal andrefitting

    11 Coolant pump/alternatordrivebelt tensioner (DOHCmodels with power steering)- removal and refitting

    10 Coolant pump/alternatordrivebelt(s) - checking, renewaland tensioning

    Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems 37

    3

    12.2a Remove the retaining clips followedby the screws . . .

    13.1 Withdrawing the fan shroud andcooling fan assembly

    12.3 Modified spanner required forremoving the thermo-viscous cooling fan

    X = 25.0 mm (1.0 in) Y = 12.0 mm (0.5 in)12.2b . . . and withdraw the upper section

    of the fan shroud

    11.7 Alternator/coolant pump drivebelttensioner indicator position

    Inset shows tensioner at maximumadjustment

    11.3 Withdrawing the coolantpump/alternator drivebelt tensioner

    assembly. Note lug (A) on tensioner whichengages with hole (B) in mounting bracket

  • DOHC models6 Disconnect the battery negative lead.7 To provide additional clearance whenremoving the cooling fan shroud assembly(which is removed from below the vehicle),apply the handbrake, then jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support it securely on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).8 Disconnect the wiring plug(s) from themotor(s), and where applicable, unclip thewiring from the fan shroud.9 Unclip the expansion tank hose from thefan shroud.10 Unscrew the two nuts securing the fanshroud to the top of the radiator, then tilt thetop of the shroud away from the radiator, andlift the shroud to release the lower securingclips. Withdraw the assembly from below thevehicle.11 To remove the fan blades, prise thesecuring clip from the end of the motor shaft.

    12 The motor can be separated from the fanshroud by unscrewing the three securing nutsand bolts.13 Where two cooling fans are fitted, both aresecured to the shroud in the same manner.14 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butwhen fitting the fan blades, ensure that thedrive dog on the motor shaft engages with theslot in the rear of the fan blades.

    On CVH models, the cooling fan switch islocated on the right-hand side of thethermostat housing (see illustration). OnDOHC models, the switch is located in theend of the thermostat housing.

    Removal and refitting of the switch is asdescribed for the temperature gauge sender.

    Removal1 With the engine cold, slowly unscrew theexpansion tank cap to release any remainingpressure from the cooling system. Removethe cap. 2 Place a suitable container beneath theexpansion tank. 3 Disconnect and plug the upper hose. 4 Where applicable, disconnect the coolantlevel sensor wiring plug.

    5 Unscrew the expansion tank securingscrews, and tilt the tank so that the coolantruns to the sealed end. 6 Disconnect and plug the lower hose. 7 Drain the expansion tank into the containerand remove the tank. 8 Where applicable, the coolant level sensorcan be removed from the tank by unscrewingthe collar from the sensor, then withdrawingthe spacer, sensor and seal (see illustration).Renew the seal if necessary. Note that thesensor can only be fitted in one position (seeillustration).

    Refitting9 Refitting is a reversal of removal.10 On completion, top-up the coolant level tothe maximum mark, then refit the expansiontank cap and run the engine at a fast idlingspeed for several minutes. Check theexpansion tank for leaks, then stop the engineand if necessary top-up the coolant level.

    Removal1 On SOHC models, the temperature gaugesender is located on the front left-hand side ofthe cylinder head, just in front of the inletmanifold. On CVH models, the sender islocated on the front face of the inlet manifold,next to the thermostat housing. On DOHCmodels, the sender is located at the front ofthe inlet manifold (see illustration).

    16 Temperature gauge sender- removal and refitting

    15 Expansion tank and coolantlevel sensor - removal andrefitting

    14 Cooling fan switch - removaland refitting

    38 Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems

    13.2 Fan blade securing clip and directionof rotation arrow

    15.8a Removing the coolant level sensorfrom the expansion tank

    16.3a Disconnect the temperature gaugesender wiring - SOHC

    16.1 Temperature gauge sender location(arrowed)

    16.3b Disconnect the temperature gaugesender wiring - CVH

    15.8b Fitting the coolant level sensor

    14.1 Disconnecting the wiring plug fromthe cooling fan switch

  • 2 With the engine cold, slowly unscrew theexpansion tank cap to release any remainingpressure from the cooling system, then refitthe cap.3 Disconnect the wiring from the senderterminal (see illustrations).4 Unscrew and remove the sender, andtemporarily plug the aperture.

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but smeara little sealing compound on the sender unitthreads before fitting.6 On completion, check and if necessary top-up the coolant level.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the securing screws and unclip thelower and upper steering column shrouds.3 Remove the four securing screws andwithdraw the instrument panel surround. Notethat the bottom right-hand screw is coveredby a plastic panel which must be prised out.4 Remove the passenger side lower faciapanel.5 Where necessary for improved access,detach the two vent hoses from the left-handside of the heater, then detach the lower endsof the two control cables from the heater byremoving the retaining screws (seeillustration).6 Unscrew the three securing screws, andremove the heater control panel by sliding itthrough the facia panel and withdrawing itdownwards. Disconnect the wiring from thecontrol panel illumination bulb.7 If necessary, the bulb can be removed withits holder.

    Refitting8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.9 When reconnecting the wiring to the controlpanel illumination bulb, wrap insulating tape

    around the wiring loom over a length ofapproximately 330.0 mm (13.0 in) startingfrom the bulbholder. Route the loom, ensuringthat it is located in the two retaining clips,bend it over and secure it to the bulbholderwith insulating tape as shown (seeillustration). This procedure will prevent thewiring loom from chafing against the heatercontrol levers.10 When reconnecting the control cables tothe heater, move the control levers on thecontrol panel to the fully up position, thenattach the cables to the clips on the heater.The cable ends should project from the clipsby between 0 and 4.0 mm (0 and 0.16 in). Thecables are adjusted automatically by movingthe control levers fully downwards. It ispossible that considerable resistance mayhave to be overcome when moving the controllevers.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 If the coolant is still hot, release thepressure in the system by slowly unscrewingthe expansion tank cap. Place a thick rag overthe cap to prevent scalding as the pressure isreleased.3 Note the location of the two heater hoses

    on the engine compartment bulkhead, thendisconnect and plug them (see illustration).Alternatively, the hoses can be secured highenough to prevent the coolant from draining.4 To prevent unnecessary spillage of coolantwhen the heater unit is removed, blow into theupper heater pipe until all the coolant hasbeen expelled through the lower pipe.5 Remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the heater pipe cover from thebulkhead (see illustration). Recover thegasket.6 Working inside the vehicle, remove thepassenger side lower facia panel.7 Disconnect the ends of the two controlcables from the heater by removing the tworetaining screws.8 Detach the five vent hoses from the heater.9 Unscrew the two mounting bolts, and movethe heater to the rear until the pipes are clearof the bulkhead, then withdraw the heater tothe left. If necessary, remove the lower faciabracket (see illustration).

    Refitting10 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butadjust the control cables by moving the leverson the control panel to the top and then thebottom stops. Considerable resistance maybe encountered when moving the leverstowards the bottom stops, which should beovercome.11 On completion, top-up the coolant level.

    18 Heater unit - removal andrefitting

    17 Heater controls - removal andrefitting

    Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems 39

    3

    18.3 Location of heater hoses on enginecompartment bulkhead

    18.9 Withdrawing the heater18.5 Heater pipe cover

    17.9 Heater control panel illumination bulbwiring loom correctly routed

    17.5 Heater control cable lower end fittings(arrowed)

  • 1 With the heater unit removed from thevehicle, remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the heater matrix from the casing(see illustrations).2 Cut the heater casing gasket in line with thecasing joint, then use two suitablescrewdrivers to prise off the retaining clipsand separate the casing halves. Withdraw thelower part of the casing to the side.3 Remove the air flap valves, then press thecontrol levers from the casing. Note that theup/down control lever can only be removedwhen the marks are aligned as shown (seeillustration).4 Clean all components and hose through thematrix to remove any debris. If necessary use

    a chemical cleaner to clear the inner passageof the matrix. Renew the components asnecessary.5 Reassembly is a reversal of dismantling.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Where necessary, unclip the brake servovacuum hose for improved access.3 On models from 1987, unclip thewindscreen washer hoses and wiring from themotor cover, and secure them to thebodywork out of the way. 4 Unscrew the two securing bolts from themotor cover, pull off the rubber moulding,then withdraw the cover (see illustration). 5 Disconnect the wiring from the motor, anddetach the earth lead from its bracket.

    6 Unscrew the two motor securing nuts, andwithdraw the motor assembly (see illustration). 7 Unclip the casing halves, then prise openthe motor retaining strap using a screwdriver,or if necessary a drift. 8 Detach the wiring from the motor, thenremove the motor and fan wheels from thecasing.

    Refitting9 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    1 Only those items which can be renewedwithout discharging the system are describedhere (see illustration). Other items must bedealt with by a Ford dealer or air conditioningspecialist.

    21 Air conditioning system -component renewal

    20 Heater motor - removal andrefitting

    19 Heater unit - overhaul

    310 Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems

    19.1a Remove the securing screws . . . 19.3 Heater up/down control lever mustbe aligned as shown before removal

    Note that the cross marks are for right-handdrive vehicles

    1 De-ice thermostat2 Evaporator3 Expansion valve4 Compressor5 Compressor clutch

    6 Pressure switch7 Sight glass8 Dehydrator/collector9 Cooling fan10 Condenser

    21.1 Layout of air conditioning system components

    20.6 Heater motor and wiring

    20.4 Unscrew the securing bolts andwithdraw the heater motor cover

    19.1b . . . and withdraw the heater matrix

  • Compressor drivebelt2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 On SOHC models, remove the thermo-viscous cooling fan.4 Slacken the compressor mounting andpivot bolts, move the compressor towards theengine and remove the old drivebelt (seeillustration).5 Fit the new drivebelt, position thecompressor to achieve the correct belttension, then tighten the mounting and pivotbolts.6 On SOHC models, refit the thermo-viscouscooling fan.7 Reconnect the battery negative lead.

    Condenser fan and motor

    Models up to 19878 Disconnect the battery negative lead, andremove the radiator grille. On Ghia models,remove the front bumper.

    9 Disconnect the fan wiring connector at theside of the condenser.10 Remove the three securing bolts andwithdraw the fan assembly. Turn the frame toposition the fan wiring on the dehydrator sideto avoid damaging the wiring. Take care alsonot to damage the condenser fins or tube.11 To remove the fan blades from the motor,remove the retaining nut and circlip. The nuthas a left-hand thread, ie, it is undone in aclockwise direction. 12 With the blades removed, the motor canbe unscrewed from the frame. 13 Reassemble and refit in the reverse orderof dismantling and removal.

    Models from 1987 14 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 15 Remove the bonnet lock. 16 Unclip the guard from the fan frame. 17 Disconnect the fan wiring connector (seeillustration). 18 Apply the handbrake, jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).19 Unscrew the two lower condensersecuring bolts and disengage the condenserfrom the top of the radiator by releasing thethree clips. 20 Unscrew the four securing bolts anddetach the fan assembly from the condenser.Withdraw the fan assembly from underneaththe vehicle. 21 Proceed as described in paragraphs 11 to13 inclusive.

    De-ice thermostat22 Disconnect and remove the battery.

    23 Disconnect any vacuum hoses,windscreen washer hoses and electricalwiring as necessary, then unscrew the foursecuring bolts and on models up to 1987 thesingle nut, and remove the right-hand plenumchamber cover plate from the bulkhead.24 Disconnect the thermostat from theevaporator casing and withdraw it. Alsowithdraw the thermostat probe from thecasing.25 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    Heating/air conditioning controls26 The procedure is similar to that describedfor the heater controls but additionally thevacuum hoses must be disconnected fromthe control unit vacuum valve during removal,and reconnected when refitting.

    Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems 311

    3

    21.17 Air conditioning condenser fanwiring connector location (arrowed) -

    models from 1987

    21.4 Typical air conditioning compressormounting and pivot bolts (arrowed)

  • 312 Notes

  • GeneralFuel tank capacity:

    All models except P100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60.0 litres (13.2 gals)P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.0 litres (14.5 gals)

    Fuel octane rating:Leaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 RON (4-star)Unleaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 RON (Premium)

    Air filter element1.3 litre and 1.6 litre (Ford carburettor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W1101.6 litre (Weber carburettor) and 1.8 litre (SOHC engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W1181.6 litre (1984-on) and 2.0 litre (SOHC engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W1521.8 litre CVH engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W2192.0 litre DOHC engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W152

    Carburettor type:1.3 litre models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ford VV1.6 litre models (engine codes LCS and LCT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ford VV1.6 litre models (engine codes LSD and LSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weber 2V (28/30 DFTH)1.8 litre models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pierburg 2V (2E3)2.0 litre SOHC models up to 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weber 2V (32/36 DGAV)2.0 litre SOHC models from 1985 (except P100) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weber 2V (30/34 DFTH)P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ford VV2.0 litre DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weber 2V(TLD)

    Ford VV carburettorIdle speed:

    1.3 and 1.6 litre models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 25 rpmP100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 50 rpm

    Idle mixture (CO content):1.3 and 1.6 litre models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 0.5%P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 0.5%

    Chapter 4 Part A:Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    Air cleaner element - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Air cleaner inlet air temperature control - testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Air cleaner - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Carburettors (all types) - dismantling and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . .13Carburettor (Ford VV type) - idle speed and mixture adjustment . . . .15Carburettor (Ford VV type) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Carburettor (Pierburg 2V type) - fast idle speed adjustment . . . . . . .21Carburettor (Pierburg 2V type) - idle speed and mixture adjustment .20Carburettor (Pierburg 2V type) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . .19Carburettor (Weber 2V type) - fast idle speed adjustment . . . . . . . . .18Carburettor (Weber 2V type) - idle speed and mixture adjustment . .17Carburettor (Weber 2V type) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Carburettor (Weber 2V TLD type) - fast idle speed adjustment . . . . .24Carburettor (Weber 2V TLD type) - idle speed and mixture

    adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

    Carburettor (Weber 2V TLD type) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . .22Exhaust manifold - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Exhaust system - inspection, removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Fuel level sender unit - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Fuel pressure regulator (models up to 1985) - removal and refitting . .5Fuel pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Fuel pump - testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Fuel tank - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Fuel vapour separator (models from 1985) - removal and refitting . . .6General information and precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Inlet manifold - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Throttle cable - removal, refitting and adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Throttle pedal - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Vacuum valves, ported vacuum switches and fuel traps - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

    4A1

    Specifications

    Contents

    4A

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • Weber 2V (28/30 DFTH) carburettorIdle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 to 825 rpmIdle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.75 to 1.25%Fast idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1600 to 1800 rpmFloat level (with gasket) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 to 6.5 mm (0.22 to 0.26 in)Automatic choke vacuum pull-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0 to 6.5 mm (0.24 to 0.26 in)

    Primary SecondaryThrottle barrel diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.0 mm 30.0 mmVenturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.0 mm 23.0 mmIdle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 40 (70*)Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 (95*) 110 (115*)Air correction jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 (195*) 190 (170*)Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F59 F22*Re-jetting sizes for improved economy

    Weber 2V (32/36 DGAV) carburettorIdle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 25 rpmIdle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 0.2%Fast idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2900 100 rpmFloat level (without gasket):

    Brass float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.0 mm (1.61 in)Plastic float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35.3 mm (1.39 in)

    Automatic choke vacuum pull-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 0.25 mm (0.26 0.01 in)Automatic choke phasing dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 0.25 mm (0.06 0.01 in)

    Primary SecondaryThrottle barrel diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.0 mm 36.0 mmVenturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.0 mm 27.0 mmIdle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 45Main jet:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 130Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 132

    Air correction jet:Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 120Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 120

    Emulsion tube:Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F66 F66Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F50 F66

    Weber 2V (30/34 DFTH) carburettor (Part Nos 85HF 9510 CA and DA)Idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 rpm (electronically controlled)Idle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.75 to 1.25%Float level (with gasket) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 to 8.5 mm (0.30 to 0.33 in)Automatic choke vacuum pull-down:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0 mm (0.35 in)Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 mm (0.32 in)

    Throttle barrel diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.0 mm 34.0 mmVenturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.0 mm 27.0 mmIdle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 45Main jet:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 135Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 135

    Air correction jet:Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 150Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 150

    Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F22 F22

    Weber 2V (30/34 DFTH) carburettor (Part Nos 85HF 9510 CB and DB)Idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 rpm (electronically controlled)Idle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 0.25%Float level (with gasket) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 0.5 mm (0.32 0.02 in)Automatic choke vacuum pull-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0 mm (0.24 in)

    Primary SecondaryThrottle barrel diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.0 mm 34.0 mmVenturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.0 mm 27.0 mmIdle jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 45Main jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 130Air correction jet:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 160Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 160

    Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F22 F22

    4A2 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

  • Pierburg 2V (2E3) carburettor - SOHC models (Part No 85HF 9510 AB)Idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 20 rpmIdle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3%Fast idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830 30 rpmAutomatic choke vacuum pull-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0 mm (0.12 in)Idle fuel jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Idle air bleed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

    Primary SecondaryVenturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.0 mm 26.0 mmMain jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107.5 130

    Pierburg 2V (2E3) carburettor - SOHC models (Part Nos 85HF 9510 JB and KC)Idle speed:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850 to 900 rpmAutomatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 to 825 rpm

    Idle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 to 1.5%Fast idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1850 to 1950 rpmAutomatic choke vacuum pull-down:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 mm (0.16 in)Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 mm (0.15 in)

    Idle fuel jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Idle air bleed:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

    Primary SecondaryVenturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.0 mm 26.0 mmMain jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5 130

    Pierburg 2V (2E3) carburettor- CVH modelsIdle speed:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850 to 900 rpmAutomatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 to 825 rpm

    Idle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.75 to 1.25%Fast idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 rpmAutomatic choke vacuum pull-down:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 mm (0.09 in)Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 mm (0.10 in)

    Idle fuel jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.5Idle air bleed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

    Primary SecondaryVenturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.0 mm 23.0 mmMain jet:

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 105Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97.5 105

    Weber 2V (TLD) carburettorIdle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850 25 rpmIdle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 0.25%Fast idle speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800 50 rpmFloat level (with gasket) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.0 0.5 mmAutomatic choke vacuum pull-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0 0.5 mmThrottle kicker speed (see text) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 50 rpm

    Primary SecondaryVenturi diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.0 mm 25.0 mmMain jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 157Air correction jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 145Emulsion tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F114 F3

    Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftAll models except 2.0 litre DOHCFuel pump bolts (mechanical pump) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 to 18 10 to 13Inlet manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15Exhaust manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 40 26 to 30Exhaust manifold-to-downpipe nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 40 26 to 30Exhaust downpipe-to-main system nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 40 26 to 30Exhaust U-bolt clamp nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 to 45 28 to 33

    Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A3

    4A

  • 2.0 litre DOHC modelsInlet manifold nuts and bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 15 to 18Exhaust manifold nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 25 15 to 18Carburettor bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 10 6 to 7

    General informationThe fuel system on carburettor models

    may comprise a fuel tank, a fuel pump, a fuelpressure regulator and/or vapour separator, adowndraught carburettor and athermostatically-controlled air cleaner.

    On Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models,the fuel tank is mounted under the rear of thevehicle, on the right-hand side. On P100models, the fuel tank is mounted behind thecab, between the chassis frame and the loadarea. The tank is ventilated, and has a simplefiller pipe and a fuel gauge sender unit.

    The mechanical fuel pump is a diaphragmtype, actuated by a pushrod bearing on aneccentric cam on the auxiliary shaft on SOHCmodels, or on the camshaft on CVH models.DOHC models and models with airconditioning have an electric fuel pumpmounted under the rear of the vehicle, next tothe fuel tank. DOHC models have a combinedpump and fuel level sender unit.

    The fuel pressure regulator and/or vapourseparator is used to stabilise the fuel supplyto the carburettor. The pressure regulatorprovides a constant fuel pressure, and hencemaintains a constant float level in thecarburettor which reduces exhaust emissionlevels. The vapour separator purges vapourfrom the carburettor fuel supply, thusimproving hot starting qualities. All models upto 1985 are fitted with a fuel pressureregulator. All models from 1985 except 2.0litre SOHC models and CVH models are fittedwith a combined fuel pressure regu-lator/vapour separator. 2.0 litre models from1985 and CVH models are fitted with a vapourseparator only. DOHC models have nopressure regulator or vapour separator fitted.

    The carburettor may be either a Fordvariable venturi (VV) type, a Weber twin venturi(2V or 2V TLD) type, or a Pierburg twin venturi(2V) type, depending on model. Each type of

    carburettor is available in several versions tosuit particular engine and equipmentcombinations.

    The air cleaner has a vacuum or waxstatcontrolled air inlet supplying a blend of hotand cold air to suit the prevailing engineoperating conditions.

    Precautions

    Tamperproof adjustment screws -cautionCertain adjustment points in the fuel system(and elsewhere) are protected bytamperproof caps, plugs or seals. Thepurpose of such tamperproofing is todiscourage, and to detent, adjustment byunqualified operators.In some EEC countries (though not yet in theUK) it is an offence to drive a vehicle withmissing or broken tamperproof seals. Beforedisturbing a tamperproof seal, satisfy yourselfthat you will not be breaking local or nationalanti-pollution regulations by doing so. Fit anew seal when adjustment is complete whenthis is required by law.Do not break tamperproof seals on a vehiclewhich is still under warranty.

    Work proceeduresWhen working on fuel system components,scrupulous cleanliness must be observed,and care must be taken not to introduce anyforeign matter into fuel lines or components.Carburettors in particular are delicate

    instruments, and care should be taken not todisturb any components unnecessarily.Before attempting work on a carburettor,ensure that the relevant spares are available.Full overhaul procedures for carburettors havenot been given in this Chapter, as completestrip-down of a carburettor is unlikely to curea fault which is not immediately obvious,without introducing new problems. Ifpersistent problems are encountered, it isrecommended that the advice of a Ford dealeror carburettor specialist is sought. Mostdealers will be able to provide carburettor re-jetting and servicing facilities, and if necessaryit should be possible to purchase areconditioned carburettor of the relevant type.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 38.

    Removal1 On CVH models, disconnect the batterynegative lead.2 Remove the screws from the top of the aircleaner cover (see illustration).3 Disconnect the cold air inlet hose from theair cleaner spout or the inlet on the front bodypanel. The hose is secured by toggle clips(see illustration).4 Disconnect the hot air inlet hose from theair cleaner spout or the hot air shroud on theexhaust manifold (see illustration).5 Disconnect the vacuum hose from the inletmanifold (see illustration).6 On DOHC models, disconnect thecamshaft cover breather hose7 Where applicable, on OHC models removethe screw securing the air cleaner body to thecamshaft cover. 8 Withdraw the air cleaner, and on CVHmodels, disconnect the wiring plug from the

    3 Air cleaner - removal andrefitting

    2 Air cleaner element - renewal

    1 General information andprecautions

    4A4 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    3.4 Hot air intake hose on hot air shroud3.3 Disconnecting the cold air intake hosefrom the air cleaner spout

    3.2 Air cleaner securing screws (arrowed)

    Warning - Fuel - Many of theprocedures given in thisChapter involve thedisconnection of fuel pipes and

    system components which may result insome fuel spillage. Before carrying outany operation on the fuel system, refer tothe precautions given in the Safety firstSection at the beginning of this manualand follow them implicitly. Petrol Is ahighly dangerous and volatile substance,and the precautions necessary whenhandling it cannot be over stressed.

  • air charge temperature sensor mounted in thebase of the air cleaner body, and disconnectthe breather hose from the camshaft cover.

    Refitting9 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the disturbed hoses are securelyconnected.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 36.

    Removal1 The fuel pressure regulator is located on theleft-hand side of the engine compartment(see illustration).

    2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Identify the fuel hose locations, as an aid torefitting. Note that there are three hoseconnections on models without a fuel flowsensor unit, and two hose connections onmodels with a fuel flow sensor unit.4 Disconnect and plug the fuel hoses.5 Remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the regulator.

    Refitting6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the fuel hoses are correctly connected. Ifthe hoses were originally secured withcrimped type clips, discard them and use newworm drive clips.

    Removal1 On SOHC models, the vapour separator islocated on the left-hand side of the enginecompartment. On CVH models, the vapourseparator is located on the right-hand side ofthe engine compartment (see illustrations).2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.

    3 Identify the fuel hose locations as an aid torefitting, then disconnect and plug the hoses.4 Remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the vapour separator.

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the fuel hoses are correctly connected. Ifthe hoses were originally secured withcrimped type clips, discard them and use newworm drive clips.

    Mechanical pump1 On SOHC engines, the fuel pump is locatedon the left-hand side of the cylinder block,next to the oil filter. On CVH engines the fuelpump is located on the rear right-hand cornerof the cylinder head.2 To test the pump, disconnect the ignitioncoil LT -/1 lead to prevent the engine fromfiring.3 Disconnect the outlet hose from the pump,and place a wad of rag next to the pumpoutlet (see illustration). Take appropriate fireprecautions.4 Have an assistant crank the engine on thestarter motor, and check that well-definedspurts of petrol are ejected from the fuelpump outlet. If not, the pump is faulty.Dispose of the petrol-soaked rag safely.

    7 Fuel pump - testing

    6 Fuel vapour separator (modelsfrom 1985) - removal andrefitting

    5 Fuel pressure regulator(models up to 1985) - removaland refitting

    4 Air cleaner inlet air temperaturecontrol - testing

    Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A5

    4A

    6.1a Fuel vapour separator location - 2.0 litre SOHC models from 1985

    A Fuel return hoseB Fuel supply hoseC Carburettor fuel feed hose

    5.1 Fuel pressure regulator location -models up to 1985

    3.5 Disconnecting the air cleaner vacuumhose from the inlet manifold

    7.3 Disconnecting outlet hose from fuelpump - SOHC model

    6.1c Fuel vapour separator location - CVH models

    A Fuel supply hoseB Carburettor fuel feed hoseC Fuel return hose

    6.1b Fuel pressure regulator/vapourseparator location -

    SOHC models from 1985

    A Fuel supply hoseB Carburettor fuel feed hoseC Fuel return hose

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • 5 On some early pumps, the top cover can beremoved for access to the filter. Removing thepump and cleaning the filter may cure theproblem. On models with a sealed pump, orwhere cleaning the interior of the pump andfilter does not solve the problem, the pumpshould be renewed, as no spares areavailable. Check that there is petrol in the fueltank before condemning the pump! 6 On completion of the test, reconnect theoutlet hose to the pump. If the hose wasoriginally secured with a crimped type clip,discard this and use a new worm drive clip.Reconnect the coil LT lead.

    Electric pump

    SOHC and CVH models with airconditioning7 The fuel pump is located under the rear ofthe vehicle, next to the fuel tank (seeillustration).8 If the pump is functioning, it should bepossible to hear it buzzing by listeningunder the rear of the vehicle when the ignitionis switched on.9 If the pump appears to have failedcompletely, check the fuse and relay.10 To test the pump, disconnect the fuelsupply hose from the pressure regulator orvapour separator (as applicable) in the enginecompartment. Lead the hose into a measuringcylinder.11 Take appropriate fire precautions, thenswitch on the ignition for 30 seconds (do not

    start the engine), and measure the quantity ofpetrol delivered: it should be at least 400 ml(0.7 pint). If not, the pump is faulty and shouldbe renewed, as no spares are available.12 On completion of the test, reconnect thehose to the pressure regulator or vapourseparator, as applicable, and if the hose wasoriginally secured with a crimped type clip,discard this and fit a new worm drive clip.

    2.0 litre DOHC models13 If the fuel pump is functioning, it shouldbe possible to hear it buzzing by listeningunder the rear of the vehicle when the ignitionis switched on. Unless the engine is started,the fuel pump should switch off afterapproximately one second.14 If the pump appears to have failedcompletely, check the appropriate fuse andrelay, and where applicable check the state ofthe fuel pump inertia cut-off switch as follows.15 The inertia cut-off switch is located in thespare wheel well. The switch incorporates areset button, which should normally be in thedepressed position. Check the position of thereset button before assuming that a faultexists in the fuel pump.16 To test the fuel pump, special equipmentis required, and it is recommended that anysuspected faults are referred to a Ford dealer.

    Mechanical pump Note: A new gasket must be used whenrefitting the pump.1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 For improved access on CVH models,remove the air cleaner.3 Identify the hose locations as an aid torefitting, then disconnect the hoses from thepump and plug them.4 Remove the two securing bolts andwithdraw the pump from the cylinder block orcylinder head, as applicable (see illustration).5 Recover the gasket, and if desired removethe operating pushrod (see illustration).

    6 Clean the exterior of the pump with paraffinand wipe dry. Clean all traces of gasket fromthe pump flange and the cylinder block orcylinder head, as applicable.7 On early pumps with a removable topcover, remove the securing screw andwithdraw the cover and the nylon mesh filterwith seal (see illustration). Clean the filter,the cover and the pump with petrol. Locatethe filter in the cover and fit the cover to thepump, so that the indentations on the coverand pump are aligned. Tighten the coversecuring screw. 8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but fit anew gasket, and tighten the securing bolts tothe specified torque. Ensure that the hosesare correctly connected, and if the hoses wereoriginally secured with crimped type clips,discard these and use new worm drive clips.

    Electric pump

    SOHC and CVH models with airconditioning9 Disconnect the battery negative lead.10 Chock the front wheels, then jack up therear of the vehicle and support on axle stands.(see Jacking and Vehicle Support).11 Clean the area around the pumpmounting, and position a suitable containerunder the pump.12 Using a hose clamping tool or self-lockingpliers, clamp the fuel tank-to pump hose toprevent excessive petrol spillage, oralternatively make arrangements to collect thecontents of the fuel tank which will otherwisebe released. Disconnect the hose from thepump.13 Disconnect the fuel outlet hose from thepump and plug the hose to prevent petrolspillage.

    14 Disconnect the wiring plug from thepump. 15 Slacken the clamping bolt, and slide thepump from the bracket assembly. 16 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butmake sure that the rubber sleeve is correctlylocated around the pump body in the bracket,and ensure that the fuel hoses are securely

    8 Fuel pump - removal andrefitting

    4A6 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    7.7 Electric fuel pump - SOHC and CVHmodels with air conditioning

    A Clamping bracketB Fuel inlet

    C Fuel outletD Wiring plug

    8.5 Withdrawing the fuel pump operatingpushrod - CVH model

    8.4 Withdrawing the fuel pump from thecylinder head - CVH model

    8.7 Removing the top cover from an earlytype fuel pump for access to the mesh

    filter

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

    Caution: Petrol under pressuremay spray out of the outlet asthe hose is disconnected.

  • connected. If the hoses were originallysecured with crimped type clips, discardthese and use new worm drive clips.

    2.0 litre DOHC models17 On these models the fuel pump ismounted in the fuel tank, on the samemounting as the fuel level sender unit (seeillustration).18 To remove the pump, first remove the fueltank.19 Unscrew the fuel pump/fuel level senderunit by engaging two crossed screwdrivers inthe slots on either side of the unit mountingflange. Recover the seal.20 Refitting is a reversal of removal. It isnecessary to fit a new seal.

    1 Run the fuel level as low as possible beforeremoving the tank. 2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Remove the tank filler cap, then syphon orpump out the tank contents (there is no drainplug). It may be necessary to disconnect thefuel tank-to-fuel pump hose in order to fullydrain the tank. Store the petrol in a suitablesealed container.

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estatemodels4 Working in the fuel filler recess, remove thetwo screws on models up to 1987, or thesingle screw on models from 1987, securingthe upper end of the fuel filler pipe to the bodypanel.5 Chock the front wheels, then jack up therear of the vehicle and support on axle stands(see Jacking and Vehicle Support).6 Unscrew the two securing bolts from theleft-hand tank flange, and on models from1987, the single bolt from the right-hand tankflange.

    7 Support the tank, then remove the bolt fromthe securing strap. Unhook the remaining endof the strap from the underbody.8 Lower the tank sufficiently to disconnectthe two wiring plugs from the fuel level sender(pump) unit (see illustration).9 Identify the fuel hose locations for use whenrefitting, then disconnect the hoses from thesender unit and plug them.10 Withdraw the fuel tank from under thevehicle.11 The fuel filler and ventilation pipes can beremoved from the tank by loosening thesecuring clips.12 If the tank is contaminated with sedimentor water, swill it out with clean petrol. If thetank has a leak, or is damaged, it should berepaired by a specialist, or alternativelyrenewed. Do not under any circumstancesattempt to solder or weld a fuel tank.13 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butensure that the ventilation pipe is correctlypositioned in its groove in the tank, and is nottrapped between the tank and the vehicleunderbody. Ensure that the fuel hoses and thefuel filler and ventilation pipes are correctlyconnected, and if the hoses or pipes wereoriginally secured with crimped type clips,discard these and use new worm drive clips.

    P100 models14 Remove the cargo area (Chapter 12).15 Disconnect the wiring plug from the fuellevel sender unit, and release the wiring fromthe clip on the fuel tank flange.16 Identify the fuel hose locations for usewhen refitting, then disconnect the hosesfrom the sender unit and plug them.17 Detach the fuel pipes from their clips onthe tank.18 Remove the five tank securing bolts, andlift the tank from the chassis frame (seeillustration).19 Proceed as described in paragraphs 11and 12.20 Commence refitting by loosening thebolts securing the front tank mountingbrackets to the chassis frame.21 Lower the tank into position and looselyrefit the securing bolts. Tighten the three rearsecuring bolts.22 Pull down on the front of the tank andtighten the bolts securing the front tankmounting brackets to the chassis frame when

    the brackets contact the insulating pads, thentighten the front tank securing bolts.23 Further refitting is a reversal of removal,but ensure that all hoses and pipes arecorrectly connected, and if the hoses or pipeswere originally secured with crimped typeclips, discard these and use new worm driveclips. Refit the cargo area.

    Saloon, Hatchback and EstatemodelsAll models except 2.0 litre DOHC1 Remove the fuel tank.2 Unscrew the sender unit from the tank byengaging two crossed screwdrivers in theslots on either side of the sender unitmounting flange. Recover the seal. Check thecondition of the gauze filter on the fuel pick-up pipe, and renew it if there is any sign ofdeterioration.3 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but fit anew seal.

    2.0 litre DOHC models4 On these models the sender unit iscombined with the fuel pump. See Section 8for unit removal and refitting.

    P100 models5 Remove the cargo area (Chapter 12).6 Disconnect the wiring plug from the senderunit.7 Identify the fuel hose locations, as an aid torefitting, then disconnect the hoses from thesender unit and plug them.8 Proceed as described in paragraph 2.9 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but fit anew seal, and ensure that the fuel hoses arecorrectly connected. If the hoses wereoriginally secured with crimped type clips,discard these and use new worm drive clips.Refit the cargo area.

    10 Fuel level sender unit -removal and refitting

    9 Fuel tank - removal and refitting

    Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A7

    4A

    9.8 Fuel level sender unit connections -Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models

    A Wiring plugsB Fuel outlet pipe

    C Fuel inlet pipe

    9.18 Fuel tank securing bolts (arrowed) -P100 models

    8.17 Combined fuel pump/fuel level senderunit - 1.6/1.8 litre (R6A) CVH models

    A Fuel pump B Fuel level senderunit

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding. A new seal mustbe used when refitting thesender unit.

  • Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the lower facia panel from thedrivers side.3 Prise off the securing clip and disconnectthe end of the throttle cable from the top ofthe pedal (see illustration). 4 Remove the two securing nuts, oneaccessible from the drivers footwell, the otherfrom the engine compartment, and withdrawthe pedal and bracket assembly (seeillustration).

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but oncompletion check the throttle cableadjustment.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2 Working inside the vehicle, remove thelower facia panel from the drivers side. 3 Prise off the securing clip and disconnectthe end of the throttle cable from the top ofthe pedal. 4 Working in the engine compartment, freethe cable sheath from the bulkhead, and pullthe cable through into the enginecompartment. It will probably be necessary topull the cable grommet from the bulkhead inorder to free the cable sheath.5 For improved access, remove the aircleaner.6 Disconnect the cable end from the throttlelinkage. The cable end may be attached to thelinkage with a balljoint and spring clip, aspring clip only, or the cable end may simply

    locate in a slot in the throttle lever (seeillustration).7 Prise off the spring clip securing the cablesheath to the cable bracket at the carburettorinlet manifold. Depress the four lugs on theplastic cable retainer simultaneously so thatthe retainer can be slid from the bracket, orremove the retainer securing clip, asapplicable (see illustration). Take care not todamage the cable sheath.

    Refitting8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but beforerefitting the air cleaner, adjust the cable asfollows.

    Adjustment9 Have an assistant fully depress the throttlepedal and hold it in this position. On modelswith automatic transmission, whereapplicable ensure that the kickdown cabledoes not restrict the pedal movement. Turnthe adjusting sleeve at the carburettor inletmanifold cable bracket until the throttle is justfully open. Have the assistant release andthen fully depress the throttle pedal, andcheck that the throttle is again fully open.Adjust if necessary, then refit the air cleaner.On models with automatic transmission,where applicable check the operation of thekickdown cable, and adjust if necessary.

    1 A complete strip-down of a carburettor isunlikely to cure a fault which is notimmediately obvious without introducing newproblems. If persistent carburation problemsare encountered, it is recommended that theadvice of a Ford dealer or carburettorspecialist is sought.2 If it is decided to go ahead and service acarburettor, check the cost and availability ofspare parts before commencement. Obtain acarburettor repair kit, which will contain thenecessary gaskets, diaphragms and otherrenewable items.3 When working on carburettors, scrupulouscleanliness must be observed and care mustbe taken not to introduce any foreign matterinto components. Carburettors are delicateinstruments and care should be taken not todisturb any components unnecessarily.4 Referring to the relevent exploded view ofthe carburettor (see illustrations), removeeach component part whilst making a note ofits fitted position. Make alignment marks onlinkages etc.5 Reassemble the carburettor in the reverseorder to dismantling, using new gaskets, O-rings etc. Be careful not to kink anydiaphragms.

    13 Carburettors (all types) -dismantling and reassembly

    12 Throttle cable - removal,refitting and adjustment

    11 Throttle pedal - removal andrefitting

    4A8 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    11.3 Throttle pedal assembly - cableconnection arrowed

    12.6 Disconnecting the throttle cable end from the throttle lever -Weber 2V carburettor

    12.7 Removing the throttle cable sheath retainer securing clip -CVH model

    11.4 Throttle pedal securing nut (arrowed)in engine compartment

  • Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A9

    4A

    13.4a Exploded view of Ford VV carburettor

    A Throttle spindleB Mixture screwC By-pass leak adjusterD FloatE Needle valveF Main jet bodyG Metering rodH Air valveJ Automatic choke unitK Bi-metal coilL Carburettor control diaphragmM Accelerator pump diaphragm

    13.4b Exploded view of Weber 2Vcarburettor - 1.6 models

    A Top cover assemblyB Automatic choke assemblyC Automatic choke bi-metal housing

    assemblyD Secondary idle jetE Secondary throttle valve vacuum unitF Idle speed screwG Idle mixture screwH Accelerator pump assemblyJ Power valve diaphragmK FloatL Primary emulsion tubeM Primary idle jetN Needle valveP Fuel filterQ Secondary emulsion tube

  • 4A10 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    13.4c Exploded view of Weber 2V carburettor - 2.0 litre models up to 1985

    A Top cover assemblyB Fuel filterC Power valve assemblyD FloatE Needle ValveF GasketG Main jetH Main body assemblyJ Primary idle jet assembly

    K Accelerator pump diaphragmL Accelerator pump gasketM Automatic choke bi-metal housing

    assemblyN Automatic choke assemblyP Vacuum pull-down diaphragm

    assemblyQ Idle mixture screwR Idle speed screw

    S Emulsion tubeT Accelerator pump jetU Air correction jetV Accelerator pump outlet check ball

    valve assemblyW Low vacuum enrichment diaphragmX Secondary idle jet and holder

  • Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A11

    4A

    13.4d Exploded view of Weber 2V carburettor - 2.0 litre models from 1985

    A Top cover assemblyB Automatic choke assemblyC Automatic choke bi-metal housingD Secondary idle jetE Secondary throttle valve vacuum unitF Stepper motor

    G Idle mixture screwH Accelerator pump assemblyJ Power valve diaphragmK Low vacuum enrichment diaphragmL Float

    M Primary emulsion tubeN Primary idle jetP Needle valveQ Fuel filterR Secondary emulsion tube

  • 4A12 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    13.4e Exploded view of Pierburg 2V carburettor

    A Automatic choke bi-metal housingB O-ringC Automatic choke coolant housingD Automatic choke vacuum pull-down

    unit

    E Secondary throttle valve vacuum unitF Idle speed screwG Accelerator pump diaphragmH Power valve assemblyK Carburettor body

    L Fuel inlet pipe and filterM Primary main jetN Secondary main jetO Top cover assemblyP Idle jet

  • Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A13

    4A

    13.4f Exploded view of Weber 2V TLD carburettor

    A Anti-dieselling valveB Emulsion tubesC Air correction jetsD Choke pull-down diaphragm assemblyE Choke linkageF Needle valveG FloatH Fast idle adjustment screwJ Idle speed adjustment screwK Idle mixture adjustment screwL Throttle valvesM Power valve assemblyN Accelerator pump assemblyP Low vacuum enrichment deviceQ Throttle kickerR GasketS Main jets

    Note: A new gasket must be used whenrefitting the carburettor. A tachometer and anexhaust gas analyser will be required to checkthe idle speed and mixture on completion.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the air cleaner.3 Relieve the pressure in the cooling systemby unscrewing the expansion tank cap. If theengine is warm, place a thick rag over the capand unscrew the cap slowly as a precautionagainst scalding. Refit the cap after relievingthe pressure.

    4 Identify the automatic choke coolant hoselocations, as an aid to refitting, thendisconnect the hoses (being prepared forcoolant spillage.) Either plug the hoses orsecure them with their ends facing upwards toprevent loss of coolant.5 Disconnect the wiring from the anti-

    dieselling (anti-run-on) valve.6 Disconnect the fuel hose and vacuum pipe(see illustration). Plug the end of the fuelhose to minimise petrol spillage.7 Disconnect the throttle cable from thecarburettor throttle lever (see illustration).8 Remove the two securing nuts and

    14 Carburettor (Ford VV type) -removal and refitting

    14.7 Disconnecting the throttle cable fromthe throttle lever - Ford VV carburettor

    14.6 Disconnecting the fuel hose - Ford VVcarburettor

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • washers, and lift the carburettor from the inletmanifold studs (see illustrations). Recoverthe gasket.

    Refitting9 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.10 Ensure that the mating faces of the inletmanifold and carburettor are clean, and use anew gasket.11 Ensure that the coolant hoses, fuel hose,and vacuum pipe are correctly routed and freefrom restrictions. If any of the hoses wereoriginally secured with crimped type clips,discard these and use new worm drive clipson refitting.12 On completion, check and if necessarytop-up the coolant level. Check and ifnecessary adjust the idle speed and mixture.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Sections 15 and 16.

    1 Proceed as described for the Ford VVcarburettor but note the following.2 On models with an electrically-heatedautomatic choke, ignore all references to thecooling system and coolant hoses.

    3 Not all Weber carburettors are fitted with ananti-dieselling valve.4 Disconnect all relevant wiring plugs andvacuum pipes, if necessary noting theirlocations for use when refitting.5 Disconnect the link arm from the throttlelinkage instead of disconnecting the throttlecable.6 The carburettor is secured to the inletmanifold by four nuts and washers.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Sections 15 and 16.

    1 This procedure does not apply to modelsfitted with a carburettor stepper motor, forwhich no adjustment is possible.2 Check the idle speed and mixture. The idlespeed must be correct before attempting tocheck or adjust the fast idle speed.3 With the engine at normal operatingtemperature, and a tachometer connected inaccordance with the manufacturersinstructions, proceed as follows.4 Remove the air cleaner.5 Partially open the throttle, hold the chokeplate(s) fully closed, then release the throttleso that on 1.6 litre models the fast idleadjustment screw rests on the third (middle)step of the fast idle cam (see illustration) andon 2.0 litre models the fast idle adjustmentscrew rests on the highest step of the fast idlecam (see illustration).6 Release the choke plate(s), checking thatit/they remain(s) fully open; if not, theautomatic choke mechanism is faulty, or theengine is not at normal operating temperature.7 Without touching the throttle pedal, startthe engine and check that the fast idle speedis as specified. If adjustment is necessary,turn the fast idle adjustment screw until thecorrect speed is obtained.8 On completion of adjustment, stop theengine and disconnect the tachometer, thenrefit the air cleaner.

    1 Proceed as described for the Ford VVcarburettor but note the following.2 The Pierburg carburettor is not fitted withan anti-dieselling valve.3 Disconnect all relevant wiring plugs andvacuum pipes, if necessary noting theirlocations as an aid to refitting.4 Disconnect the throttle arm from the throttlelever by removing the retaining clip instead ofdisconnecting the cable (see illustration).5 The carburettor is secured to the inletmanifold by three Torx type screws (seeillustration).6 On CVH models an insulator block is fittedbetween the carburettor and the inlet manifoldin place of a gasket. There is no need torenew the insulator block on refitting.

    19 Carburettor (Pierburg 2Vtype) - removal and refitting

    18 Carburettor (Weber 2V type) -fast idle speed adjustment

    17 Carburettor (Weber 2V type) -idle speed and mixture adjustment

    16 Carburettor (Weber 2V type) -removal and refitting

    15 Carburettor (Ford VV type) - idlespeed and mixture adjustment

    4A14 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    14.8a Remove the securing nuts andwashers . . .

    19.4 Throttle arm retaining clip (arrowed) -Pierburg 2V carburettor

    19.5 Removing the carburettor securingscrews (arrowed) - Pierburg 2V carburettor

    18.5b Fast idle speed adjustment - Weber2V carburettor (2.0 litre models)

    18.5a Fast idle speed adjustment - Weber2V carburettor (1.6 litre models)

    A Screw on third (middle) step of camB Fast idle screw

    14.8b . . . and lift the carburettor from theinlet manifold - Ford VV carburettor

  • Refer to Chapter 1, Sections 15 and 16.

    1 Check the idle speed and mixtureadjustment. The idle speed must be correctbefore attempting to check or adjust the fastidle speed.2 With the engine at normal operatingtemperature, and a tachometer connected inaccordance with the manufacturersinstructions proceed as follows.3 Remove the air cleaner.4 Position the fast idle speed adjustmentscrew on the lowest (6th) step of the fast idlecam (see illustration).5 Check that the fast idle speed is asspecified. If adjustment is required, stop theengine and proceed as follows.6 Remove the tamperproof cap from the fastidle speed adjustment screw.7 Ensure that the adjustment screw is stillresting on the lowest step of the fast idle cam,then open the throttle so that a smallscrewdriver can be used to adjust the screwfrom below the carburettor.8 Start the engine and recheck the fast idlespeed.9 If necessary, repeat the procedure given inparagraphs 7 and 8 until the correct fast idlespeed is obtained.10 On completion of adjustment, stop theengine and disconnect the tachometer, thenrefit the tamperproof cap to the adjustmentscrew, and refit the air cleaner.

    Note: A new gasket must be used whenrefitting the carburettor. A tachometer and anexhaust gas analyser will be required to checkthe idle speed and mixture on completion.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the air cleaner.3 Disconnect the wiring from the anti-dieselling (anti-run-on) valve. 4 Disconnect the wiring from the automaticchoke heater.5 Disconnect the fuel supply and returnhoses, noting their locations to aid refitting.Plug the ends of the hoses to minimise petrolspillage.6 Disconnect the link arm from the throttlelinkage.7 Disconnect the vacuum pipe.8 Release the coolant hose from the bracketunder the automatic choke housing.9 Unscrew the four Torx screws, and lift thecarburettor from the inlet manifold. Recoverthe gasket.

    Refitting11 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.12 Ensure that the mating faces of the inletmanifold and the carburettor are clean, anduse a new gasket.13 Ensure that all hoses, pipes and wiring arecorrectly routed, and free from restrictions. Ifany of the hoses were originally secured withcrimped-type clips, discard these, and usenew worm-drive clips on refitting. 14 Make sure that the coolant hose iscorrectly positioned in the bracket under theautomatic choke housing. 15 On completion, check and if necessaryadjust the idle speed and mixture.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Sections 15 and 16.

    1 Proceed as described for the Weber 2Vcarburettor, noting the following.2 The fast idle adjustment screw should bepositioned on the third (middle) step of thefast idle cam (see illustration).3 Refer to the Specifications at the beginningof this Chapter for the correct fast idle speed.

    SOHC models

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Partially drain the cooling system.3 Remove the air cleaner.4 Disconnect the coolant hoses from theautomatic choke (where applicable), and theinlet manifold. Identify the hose locations foruse when refitting.5 Disconnect the fuel supply hose at thecarburettor and plug the end to minimisepetrol spillage.6 Disconnect all relevant wiring and vacuumpipes from the carburettor, if necessary notingthe locations for use when refitting.7 Disconnect the throttle cable from thethrottle linkage.8 Disconnect the crankcase ventilation andbrake servo vacuum hoses from the inletmanifold. The brake servo vacuum hose issecured with a union nut (see illustrations).9 Disconnect any remaining wiring andvacuum pipes from the inlet manifold, ifnecessary noting the locations as an aid torefitting.10 Where necessary, unbolt the throttle cablebracket from the top of the inlet manifold forimproved access, and unbolt the dipstick tubebracket.11 Unscrew the two nuts and four boltssecuring the manifold to the cylinder head,noting the location of the rear engine lifting

    25 Inlet manifold - removal andrefitting

    24 Carburettor (Weber 2V TLD) -fast idle speed adjustment

    23 Carburettor (Weber 2V TLD) -idle speed and mixture adjustment

    22 Carburettor (Weber 2V TLD) -removal and refitting

    21 Carburettor (Pierburg 2V type)- fast idle speed adjustment

    20 Carburettor (Pierburg 2V type) -idle speed and mixture adjustment

    Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A15

    4A

    25.8a Disconnecting the crankcaseventilation . . .

    24.2 Fast idle speed adjustment - Weber2V TLD carburettor

    A Fast idle camB Adjustment screw on middle step of cam

    21.4 Fast idle speed adjustment - Pierburg2V carburettor

    Screw (arrowed) should rest on lowest (6th)step of cam

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • bracket (see illustration).12 Lift the inlet manifold from the cylinderhead, and recover the gasket (seeillustration).13 If desired, the carburettor can be removedfrom the inlet manifold by unscrewing thesecuring nuts or screws. Refer to the relevantSection describing carburettor removal andrefitting. Recover the gasket.

    Refitting14 Refitting is a reversal of removal bearingin mind the following points.15 Ensure that all mating faces are clean.16 Renew the gasket(s), and apply a bead ofsealant at least 5.0 mm (0.2 in) wide aroundthe central coolant aperture on both sides ofthe manifold-to-cylinder head gasket.17 Tighten the manifold securing nuts andbolts progressively to the specified torque,ensuring that the engine lifting bracket is inplace.18 Make sure that all hoses, pipes and wiresare correctly reconnected, and if the fuelsupply hose was originally secured with acrimped type clip, discard this and use a newworm drive clip on refitting.19 On completion, refill the cooling system,adjust the throttle cable and check and ifnecessary adjust the idle speed and mixture.

    DOHC models

    Removal20 Disconnect the battery negative lead.21 Partially drain the cooling system.22 Remove the air cleaner.23 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thethermostat housing and the inlet manifold,noting their locations to assist with refitting.24 Disconnect the fuel supply and returnhoses from the carburettor. Plug their ends tominimise petrol spillage.25 Release the coolant hose from the bracketunder the automatic choke housing.26 Disconnect the HT leads from the sparkplugs, and move them to one side.27 Disconnect all relevant wiring and vacuumpipes from the carburettor, thermostathousing and inlet manifold, noting thelocations as an aid to refitting.28 Disconnect the crankcase breather hosefrom the inlet manifold.

    29 Disconnect the throttle cable from thethrottle linkage.30 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, pipes and hoses have beendisconnected to facilitate removal of themanifold.31 Unscrew the ten bolts and two nutssecuring the manifold to the cylinder head.32 Lift the manifold clear of the cylinderhead. Recover the gasket.33 Recover the two plastic spark plugspacers from the recesses in the cylinderhead.34 If desired, the carburettor can be removedfrom the manifold by unscrewing the securingscrews. Refer to the carburettor removal andrefitting Sections as necessary.

    Refitting35 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.36 Ensure that all mating faces are clean.37 Ensure that the spark plug spacers are inposition in the cylinder head recesses beforerefitting the manifold.38 Renew all gaskets.39 Tighten all manifold securing nuts andbolts progressively to the specified torque.40 Make sure that all hoses, pipes and wiresare securely reconnected in their originalpositions.41 On completion, refill the cooling system.Check the adjustment of the throttle cable.Check, and if necessary adjust, the idle speedand mixture.

    CVH models

    Removal42 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to3 inclusive.43 Disconnect the coolant hoses from theautomatic choke, thermostat housing andinlet manifold, noting their locations for usewhen refitting.44 Disconnect the fuel supply hose at thecarburettor and plug the end to minimisepetrol spillage.45 Disconnect all relevant wiring and vacuumpipes from the carburettor, thermostathousing and inlet manifold, noting thelocations as an aid to refitting.46 Disconnect the throttle cable from thethrottle linkage.47 Unbolt the dipstick tube from the inletmanifold and withdraw the dipstick anddipstick tube from the cylinder block.48 Unscrew the seven nuts securing themanifold to the cylinder head, then lift themanifold from the cylinder head, and recoverthe gasket.49 If desired, the carburettor can be removedfrom the manifold by removing the securingscrews. Recover the insulator block (seeillustrations).50 The carburettor intermediate plate can beremoved from the manifold by unscrewing thethree securing screws. Recover the gasket. 51 If necessary, the thermostat and housingcan be removed from the manifold.

    4A16 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    25.8b . . . and brake servo vacuum hosesfrom the inlet manifold - SOHC models

    25.12 Lifting the inlet manifold from thecylinder head - SOHC models

    25.49b . . . and the insulator block from theinlet manifold - CVH models

    25.49a Removing the carburettor . . .

    25.11 Rear engine lifting bracket location -SOHC models

  • Refitting52 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.53 Ensure that all mating faces are clean andrenew the gasket(s).54 Tighten the manifold securing nutsprogressively to the specified torque.55 Make sure that all hoses, pipes and wiresare correctly reconnected, and if the fuelsupply hose was originally secured with acrimped type clip, discard this and use a newworm drive clip on refitting.56 On completion, refill the cooling system,adjust the throttle cable and check and ifnecessary adjust the idle speed and mixture.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the air cleaner and pull the hot airpick-up pipe from the exhaust manifold hot airshroud.3 Remove the securing screws (1 screw onDOHC models, 2 screws on SOHC models, 3screws on CVH models) and lift the hot airshroud from the manifold. Note the position ofthe coolant hose bracket which is secured bythe front hot air shroud securing screw onSOHC models (see illustration).4 Unscrew the securing nuts, and disconnectthe exhaust downpipe from the manifold (seeillustration). Recover the gasket. Support theexhaust downpipe from underneath the

    vehicle, with an axle stand for example, toavoid placing unnecessary strain on theexhaust system.5 Disconnect the HT leads from the sparkplugs, if necessary identifying them forlocations, and place them to one side out ofthe way.6 Unscrew the eight securing nuts, noting thelocation of the front engine lifting bracketsecured by the front two nuts on SOHCmodels, and lift the manifold from the cylinderhead. Recover the gasket(s) where applicable(see illustrations).

    Refitting7 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following.8 Ensure that all mating faces are clean, andrenew all gaskets. Note that on CVH models,no gasket is fitted between the manifold and

    cylinder head in production, but a gasketmust be used when refitting. Whereapplicable, remove the plastic spacer from therear manifold stud before fitting the gasket(see illustrations).

    26 Exhaust manifold - removaland refitting

    Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A17

    4A

    26.6a Unscrew the exhaust manifoldsecuring nuts . . .

    26.8c Fitting the exhaust manifold - DOHC models

    26.8b Remove the plastic spacer (arrowed)before fitting exhaust manifold gasket -

    CVH models26.8a Exhaust manifold gaskets in position

    on cylinder head - DOHC models

    26.6d SOHC models have separatemanifold gaskets for each exhaust port

    26.6c . . . and lift off the exhaust manifold -SOHC models

    26.6b . . . noting the location of the frontengine bracket . . .

    26.4 Unscrewing an exhaust downpipesecuring nut

    26.3 Exhaust manifold hot air shroudshowing securing screws (1 and 3) and

    coolant hose clip (2) - SOHC models

  • 9 Tighten the manifold securing nutsprogressively to the specified torque, andsimilarly tighten the exhaust downpipesecuring nuts. Do not forget to fit the enginelifting bracket on SOHC models.10 Ensure that the HT leads are reconnectedto their correct cylinders.

    Inspection1 The exhaust system should be examined forleaks, damage, and security at regularintervals. To do this, apply the handbrake, thenstart the engine and allow it to idle. Lie down oneach side of the vehicle in turn and check thefull length of the exhaust system for leaks,while an assistant temporarily places a wad ofcloth over the tailpipe. If a leak is evident, stopthe engine and use a proprietary repair kit toseal it. If an excessive leak or damage isevident, renew the relevant section of theexhaust system. Check the rubber mountingsfor deterioration and renew if necessary.

    Removal2 To remove the exhaust system, jack up thefront and rear of the vehicle and support onaxle stands (see Jacking and VehicleSupport).3 If desired, the exhaust downpipe can beremoved independently of the remainder ofthe system, and similarly the main part of thesystem can be removed, leaving thedownpipe in place.4 To remove the downpipe, unscrew thesecuring nuts and disconnect the downpipefrom the manifold. Recover the gasket.Unscrew the two nuts and bolts, and separatethe downpipe flanged joint from the remainderof the system. Withdraw the downpipe (seeillustrations).5 To remove the main section of the exhaustsystem leaving the downpipe in place,unscrew the two securing nuts and bolts andseparate the flanged joint from the downpipe.Unhook the rubber mountings and withdrawthe system from underneath the vehicle. Thenumber and type of rubber mountings varies

    according to model (see illustrations). Ifnecessary to avoid confusion, note how themountings are fitted to enable correctrefitting. Note that on P100 models thesystem must be manipulated to pass over therear axle.

    Refitting6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but ensurethat all mating faces are clean, and fit a newgasket between the downpipe and manifold(see illustration). Do not fully tighten the joint

    27 Exhaust system - inspection,removal and refitting

    4A18 Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor

    27.4a Exhaust downpipe-to-manifoldflanged joint viewed from underneath

    vehicle

    27.5a Rear exhaust section mounting -Hatchback model

    27.9a Cutting point when fitting a service replacement exhaust system section - Saloon,Hatchback and Estate models

    X = 1639 mm for all models up to 1987 except 1.3 and 1.6 litre HatchbackX = 1681 mm for 1.3 and 1.6 litre Hatchback models up to 1987X = 2063 mm for all models from 1987

    27.6 Fit a new downpipe-to-manifoldgasket

    27.5b Rear exhaust mounting - P100 model

    27.4b Exhaust downpipe-to-main systemflanged joint

  • fittings until the system is in position andcorrectly aligned in its mountings under thevehicle. Ensure that no part of the exhaustsystem is closer than 25.0 mm (1.0 in) to theunderbody. 7 Service replacement exhaust systems areavailable in three sections; downpipe, centresection and rear section. The service replace-ment sections fit together using socket joints,therefore the centre section of a productionexhaust system cannot be renewed withoutalso renewing the rear section.8 To renew the centre and/or rear section(s)of the exhaust system, first remove the mainsystem as described in paragraph 5.

    9 To fit a service replacement rear section toa production system, use a hacksaw to cutthrough the pipe at the applicable pointshown (see illustrations). Apply exhaustsealant to the mating surfaces of the twosections, then push the two sections togetherand fit a U-bolt clamp to the centre of thejoint. Do not fully tighten the U-bolt clampnuts until the system is in position andcorrectly aligned in its mountings under thevehicle.10 To renew a service replacement section,unscrew the nuts and remove the U-boltclamp from the joint. Tap around the joint tobreak the seal, and separate the centre and

    rear sections. Ensure that the joint matingsurfaces are clean, then apply exhaustsealant, push the new section onto theremaining section, and fit the U-bolt clamp tothe centre of the joint. Do not fully tighten theU-bolt clamp nuts until the system is inposition and correctly aligned in its mountingsunder the vehicle.

    Refer to Chapter 5, Section 22 (seeillustration).

    28 Vacuum valves, ported vacuumswitches and fuel traps -removal and refitting

    Fuel and exhaust systems - carburettor 4A19

    4A

    28.1 Low vacuum enrichment ported vacuum switch location ininlet manifold - model with Weber 2V carburettor

    27.9b Cutting point when fitting a service replacement exhaustsystem section - P100 models

    X = 226 mm

  • 4A20 Notes

  • GeneralFuel tank capacity (all models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60.0 litres (13.1 gallons)Fuel octane rating:

    Leaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 RON (4-star)Unleaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 RON (Premium)

    *Models fitted with a catalytic converter must be operated on unleaded fuel at all times. Do not use leaded fuel in such models, as the catalyst willbe destroyed:System control pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 bar

    System type:2.0 litre SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch L-Jetronic2.0 litre DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-point fuel injection system, controlled by EEC IV engine

    management system1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central fuel injection (CFI) controlled by EEC IV engine management

    system

    Idle adjustmentsAll models except 2.0 litre DOHCIdle speed (dependent on idle speed adjustment wire):

    Manual gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 rpmAutomatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 rpm

    Idle mixture (CO content) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5 to 1.0%

    2.0 litre DOHCIdle speed (not adjustable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 + 50 rpmIdle mixture (CO content) - models without catalytic converter . . . . . . . 1.0 to 1.5%

    Chapter 4 Part B:Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection

    Air cleaner element - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Air cleaner - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Airflow meter - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Carbon canister (models with catalytic converter) - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Carbon canister-purge solenoid (models with catalytic converter) -

    removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34CFI unit (1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) - removal and refitting . . .19Electronic vacuum regulator (1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor (2.0 litre DOHC/1.6 & 1.8 litre

    (R6A type) CVH) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Exhaust gas recirculation valve (1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) - removal

    and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Exhaust manifold - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Exhaust pressure transducer (1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Exhaust system - inspection, removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37Fuel filter - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Fuel injector ballast resistor (1.6 litre CVH) - removal and refitting . .17Fuel injector (1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Fuel injectors - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Fuel level sender unit (2.0 litre SOHC) - removal and refitting . . . . . .11

    Fuel pressure regulator - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Fuel pump/fuel level sender unit (2.0 litre DOHC/1.6 & 1.8 litre (R6A

    type) CVH) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Fuel pump (2.0 litre SOHC) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Fuel pump - testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Fuel system (1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) - depressurisation . . . .4Fuel tank - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10General information and precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Idle speed and mixture - adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Idle speed control valve - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Inlet manifold - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Mixture adjustment potentiometer (2.0 litre DOHC) - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Pulse-air control solenoid (1.6 litre CVH) - removal and refitting . . . .23Pulse-air delivery tubing (1.6 litre CVH) - removal and refitting . . . . .22Pulse-air filter element (1.6 litre CVH) - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Pulse-air system vacuum-operated air valve (1.6 litre CVH) - removal

    and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Throttle body - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Throttle cable - removal, refitting and adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Throttle pedal - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Throttle position sensor - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Throttle valve control motor (1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) -

    removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

    4B1

    Specifications

    Contents

    4BEasy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ft2.0 litre SOHC modelsRefer to Chapter 4, Part A Specifications for items not listed hereFuel pressure regulator fuel feed union nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 to 20 11 to 15Fuel pressure regulator securing nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Fuel rail securing bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 10 6 to 7Idle speed control valve nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 10 6 to 72.0 litre DOHC modelsInlet manifold nuts and bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 24 15 to 18Exhaust manifold nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 25 15 to 18Exhaust gas oxygen sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 70 37 to 52Throttle body bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 11 7 to 8Fuel rail bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 26 15 to 19Idle speed control valve bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 11 7 to 8Fuel pressure regulator bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 12 7 to 9Fuel filter unions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 to 20 10 to 151.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH modelsInlet manifold nuts and bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15Exhaust manifold nuts:

    1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 to 17 10 to 131.8 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 27 15 to 20

    Exhaust downpipe-to-manifold nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 40 26 to 30CFI unit bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 11 7 to 8Exhaust gas oxygen sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 70 37 to 52EGR valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 30 15 to 22Fuel filter unions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 to 20 10 to 15Pulse-air tube unions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 to 35 21 to 26

    General information2.0 litre SOHC models

    The fuel injection system fitted to thesemodels is of the Bosch L-Jetronic type. Thesystem is under the overall control of an EECIV engine management system which alsocontrols the ignition timing.

    Fuel is supplied from the rear-mounted fueltank by an electric fuel pump mounted next tothe tank, via a pressure regulator, to the fuelrail. The fuel rail acts as a reservoir for the fourfuel injectors, which inject fuel into the cylinderinlet tracts, upstream of the inlet valves. Thefuel injectors receive an electrical pulse onceper crankshaft revolution, which operates allfour injectors simultaneously. The duration ofthe electrical pulse determines the quantity offuel injected, and pulse duration is computedby the EEC IV module on the basis ofinformation received from the various sensors.

    Inducted air passes from the air cleanerthrough a vane type airflow meter beforepassing to the cylinder inlet tracts via thethrottle valve. A flap in the vane airflow meteris deflected in proportion to the airflow; thisdeflection is converted into an electrical signaland passed to the EEC IV module. Anadjustable air bypass channel provides themeans of idle mixture adjustment.

    A throttle position sensor enables the EEC IVmodule to compute not only throttle position,but also its rate of change. Extra fuel can thusbe provided for acceleration when the throttleis opened suddenly. Information from thethrottle position sensor is also used to cut offfuel on the overrun, thus improving fuel

    economy and reducing exhaust gas emissions.Idle speed is controlled by a variable orifice

    solenoid valve which regulates the amount ofair bypassing the throttle valve. The valve iscontrolled by the EEC IV module; there is noprovision for adjustment of the idle speed.

    Additional sensors inform the EEC IVmodule of engine coolant and air temperature.On models fitted with automatic transmission,a sensor registers the change from P or Nto a drive position, and causes the idle speedto be adjusted accordingly to compensate forthe additional load. Similarly on models fittedwith air conditioning, a sensor registers whenthe compressor clutch is in operation.

    A limited operation strategy (LOS) meansthat the vehicle is still driveable, albeit atreduced power and efficiency, in the event ofa failure in the EEC IV module or its sensors.

    A fuel filter is incorporated in the fuel supplyline to ensure that the fuel supplied to theinjectors is clean.

    On models produced from mid-1986onwards, a fuel pump inertia cut-off switch isfitted. This switch breaks the electrical circuitto the fuel pump in the event of an accident orsimilar impact, cutting off the fuel supply tothe engine.

    2.0 litre DOHC modelsThe fuel injection system fitted to these

    models is under the overall control of an EECIV engine management system which alsocontrols the ignition timing.

    Fuel is supplied from the rear-mounted fueltank by an electric fuel pump, which is integralwith the fuel level sender unit mounted insidethe fuel tank. Fuel passes via a fuel filter and apressure regulator to the fuel rail. The fuel railacts as a reservoir for the four fuel injectors,which inject fuel into the cylinder inlet tracts,upstream of the inlet valves. The fuel injectors

    are operated in pairs by electrical pulsessupplied by the EEC IV module, and fuel isinjected by one pair of injectors every half-revolution of the crankshaft. The duration ofeach electrical pulse determines the quantity offuel injected, and pulse duration is computedby the EEC IV module on the basis ofinformation received from the various sensors.

    Inducted air passes through the air cleaner,and through a plenum chamber, beforepassing on to the cylinder inlet tracts via thethrottle valve and inlet manifold. The volumeof air entering the engine is calculated by theEEC IV module from information supplied byvarious sensors. These sensors include an aircharge temperature sensor mounted in theinlet manifold, which measures thetemperature of the air entering the engine; amanifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor,which measures the pressure of the airentering the engine; a throttle position sensor;and a crankshaft speed/position sensor,which supplies information on engine speedand provides a timing reference.

    Additional sensors inform the EEC IVmodule of fuel temperature, engine coolanttemperature, and vehicle speed (from agearbox-mounted sensor).

    Idle speed is controlled by a variable-orificesolenoid valve, which regulates the amount ofair bypassing the throttle valve. The valve iscontrolled by the EEC IV module; there is noprovision for direct adjustment of the idlespeed.

    On models without a catalytic converter,idle mixture adjustment is by means of apotentiometer connected directly to the EECIV module. On models with a catalyticconverter, an exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO)sensor enables the EEC IV module to controlthe fuel/air mixture to suit the operatingparameters of the catalytic converter; no

    1 General information andprecautions

    4B2 Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection

  • manual mixture adjustment is possible.On models with a catalytic converter, an

    evaporative emission control (EVAP) system isfitted. This prevents the release of fuel vapourinto the atmosphere. With the ignitionswitched off, vapours from the fuel tank arefed to a carbon canister, where they areabsorbed. When the engine is started, theEEC IV module opens a purge solenoid valve,and the fuel vapours are fed into the inletmanifold and mixed with fresh air. This cleansthe carbon filter. A blow-back valve preventsinlet air being forced back into the fuel tank.

    A fuel pump inertia switch is fitted. Thisswitch breaks the electrical circuit to the fuelpump in the event of an accident or similarimpact, cutting off the fuel supply to the engine.

    A limited operation strategy (LOS) meansthat the vehicle will still be driveable, albeit atreduced power and efficiency, in the event ofa failure in the EEC IV module or its sensors.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH modelsThe fuel injection system fitted to these

    models is under the overall control of an EECIV engine management system which alsocontrols the ignition timing.

    Fuel is supplied from the rear-mounted fueltank by an electric fuel pump which is integralwith the fuel level sender unit mounted insidethe fuel tank. Fuel passes via a fuel filter to theCentral Fuel Injection (CFI) unit. A fuelpressure regulator, mounted on the CFI unit,maintains a constant fuel pressure to the fuelinjector. Excess fuel is returned from theregulator to the tank.

    The CFI unit, resembling a carburettor,houses the throttle valve, throttle valve controlmotor, throttle position sensor, air chargetemperature sensor, fuel injector, andpressure regulator.

    The duration of the electrical pulse suppliedto the fuel injector determines the quantity offuel injected, and pulse duration is computedby the EEC IV module on the basis ofinformation received from the various sensors.The fuel injector receives a pulse twice percrankshaft revolution under normal operatingconditions, and once per crankshaftrevolution under engine idle conditions. Aballast resistor is used in the fuel injectorcontrol circuit on 1.6 litre engines.

    Inlet air passes through the air cleaner intothe CFI unit. The volume of air entering theengine is calculated by the EEC IV module frominformation supplied by various sensors. Thesesensors include the air charge temperaturesensor and throttle position sensor, mounted inthe CFI unit; a crankshaft speed/positionsensor which supplies information on enginespeed; and a manifold absolute pressure (MAP)sensor which measures the pressure of the airentering the engine.

    Additional sensors inform the EEC IV moduleof engine coolant temperature, and vehiclespeed (from a gearbox-mounted sensor).

    An exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensorenables the EEC IV module to control thefuel/air mixture to suit the operatingparameters of the catalytic converter. Nomanual mixture adjustment is possible.

    Idle speed is controlled by a throttle valve

    control motor, which controls the position ofthe throttle valve under conditions of idling,deceleration/part-throttle, and engine start-upand shut-down.

    On 1.6 litre engines, a pulse-air system isfitted to reduce the exhaust gas emissionsduring engine warm-up. The system is con-trolled by a vacuum-operated valve, which isoperated by the EEC IV module via a solenoid.The system introduces air into the exhaustmanifold to increase the exhaust gastemperature, which oxidises more of thepollutants, and brings the catalyst up toworking temperature more quickly. Thesystem operates until the catalyst reachesoperating temperature, when the controlsolenoid shuts off the system.

    On 1.8 litre engines, an exhaust gasrecirculation (EGR) system is used torecirculate a small amount of exhaust gas intothe inlet manifold. This process lowers thecombustion temperature, resulting in areduction of NOx (oxides of nitrogen)emissions. The EGR system is controlled bythe EEC IV module in conjunction with anElectronic Pressure Transducer (EPT) and anElectronic Vacuum Regulator (EVR).

    On certain models, an evaporative emissioncontrol system may be fitted. This preventsthe release of fuel vapour into theatmosphere. With the ignition switched off,vapours from the fuel tank are fed to a carboncanister, where they are absorbed. When theengine is started the EEC IV module opens apurge solenoid valve, and the fuel vapours arefed into the inlet manifold and mixed withfresh air. This cleans the carbon filter. A blow-back valve prevents inlet air being forcedback into the fuel tank.

    A fuel pump inertia switch is fitted. Thisswitch breaks the electrical circuit to the fuelpump in the event of an accident or similarimpact cutting off the fuel supply to the engine.

    A limited operation strategy (LOS) meansthat the vehicle will still be driveable, albeit atreduced power and efficiency, in the event ofa failure in the EEC IV module or its sensors.

    PrecautionsMany of the procedures in this Chapter

    require the removal of fuel lines andconnections which may result in some fuelspillage. Before carrying out any operation onthe fuel system refer to the precautions givenin Safety first! at the beginning of thisManual and follow them implicitly. Petrol is ahighly dangerous and volatile liquid and theprecautions necessary when handling itcannot be overstressed.

    Residual pressure will remain in the fuellines long after the vehicle was last used,therefore extra care must be taken whendisconnecting a fuel line hose. Loosen anyfuel hose slowly to avoid a sudden release ofpressure which may cause fuel spray. As anadded precaution place a rag over each unionas it is disconnected to catch any fuel which isforcibly expelled.

    Certain adjustment points in the fuel system(and elsewhere) are protected bytamperproof caps, plugs or seals. Thepurpose of such tamperproofing is to

    discourage, and to detent, adjustment byunqualified operators.

    In some EEC countries (though not yet inthe UK) it is an offence to drive a vehicle withmissing or broken tamperproof seals. Beforedisturbing a tamperproof seal, satisfy yourselfthat you will not be breaking local or nationalanti-pollution regulations by doing so. Fit anew seal when adjustment is complete whenthis is required by law.

    Do not break tamperproof seals on avehicle which is still under warranty.

    Catalytic converter - precautions The catalytic converter is a reliable and simpledevice which needs no maintenance in itself,but there are some facts of which an ownershould be aware if the converter is to functionproperly for the full service life.a) DO NOT use leaded petrol in a car

    equipped with a catalytic converter thelead will coat the precious metals,reducing their converting efficiency andwill eventually destroy the converter.

    b) Always keep the ignition and fuel systemswell-maintained in accordance with themanufacturers schedule, ensure that theair cleaner filter element, the fuel filter(where fitted) and the spark plugs arerenewed at the correct interval if the inletair/fuel mixture is allowed to become toorich due to neglect, the unburned surpluswill enter and burn in thecatalyticconverter, overheating the element andeventually destroying the converter.

    c) If the engine develops a misfire, do notdrive the car at all (or at least as little aspossible) until the fault is cured - themisfire will allow unburned fuel to enterthe converter, which will result inoverheating, as noted above.

    d) DO NOT push- or tow-start the car - thiswill soak the catalytic converter inunburned fuel, causing it to overheat whenthe engine does start - see b) above.

    e) DO NOT switch off the ignition at highengine speeds - if the ignition is switchedoff at anything above idle speed,unburned fuel will enter the (very hot)catalytic converter, with the possible riskof igniting on the element and damagingthe converter.

    f) DO NOT use fuel or engine oil additives -these may contain substances harmful tothe catalytic converter.

    g) DO NOT continue to use the car if theengine burns oil to the extent of leaving avisible trail of blue smoke - the unburnedcarbon deposits will clog the converterpassages and reduce the efficiency; insevere cases the element will overheat.

    h) Remember that the catalytic converteroperates at very high temperatures - hencethe heat shields on the cars underbodyand the casing will become hot enough toignite combustible materials which brushagainst it - DO NOT, therefore, park the carin dry undergrowth, over long grass orpiles of dead leaves.

    i) Remember that the catalytic converter isFRAGILE, do not strike it with tools duringservicing work, take great care when

    Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection 4B3

    4B

  • working on the exhaust system, ensurethat the converter is well clear of anyjacks or other lifting gear used to raise thecar and do not drive the car over roughground, road humps, etc., in such a wayas to ground the exhaust system.

    j) In some cases, particularly when the car isnew and/or is used for stop/start driving, asulphurous smell (like that of rotten eggs)may be noticed from the exhaust. This iscommon to many catalytic converter-equipped cars and seems to be due to thesmall amount of sulphur found in somepetrols reacting with hydrogen in theexhaust to produce hydrogen sulphide(H2S) gas; while this gas is toxic, it is notproduced in sufficient amounts to be aproblem. Once the car has covered a fewthousand miles the problem shoulddisappear - in the meanwhile a change ofdriving style or of the brand of petrol used may effect a solution.

    k) The catalytic converter, used on a well-maintained and well-driven car, shouldlast for between 50 000 and 100 000miles - from this point on, careful checksshould be made at all specified serviceintervals of the CO level to ensure that theconverter is still operating efficiently - ifthe converter is no longer effective it mustbe renewed.

    EEC IV module - warningFollowing disconnection of the battery, theinformation stored in the EEC IV modulememory will be erased. After reconnecting thebattery, the engine should be allowed to idle forthree minutes. Once the engine has reachednormal operating temperature, the idle speedshould be increased to 1200 rpm andmaintained for approximately 2 minutes, whichwill allow the module to re-learn the optimumidle values. It may be necessary to drive thevehicle in order for the module to re-learn thevalues under load. The module should completeits learning process after approximately 5 miles(8 kilometres) of varied driving.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 38.

    2.0 litre SOHC models1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Depress the locking clip on the airflowmeter wiring plug and disconnect the plug.Pull on the plug, not the wiring.3 Loosen the securing clip and disconnectthe air inlet hose from the airflow meter.4 Release the four securing clips and lift offthe air cleaner lid with the airflow meter.5 Remove the left-hand front wheel arch liner.6 Working under the wheel arch, unscrew thethree air cleaner securing nuts and washers.7 Disconnect the air inlet tube, and withdraw

    the air cleaner from the engine compartment.8 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    2.0 litre DOHC models9 Disconnect the battery negative lead.10 Disconnect the wiring plug from the idlespeed control valve at the front of the plenumchamber.11 Loosen the clamp, and detach the air inlethose from the air inlet tubing.12 Unscrew the securing nut, and release theair inlet tube from the bracket on the enginecompartment front panel.13 Release the air cleaner lid securing clips,then lift away the air inlet tube, plenumchamber and air cleaner lid as an assembly,disconnecting the breather hose from the airinlet tube.14 Lift out the air cleaner element then wipethe inside of the air cleaner lid and casing clean.15 Remove the left-hand front wheel arch liner.16 Working under the wheel arch, unscrew thethree air cleaner securing nuts and washers.17 Disconnect the air inlet tube, andwithdraw the air cleaner from the enginecompartment.18 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels 1.6 litre19 Remove the screws from the top of the aircleaner cover.20 Disconnect the cold air inlet hose from theair cleaner spout or the inlet on the front bodypanel. The hose is secured by toggle clips.21 Disconnect the hot air inlet hose from theair cleaner spout or the hot air shroud on theexhaust manifold.22 Where applicable, remove the screwsecuring the air cleaner body to the camshaftcover. 23 Withdraw the air cleaner and disconnectthe breather hose from the camshaft cover.24 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensurethe disturbed hoses are securely connected.

    1.8 litre25 Undo the two nuts, lift off the air cleanercover, and remove the element.

    26 Disconnect the engine breather hose andthe oil separator hose, then undo the threenuts and lift up the air cleaner casing (seeillustrations).27 Disconnect the yellow striped vacuumhose from the underside of the casing, detachthe air inlet hose, and remove the air cleanerassembly.28 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringall hoses are correctly attached.

    1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the air cleaner assembly.3 Position a suitable container (or a sufficientquantity of absorbent cloth) beneath the fuelinlet connection on the CFI unit.4 Use an open-ended spanner on the flats ofthe inlet union screwed into the CFI unit, toprevent it from turning while the inlet pipeunion is loosened (see illustration). Allow allpressure/fuel seepage to dissipate before fullyunscrewing the union if it is to bedisconnected, or tightened if another part ofthe system is to be worked on.

    4 Fuel system (1.6 and 1.8 litre(R6A type) CVH) - depressurisation

    3 Air cleaner - removal andrefitting

    2 Air cleaner element - renewal

    4B4 Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection

    3.26b Air cleaner casing attachments - 1.8litre (R6A) CVH

    A Casing retaining nuts (arrowed)B Vacuum hose (arrowed)

    3.26a Air cleaner cover and hoseattachments - 1.8 litre (R6A) CVH

    A Cover retaining nutsB Engine breather hoseC Oil separator hose

    Remember to depressurise thefuel system before loosening anyconnections.Refer to the precautions in

    Section 1 before proceeding. The fuelsystem will remain pressurised after theengine is switched off.

    4.4 CFI unit fuel inlet union (arrowed)

  • 5 The system will remain depressurised untilthe fuel pump is primed prior to starting theengine. Remove the container or cloth, asapplicable, on completion.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 41.

    2.0 litre SOHC models1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Slowly loosen the fuel feed union to relievethe pressure in the fuel lines. 3 Disconnect the fuel feed and return lines.Be prepared for petrol spillage.4 Disconnect the vacuum pipe from the topof the pressure regulator. 5 Unscrew the securing nut from the base ofthe pressure regulator and withdraw the unit(see illustration).6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but if thefuel return line was originally secured with acrimped type clip, discard this and use a newworm drive clip.7 On completion check the fuel lineconnections for leaks. Pressurise the system byswitching the ignition on and off several times.

    2.0 litre DOHC modelsNote: A new pressure regulator seal will berequired on refitting.8 Disconnect the battery negative lead.9 Slowly loosen the fuel rail fuel feed union torelieve the pressure in the system (seeillustration). Be prepared for fuel spillage,and take adequate fire precautions.10 Disconnect the fuel return hose from thepressure regulator (see illustration). Again,be prepared for fuel spillage.11 Disconnect the vacuum pipe from the topof the pressure regulator.12 Unscrew the two securing bolts, andwithdraw the regulator from the fuel rail.Recover the seal.

    13 Fit a new seal to the regulator, andlubricate with clean engine oil. 14 Fit both the securing bolts to theregulator, then position the regulator on thefuel rail, and tighten the securing bolts.15 Further refitting is a reversal of removal. Ifthe fuel return line was originally secured witha crimped-type clip, discard this, and use anew worm-drive clip.16 On completion, pressurise the system byswitching the ignition on and off several times,and check the fuel line connections for leaks.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels Note: On completion of refitting, the fuelsystem pressure should be checked by a Forddealer at the earliest opportunity.

    1.6 litre17 Remove the CFI unit.18 Remove the four screws securing theregulator housing to the CFI unit, thencarefully lift off the housing and recover theball, cup, large spring, diaphragm, valve, andsmall spring, noting the position andorientation of all components (seeillustration). Do not attempt to prise the plugfrom the regulator housing, or adjust the Allenscrew (if no plug is fitted); this will alter the fuelsystem pressure.19 Check all components, and renew anyfaulty items as necessary.20 Commence reassembly by supporting theCFI unit on its side, so that the regulatorcomponents can be fitted from above.

    6 Fuel pressure regulator -removal and refitting

    5 Fuel filter - renewal

    Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection 4B5

    4B

    6.9 Fuel rail fuel feed union (arrowed)

    6.10 Disconnecting the fuel return hose(arrowed) from the pressure regulator

    6.5 Withdrawing the fuel pressureregulator

    6.18 Exploded view of Central Fuel Injection (CFI) unit1.6 litre CVH engine application shown - 1.8 litre similar

    1 Fuel injector assembly2 Fuel pressure regulator

    components3 Fuel inlet connector4 Air charge temperature

    (ACT) sensor5 Throttle valve control

    motor6 Throttle position sensor7 Fuel injector wiring

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • 21 Fit the small spring, valve, diaphragm(ensuring that it locates correctly), largespring, and the spring cup.22 Carefully place the ball into position onthe spring cup, and ensure that it locatescorrectly.23 Refit the regulator housing, taking greatcare to avoid disturbing the ball, and oncecorrectly in position, tighten the screws evenlyto avoid distorting the diaphragm.24 Refit the CFI unit.25 On completion, the fuel system pressureshould be checked by a Ford dealer at theearliest opportunity.

    1.8 litre26 Disconnect the battery negative lead.27 Remove the air cleaner assembly.28 Depressurise the fuel system anddisconnect the fuel inlet pipe from the CFI unit(see illustration).29 Disconnect the fuel injector/regulatorwiring plug, and move the wiring harnessclear.30 Undo the four screws, and carefully lift theinjector/regulator assembly off the CFI unit.

    31 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Oncompletion, the fuel system pressure shouldbe checked by a Ford dealer at the earliestopportunity.

    1 If the fuel pump is functioning, it should bepossible to hear it buzzing by listeningunder the rear of the vehicle when the ignitionis switched on. Unless the engine is started,the fuel pump should switch off afterapproximately one second. If the noiseproduced is excessive, this may be due to afaulty fuel flow damper (not fitted to 2.0 litreDOHC models). The damper can be renewedby unscrewing it from the pump outlet union.2 If the pump appears to have failedcompletely, check the appropriate fuse andrelay, and where applicable check the state ofthe fuel pump inertia cut-off switch as follows.3 The inertia cut-off switch is fitted to allmodels from mid-1986 onwards, and can befound behind the passenger compartmentleft-hand side trim panel on Hatchback andEstate models up to the 1987 model year (seeillustration). The location of the switch for allother models is in the spare wheel well (seeillustration). The switch incorporates a resetbutton, which should normally be in thedepressed position. Check the position of thereset button before assuming that a faultexists in the fuel pump.4 To test the fuel pump, special equipment isrequired, and it is recommended that anysuspected faults are referred to a Ford dealer.

    Removal1 The fuel pump is located under the rear ofthe vehicle next to the fuel tank (seeillustration).2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Chock the front wheels, then jack up therear of the vehicle and support on axle stands(see Jacking and Vehicle Support).4 Clean the area around the pump mounting,and position a suitable container under thepump.5 Using a hose clamping tool or self-lockingpliers, clamp the fuel tank-to-pump hose toprevent excessive petrol spillage, or

    8 Fuel pump (2.0 litre SOHC) -removal and refitting

    7 Fuel pump - testing

    4B6 Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection

    7.3a Fuel pump inertia cut-off switch - pre-1987 SOHC Hatchback and Estate models

    A Activated mode (fuel cut-off)B Normal mode (fuel flowing)C Trim panel access hole

    8.1 Fuel pump location

    A Inlet hoseB Outlet hose

    C Electrical feedD Flow damper

    7.3b Fuel pump inertia cut-off switchlocation (arrowed) under spare wheel

    6.28 Fuel injector/pressure regulator attachments - 1.8 litre (R6A) CVH

    A Pressure regulator assemblyB Fuel inlet pipe

    C Injector/regulator wiring plugD Injector/regulator screws

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • alternatively make arrangements to collect thecontents of the fuel tank which will otherwisebe released. Disconnect the hose from thepump.6 Slowly loosen the fuel flow damper fitted tothe pump outlet union, to relieve the pressurein the fuel line, then remove the damper anddisconnect the outlet pipe from the pump.Plug the end of the pipe to prevent excessivepetrol spillage.7 Disconnect the wiring plug(s), then slackenthe clamp bolt and slide the pump from thebracket assembly.

    Refitting8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, noting thefollowing.9 When refitting the flow damper to the pumpensure that the pump outlet pipe is correctlyrouted (see illustration). It is possible toinadvertently rotate the banjo union through180, which routes the outlet pipe too close tothe exhaust.10 After refitting and securing the pump, butbefore lowering the vehicle, reconnect thebattery and switch the ignition on and offseveral times to pressurise the fuel system.Check for leaks around the pump; if all issatisfactory, switch off the ignition and lowerthe vehicle.

    1 Remove the fuel tank.2 Unscrew the fuel pump/fuel level senderunit by engaging two crossed screwdrivers inthe slots on either side of the unit mountingflange. Recover the seal.3 Refitting is a reversal of removal but fit anew seal.

    Refer to Chapter 4 Part A, Section 9.

    Refer to Chapter 4 Part A, Section 10.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Sections 15 and 16.

    Note: A new gasket must be used whenrefitting the valve.

    2.0 litre SOHC models1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Disconnect the idle speed control valvewiring plug by releasing the retaining clip andpulling on the plug, not the wiring (seeillustration).3 Unscrew the two retaining nuts andwithdraw the valve from the inlet manifold(see illustration). Recover the gasket.

    4 Clean the valve and manifold mating facesbefore refitting, taking care not to allow dirt toenter the manifold.5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, using anew gasket.6 On completion, start the engine and checkthat the idle speed is stable if not, check forair leaks around the valve. Switch on allavailable electrical loads and check that theidle speed is maintained - if not, suspect afaulty valve.

    2.0 litre DOHC models7 Disconnect the battery negative lead.8 Loosen the securing clip, and disconnectthe air inlet hose from the throttle body.9 Unscrew the securing nut, and release theair inlet tube from the bracket on the enginecompartment front panel.10 Disconnect the wiring plug from the idlespeed control valve.11 Release the air cleaner lid securing clipsthen remove the air inlet tube, plenumchamber, and air cleaner lid as an assembly,disconnecting the breather hose from the airinlet tube.12 Unscrew the two securing bolts, andwithdraw the valve from the air inlet tube.Recover the gasket (see illustration).13 Clean the valve and air inlet tube matingfaces before refitting, taking care not to allowdirt to enter the air inlet tube.14 Refitting is a reversal of removal, using anew gasket.15 On completion, start the engine andcheck that the idle speed is stable if not,check for air leaks around the valve. Switchon all available electrical loads, and checkthat the idle speed is maintained - if not,suspect a faulty valve.

    1 The potentiometer is located at the rearright-hand side of the engine compartment,behind the MAP sensor.2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Remove the screw, then withdraw thepotentiometer and disconnect the wiring plug.4 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    14 Mixture adjustmentpotentiometer (2.0 litreDOHC) - removal and refitting

    13 Idle speed control valve -removal and refitting

    12 Idle speed and mixture -adjustment

    11 Fuel level sender unit (2.0 litreSOHC) - removal and refitting

    10 Fuel tank - removal and refitting

    9 Fuel pump/fuel level senderunit (2.0 litre DOHC/1.6 & 1.8litre (R6A type) CVH) - removaland refitting

    Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection 4B7

    4B

    13.2 Disconnecting the idle speed controlvalve wiring plug

    13.12 Withdrawing the idle speed controlvalve and gasket

    13.3 Unscrewing an idle speed controlvalve retaining nut

    8.9 Correct and incorrect routing of fuelpump outlet pipe

    A Fuel pumpB Outlet pipeC Exhaust pipe

    X = 30.0 mm (1.2 in) Y = 100.0 mm (3.9 in)

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • Note: A tachometer and an exhaust gasanalyser will be required to check the idlemixture on completion.1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Depress the locking clip on the airflowmeter wiring plug and disconnect the plug.Pull on the plug, not the wiring.3 Loosen the securing clip and disconnectthe air inlet hose from the airflow meter.4 Release the four securing clips and lift offthe air cleaner lid with the airflow meter.5 Remove the four securing bolts andseparate the airflow meter from the air cleanerlid (see illustration). Recover the seal.6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the seal is correctly located on the aircleaner lid, and that the air inlet hose clip iscorrectly aligned (see illustration).

    7 On completion, check and if necessaryadjust the idle mixture.

    1.6 litreNote: New fuel injector seals must be used onrefitting.1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2 Remove the air cleaner.3 Depressurise the fuel system.4 Release the securing lugs, and disconnectthe fuel injector wiring plug (see illustration).5 Bend back the injector retaining collarsecuring bolt locktabs, then unscrew thebolts. Remove the injector retaining collar(see illustrations).6 Withdraw the injector from the CFI unit (seeillustration), noting its orientation, thenwithdraw the injector seals.7 Remove the seal from the injector retainingcollar (see illustration).8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, noting thefollowing points.9 Use new injector seals, and lubricate themwith clean engine oil before fitting.10 Ensure that the locating peg on theinjector is correctly positioned (seeillustration).

    1.8 litre11 On these engines, the fuel pressureregulator and injector are one assembly.Proceed as described for the fuel pressureregulator.

    1 The ballast resistor is located on the right-hand side of the engine compartment, and isonly fitted to 1.6 litre engines (seeillustration).2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Disconnect the ballast resistor wiringconnector, then remove the securing screw,and withdraw the ballast resistor from thebody panel. 4 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    17 Fuel injector ballast resistor(1.6 litre CVH) - removal andrefitting

    16 Fuel injector (1.6 and 1.8 litre(R6A type) CVH) - removal andrefitting

    15 Airflow meter - removal andrefitting

    4B8 Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection

    15.5 Airflow meter-to-air cleaner lid bolts(arrowed)

    16.4 Disconnecting the fuel injector wiringplug

    16.10 Align locating peg on injector withslot in CFI unit on refitting - 1.6 litre CVH

    16.7 Removing the seal from the injectorretaining collar

    16.6 Withdrawing the fuel injector

    16.5b Removing the injector retainingcollar

    16.5a Removing an injector retaining collarsecuring bolt and locktab

    15.6 Air intake hose clip correctly aligned

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • Note: A tachometer and an exhaust gasanalyser will be required to check the idlemixture on completion. New seals andretaining clips must be used when refitting theinjectors, and special grease will be required -see relevant paragraph. If the injectors arethought to be faulty, it may be worth trying theeffect of a fuel injector cleaning agent beforeremoving them.

    2.0 litre SOHC models1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Disconnect the crankcase ventilation hosefrom the air inlet hose, then disconnect the airinlet hose from the inlet manifold and theairflow meter.3 Disconnect the HT lead from the coil, thenremove the distributor cap and position thecap and HT leads clear of the fuel railassembly.4 Disconnect the wiring plugs from the idlespeed control valve, the throttle position sensorand the engine coolant temperature sensor.5 Remove the fuel pressure regulator.6 Unscrew the securing bolt and remove thethrottle return spring bracket. Disconnect thethrottle return spring.

    7 Disconnect the fuel supply hose from thefuel rail. Be prepared for petrol spillage.8 Disconnect the wiring plugs from the fuelinjectors, noting their locations for use whenrefitting.9 Remove the three securing bolts andwithdraw the fuel rail and fuel injectors fromthe inlet manifold as an assembly (seeillustrations).10 To remove a fuel injector from the fuel rail,remove the retaining clip and withdraw theinjector (see illustration).11 Overhaul of the fuel injectors is notpossible, as no spares are available. If faulty,an injector must be renewed.12 Commence refitting by fitting new seals toboth ends of each fuel injector. Even if onlyone injector has been removed, new sealsmust be fitted to all four injectors (seeillustration). Coat the seals with siliconegrease to Ford specification ESEM - ICI71 A.Similarly, renew all four fuel injector retainingclips.13 Further refitting is a reversal of removal,ensuring that all hoses, wiring plugs and leadsare correctly connected. When reconnectingthe air inlet hose, make sure that the hoseclips are correctly aligned - see illustration,Section 15.14 On completion, check and if necessaryadjust the idle mixture.

    2.0 litre DOHC models15 Disconnect the battery negative lead.16 If desired, to improve access, disconnect

    the wiring from the inlet air temperaturesensor in the inlet manifold. Similarly, thethrottle cable can be moved to one side bydisconnecting the cable from the throttlelinkage. The spark plug HT leads can bedisconnected and moved to one side, notingtheir locations and routing to aid refitting.17 Slowly loosen the fuel rail fuel feed unionto relieve the pressure in the system. Beprepared for fuel spillage, and take adequatefire precautions.18 Disconnect the fuel feed hose from thefuel rail (see illustration).19 Disconnect the fuel return hose from thefuel pressure regulator. Again, be prepared forfuel spillage.20 Disconnect the vacuum pipe from the topof the fuel pressure regulator.21 Disconnect the wiring plugs from the fueltemperature sensor and the fuel injectors,noting their locations to assist with refitting.22 Unscrew the two securing bolts, andwithdraw the fuel rail.23 Lift the fuel injectors from their locationsin the cylinder head (see illustration).24 Overhaul of the fuel injectors is notpossible, as no spares are available. If faulty,an injector must be renewed (refer to the noteat the start of this procedure beforecondemning an injector).25 Commence refitting by fitting new seals toboth ends of each fuel injector. It is advisableto fit new seals to all the injectors, even if onlyone has been removed. Lubricate the sealswith clean engine oil.

    18 Fuel injectors - removal andrefitting

    Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection 4B9

    4B

    18.9b . . . and rear securing bolts

    18.18 Disconnecting the fuel feed hosefrom the fuel rail

    18.12 Fuel injector with seals removed18.10 Fuel injector retaining clip (A)

    18.9a Fuel rail front securing bolt (arrowed) . . .

    17.1 Fuel injector ballast resistor location(arrowed)

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • 26 Further refitting is a reversal of removal,ensuring that all hoses, pipes and wiring plugsare correctly connected.27 On completion, where applicable, checkand if necessary adjust the idle mixture.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Remove the air cleaner assembly.3 Depressurise the fuel system anddisconnect the fuel inlet pipe from the CFI unit.4 Disconnect the fuel return pipe from the CFIunit. Be prepared for fuel spillage.5 Disconnect the throttle cable from thelinkage on the CFI unit.6 On 1.6 litre models, either partially drain thecooling system or clamp the coolant hoses asclose as possible to the CFI unit to minimisecoolant loss, then disconnect the hoses fromthe unit.7 Disconnect the wiring plugs for the throttleposition sensor, throttle valve control motor,fuel injector and, on 1.6 litre models, the aircharge temperature sensor.8 Disconnect the vacuum pipe from the CFIunit.

    9 Unscrew the four (1.6 litre), or three (1.8litre) securing bolts, and lift the CFI unit fromthe inlet manifold (see illustration). Recoverthe gasket.

    Refitting10 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.11 Ensure that all mating faces are clean, anduse a new gasket.12 Top-up the cooling system.13 On completion, turn the ignition on and offfive times to pressurise the system, and checkfor fuel leaks.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 37.

    1 The valve is mounted at the end of thepulse-air filter housing (see illustration).2 Disconnect the vacuum hose from the topof the valve, then loosen the hose clips ateither end of the valve, and remove the valve.Note the orientation of the arrow on the valvebody, which denotes the direction of flow.3 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the arrow on the valve body is orientatedas noted before removal.

    1 Remove the air cleaner assembly.2 Loosen the hose clips, and disconnect theair hoses from the check valves next to theexhaust manifold (see illustration).3 Remove the two bolts securing the checkvalve bracket to the exhaust manifold.4 Unscrew the unions securing the air tubesto the manifold, then carefully withdraw thetubing assembly, taking care not to distort thetubes (see illustration).5 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    1 The solenoid is located at the right-handside of the engine compartment.2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Disconnect the vacuum pipe connector fromthe pulse-air control solenoid (see illustration).4 Disconnect the solenoid wiring plug, pullingon the plug, not the wiring.5 Unscrew the securing screw, and withdrawthe solenoid from the body panel.6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the locating lug is correctly positioned,and noting that the vacuum pipes will only fitin one position.

    23 Pulse-air control solenoid(1.6 litre CVH) - removal andrefitting

    22 Pulse-air delivery tubing (1.6 litre CVH) - removal andrefitting

    21 Pulse-air system vacuum-operated air valve (1.6 litreCVH) - removal and refitting

    20 Pulse-air filter element (1.6 litreCVH) - renewal

    19 CFI unit (1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6Atype) CVH) - removal andrefitting

    4B10 Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection

    18.23 Lifting a fuel injector from thecylinder head

    21.1 Pulse air system vacuum-operated airvalve (arrowed)

    23.3 Disconnect the vacuum pipeconnector from the solenoid

    22.4 Unscrewing a pulse-air delivery tubeunion

    22.2 Pulse-air delivery check valves(arrowed)

    19.9 CFI unit securing bolts (arrowed) - 1.6 litre CVH

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding. A new gasket mustbe used on refitting.

  • 1 The EVR unit is located on the right-handside of the engine compartment, near thefront of the car.2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Disconnect the EVR wiring plug, anddetach the two vacuum hoses, noting theircorrect location for refitting.4 Undo the retaining screws, and remove theEVR unit from the car (see illustration). 5 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    Refer to Chapter 4 Part A, Section 11.

    Refer to Chapter 4 Part A, Section 12.

    Note: During this procedure ensure that thesensor wiper is not rotated beyond its normaloperating arc.

    2.0 litre SOHC models1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Free the throttle position sensor wiring plugfrom the retaining clip located on the undersideof the throttle body. Disconnect the wiring plughalves by releasing the locktabs and pulling onthe plug halves (see illustration).3 Bend back the locktabs and unscrew thetwo sensor retaining bolts (see illustration).Withdraw the locking plate and sensor fromthe throttle shaft.4 Refitting is a reverse of removal, ensuring thatthe moulded side of the sensor faces towardsthe inlet manifold. The flat on the sensor wiperengages with the flat on the throttle shaft.

    2.0 litre DOHC models5 Disconnect the battery negative lead.

    6 Free the throttle position sensor wiring plugfrom the retaining clip located on the undersideof the throttle body. Disconnect the wiring plughalves by releasing the locktabs and pulling onthe plug halves (see illustration).7 Unscrew the two sensor securing screws,and withdraw the sensor from the throttle shaft.8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, noting thatthe sensor fits with the wiring at the bottom.Ensure that the sensor actuating arm engagescorrectly with the throttle spindle.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels 9 Disconnect the battery negative lead.10 Remove the air cleaner.11 Unclip and disconnect the sensor wiringconnector, pulling on the plug, not on thewiring (see illustrations).12 Remove the two screws, and withdrawthe sensor from the throttle valve shaft.13 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butensure that the sensor actuating arm locatescorrectly on the throttle valve spindle.

    1.6 litre 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2 Remove the air cleaner.3 Disconnect the wiring connectors from thethrottle valve control motor, and the throttleposition sensor, pulling on the plugs, not onthe wiring (see illustration).

    28 Throttle valve control motor(1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)CVH) - removal and refitting

    27 Throttle position sensor -removal and refitting

    26 Throttle cable - removal, refittingand adjustment

    25 Throttle pedal - removal andrefitting24 Electronic vacuum regulator

    (1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) -removal and refitting

    Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection 4B11

    4B

    28.3 Throttle valve control motor (A) andwiring plug (B)

    27.11b Throttle position sensor location(arrowed) on CFI unit - 1.8 litre (R6A) CVH

    27.11a Throttle position sensor location(arrowed) on CFI unit - 1.6 litre CVH

    27.6 Throttle position sensor (A) and wiringplug (B)

    27.3 Unscrewing the throttle positionsensor retaining bolts

    27.2 Releasing locktabs to disconnectthrottle position sensor wiring plug halves

    24.4 Electronic vacuum regulator retainingscrews (arrowed) - 1.8 litre (R6A) CVH

  • 4 Remove the three screws securing themotor and the throttle position sensorassembly mounting bracket to the CFI unit,and withdraw the assembly.5 Remove the three motor securing screws,and withdraw the motor from the bracket.6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.7 Ensure that the throttle position sensoractuating arm locates correctly on the throttlevalve spindle, and that the mounting bracketaligns with its locating pegs.8 On completion, the idle speed should bechecked by a Ford dealer at the earliestopportunity.

    1.8 litre9 Disconnect the battery negative lead.10 Remove the air cleaner assembly.11 Disconnect the wiring connector from thethrottle valve control motor.12 Remove the three screws securing themotor and the mounting bracket to the CFIunit, and withdraw the assembly.13 Remove the three motor securing screws,and withdraw the motor from the bracket.14 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the motor is located on the throttlelinkage, and that the bracket and locatingpegs are aligned.

    Note: A tachometer and an exhaust gasanalyser will be required to check the idlemixture on completion. A new gasket must beused when refitting the throttle body.

    2.0 litre SOHC models 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Free the throttle position sensor wiring plugfrom the retaining clip on the underside of thethrottle body. Disconnect the wiring plughalves by releasing the locktabs and pullingon the plug halves, not the wiring. 3 Disconnect the throttle cable from the lever.4 Disconnect the crankcase ventilation hosefrom the air inlet hose, then disconnect the airinlet hose from the throttle body and theairflow meter.5 Remove the four securing bolts andwithdraw the throttle body from the inletmanifold. Recover the gasket.6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.7 Ensure that all mating faces are clean, andfit a new gasket.8 When reconnecting the air inlet hose, makesure that the hose clips are correctly aligned,see illustration, Section 15.9 On completion, adjust the throttle cable andcheck and if necessary adjust the idle mixture.

    2.0 litre DOHC models10 Disconnect the battery negative lead.11 Free the throttle position sensor wiringplug from the retaining clip located on theunderside of the throttle body. Disconnect the

    wiring plug halves by releasing the locktabsand pulling on the plug halves, not the wiring.12 Disconnect the throttle cable from thelinkage.13 Loosen the securing clip, and disconnectthe air inlet hose from the throttle body.14 Unscrew the four securing bolts, andwithdraw the throttle body from the inletmanifold. Recover the gasket.15 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.16 Ensure that the mating faces of thethrottle body and the inlet manifold are clean,and fit a new gasket.17 On completion, adjust the throttle cable.Where applicable, check and if necessaryadjust the idle mixture.

    Note: A tachometer and an exhaust gasanalyser will be required to check the idlemixture on completion. A new gasket must beused when refitting the manifold.

    2.0 litre SOHC models1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Partially drain the cooling system.3 Disconnect the crankcase ventilation hosefrom the air inlet hose. Disconnect the air inlet

    hose from the inlet manifold and the airflowmeter.4 Disconnect the HT lead from the coil, thenremove the distributor cap and position thecap and HT leads clear of the inlet manifoldassembly.5 Unscrew the two securing bolts and removethe throttle cable bracket (see illustration).Disconnect the cable end from the throttlelever, and move the bracket to one side.6 Disconnect the fuel injection harness wiringplugs at the bulkhead end of the manifold(see illustration).7 Disconnect the oil pressure warning lampswitch wire from below the manifold.8 Disconnect the fuel supply hose from thefuel rail. Loosen the union nut slowly to relievethe pressure in the fuel system, and beprepared for petrol spillage.9 Disconnect the fuel return hose from thefuel pressure regulator. Be prepared for fuelspillage.10 Disconnect the coolant hose and thebrake servo vacuum hose from the inletmanifold.11 Unscrew the two securing nuts andremove the bracing strut which runs from themanifold to the right-hand side of the cylinderhead (see illustration).12 Unscrew the two bolts securing the lowermanifold bracket to the left-hand side of thecylinder block (see illustration).13 Remove the four bolts and two nutssecuring the inlet manifold to the cylinderhead, and carefully withdraw the manifold. Ifthe distributor obstructs removal, extract thefront manifold stud by locking two nuts

    30 Inlet manifold - removal andrefitting

    29 Throttle body - removal andrefitting

    4B12 Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection

    30.5 Unscrew the securing bolts andremove the throttle cable bracket

    30.12 Lower inlet manifold bracket(arrowed)

    30.11 Unscrew the two securing nuts(arrowed) and remove the inlet manifold

    bracing strut

    30.6 Disconnecting a fuel injection harnesswiring plug

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1 beforeproceeding.

  • together and using them to unscrew the stud(see illustration). Alternatively, the distributorcan be removed, although this is notrecommended unless absolutely essential.Recover the gasket. Note that an earth strapmay be located on one of the manifoldsecuring bolts or studs; where applicable,note its location as an aid to refitting.14 With the manifold removed, the variousfuel injection system components can beseparated from the manifold with reference tothe relevant Sections of this Chapter.15 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.16 Renew the gasket, and apply a bead ofsealant at least 5.0 mm (0.2 in) wide aroundthe central coolant aperture on both sides ofthe gasket. Ensure that all mating faces areclean.

    17 Tighten the manifold securing nuts andbolts progressively to the specified torque,where applicable ensuring that the earth strapis in position.18 Make sure that all hoses, cables, wiresand leads are correctly reconnected. Whenreconnecting the air inlet hose, make sure thatthe hose clips are correctly aligned, seeillustration, Section 15.19 On completion, refill the cooling system,adjust the throttle cable and check and ifnecessary adjust the idle mixture.

    2.0 litre DOHC modelsNote: New fuel injector seals must be used onrefitting.20 Disconnect the battery negative lead.21 Partially drain the cooling system.22 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thethermostat housing and the inlet manifold.23 Disconnect the air inlet hose from thefront of the inlet manifold. 24 Disconnect the breather hoses and thevacuum hoses from the inlet manifold notingtheir locations when disconnecting the brakeservo vacuum hose.25 Disconnect the throttle cable from thethrottle linkage (see illustrations).26 Disconnect the HT leads from the sparkplugs, noting their locations to aid refitting,and move them to one side.27 Disconnect the wiring from the cooling fanswitch, the engine coolant temperaturesensor, and the temperature gauge sender.28 Release the throttle position sensor wiringconnector from the clip under the throttle body,and separate the two halves of the connector.29 Remove the fuel injectors.30 Check that all relevant wiring, hoses andpipes have been disconnected, to facilitateremoval of the manifold.31 Unscrew the ten bolts and two nutssecuring the inlet manifold to the cylinderhead, and carefully withdraw the manifold.Recover the gasket.32 Recover the two plastic spark plugspacers from the recesses in the cylinderhead (see illustration).33 If desired, the manifold can be dismantledwith reference to the relevant paragraphs ofthis Chapter.34 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.

    35 Ensure that the spark plug spacers are inposition in the cylinder head recesses beforerefitting the manifold.36 Renew all gaskets.37 Tighten all manifold securing nuts andbolts progressively to the specified torque.38 Make sure that all hoses, pipes and wiresare securely reconnected in their originalpositions.39 On completion, refill the cooling system.Check the adjustment of the throttle cableand if necessary adjust the idle speed andmixture (as applicable).

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels 40 Disconnect the battery negative lead.41 Remove the air cleaner assembly.42 Depressurise the fuel system anddisconnect the fuel inlet pipe from the CFI unit.43 Disconnect the fuel return pipe from theCFI unit. Be prepared for fuel spillage.44 Disconnect the throttle cable from thelinkage on the CFI unit.45 Partially drain the cooling system.46 Disconnect the coolant hoses from thethermostat housing and, where applicable,the CFI unit.47 Disconnect the vacuum and breatherhoses from the inlet manifold and the CFI unit,noting their locations.48 Disconnect the wiring from the followingcomponents, according to engine type.

    Air charge temperature sensor. Throttle position sensor. Fuel pressure regulator/injector. Throttle valve control motor. Engine coolant temperature sensor. Cooling fan switch. Temperature gauge sender.

    49 Unbolt the dipstick tube from the inletmanifold, and withdraw the dipstick anddipstick tube from the cylinder block.50 Make a final check to ensure that allrelevant wires, hoses and pipes have beendisconnected to facilitate removal of themanifold.51 Unscrew the seven nuts, or six securingnuts and the single bolt, securing the inletmanifold to the cylinder head, then lift themanifold from the cylinder head. Recover thegasket.52 If desired, the CFI unit can be removedfrom the inlet manifold.53 If necessary, the thermostat and housingcan be removed from the manifold.54 Refitting is a reversal of removal, notingthe following points. 55 Ensure that all mating faces are clean, andrenew all gaskets.56 Tighten the manifold nuts (and bolt, whereapplicable) progressively to the specifiedtorque.57 Make sure that all wires, hoses and pipesare reconnected as noted before removal.58 Top-up the cooling system.59 On completion, turn the ignition on and offfive times to pressurise the system, and checkfor fuel leaks.

    Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection 4B13

    4B

    30.25b . . . and the throttle linkage 30.32 Removing a spark plug spacer fromthe cylinder head recess

    30.25a Disconnect the throttle cable fromthe securing bracket . . .

    30.13 Where necessary use two nutslocked together (arrowed) to remove the

    front inlet manifold stud

  • 1 The EGR valve is located on the right-handside of the engine, below the CFI unit.2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Disconnect the vacuum hose connectingthe EGR valve to the electronic vacuumregulator (see illustration).4 Undo the nut securing the metal tube to theunderside of the valve. Undo the two bolts,and remove the valve from the engine.5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butloosely fit the metal tube securing nut to theEGR valve before fitting the valve in position.Tighten the nut securely on completion.

    1 The EPT unit is located on the right-handside of the engine, behind the CFI unit (seeillustration). 2 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 3 Remove the air cleaner assembly. 4 Disconnect the EPT wiring plug, and slipthe unit out of its mounting bracket. 5 Detach the vacuum hose, and remove theunit from the car. 6 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    2.0 litre DOHC models1 Where fitted, the carbon canister is locatedon the right-hand side of the enginecompartment, underneath the coolantexpansion tank.2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Pull the plastic pipe from the canister (theconnector is a push-fit in the canister) (seeillustration).4 Unscrew the securing bolt, and lift thecanister from its location. 5 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels 6 The carbon canister (where fitted) is locatedon the right-hand side of the enginecompartment. 7 Proceed as detailed in paragraphs 2 to 5inclusive.

    2.0 litre DOHC models1 The purge solenoid is located next to thecarbon canister, on the right-hand side of theengine compartment.2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Disconnect the solenoid wiring plug halvesby releasing the locktabs and pulling on theplug halves, not the wiring.

    34 Carbon canister-purgesolenoid (models withcatalytic converter) - removaland refitting

    33 Carbon canister (models withcatalytic converter) - removaland refitting

    32 Exhaust pressure transducer(1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) -removal and refitting

    31 Exhaust gas recirculationvalve (1.8 litre (R6A type)CVH) - removal and refitting

    4B14 Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection

    31.3 Exhaust gas recirculation valve attachments - 1.8 litre (R6A) CVH

    A Metal tube-to-EGR valveretaining nut

    B Vacuum hose

    C EGR valve retaining boltsD EGR valve metal tube location

    32.1 Exhaust pressure transducer attachments - 1.8 litre (R6A) CVH

    A Exhaust pressure transducer B Vacuum hose

    33.3 Carbon canister and purge solenoid locations - DOHC

    A Carbon canisterB Purge solenoid

    C Canister retaining boltD Pipe

  • 4 Note the locations of the two solenoidpipes, and the orientation of the solenoid, toassist with refitting.5 Disconnect the two pipes from thesolenoid, and withdraw the solenoid from itslocation.6 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Ensurethat the solenoid pipes are correctlyreconnected, and that the solenoid iscorrectly orientated, as noted before removal.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels 7 On 1.6 litre engines, the purge solenoid islocated to the rear of the carbon canister, onthe right-hand side of the enginecompartment. On 1.8 litre engines, thelocation varies according to model andequipment, but can be traced by following thesolenoid pipes back from the carbon canister(see illustration).8 Proceed as detailed in paragraphs 2 to 6inclusive.

    Note: Do not touch the tip of the HEGOsensor as this will drastically shorten itsservice life.Note: A new sealing ring should be used onrefitting.

    Removal1 Ensure that the engine and the exhaustsystem are cold. 2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Apply the handbrake, then jack up the frontof the vehicle, and support it securely on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).4 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug halvesby releasing the locktabs and pulling on theplug halves, not the wiring.5 Where fitted, slide the heat shield from thesensor (see illustration).6 Unscrew the sensor from the exhaustdownpipe, and recover the sealing ring. Donot touch the tip of the sensor if it is to berefitted.

    Refitting7 Commence refitting by ensuring that thesensor threads and the correspondingthreads in the downpipe are clean.8 Refit the sensor using a new sealing ring,and tighten it to the specified torque.9 Further refitting is a reversal of removal, buton completion start the engine, and check forleaks around the sensor sealing ring.

    2.0 litre SOHC models1 Refer to Chapter 4 Part A, Section 26, butnote the following points. 2 Ignore the references to removal andrefitting of the air cleaner and hot air pick-uppipe, and note that a heat shield is fitted inplace of the hot air shroud. 3 Note the location of the inlet manifoldbracing strut which is secured to one of themanifold studs by an extra nut.

    2.0 litre DOHC modelsNote: A new manifold gasket must be used onrefitting.4 Disconnect the battery negative lead.5 Disconnect the wiring plug from the idlespeed control valve at the front of the plenumchamber.6 Loosen the clamp, and detach the air inlethose from the air inlet tubing.7 Unscrew the securing nut, and release theair inlet tube from the bracket on the enginecompartment front panel.8 Release the air cleaner lid securing clips,then lift away the air inlet tube, plenumchamber and air cleaner lid as an assemblydisconnecting the breather hose from the airinlet tube.9 On models with a catalytic converter,disconnect the exhaust gas oxygen sensorwiring plug. 10 Unscrew the securing nuts, anddisconnect the exhaust downpipe from themanifold. Recover the gasket. Support theexhaust downpipe from underneath thevehicle (eg with an axle stand) to avoid placingunnecessary strain on the exhaust system. 11 Unscrew the six securing nuts, and lift themanifold from the cylinder head. Recover thegasket. 12 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points. 13 Ensure that all mating faces are clean, anduse a new gasket.14 Tighten the manifold securing nuts andthe downpipe securing nuts progressively tothe specified torque (where given).

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels Note. A new manifold gasket and downpipegaskets must be used on refitting.15 Disconnect the battery negative lead.

    16 Remove the air cleaner and, where fitted,pull the hot-air pick-up pipe from the exhaustmanifold hot-air shroud.17 On 1.6 litre engines, remove the pulse-airdelivery tubing.18 Remove the securing bolts, and withdrawthe hot-air shroud from the manifold.19 Disconnect the exhaust gas oxygensensor wiring plug. Unscrew the securingnuts, and disconnect the exhaust downpipefrom the manifold. Recover the gasket.Support the exhaust downpipe fromunderneath the vehicle (eg with an axle stand)to avoid placing unnecessary strain on theexhaust system.20 Unscrew the securing nuts, and lift themanifold from the cylinder head. Recover thegasket.21 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.22 Ensure that all mating faces are clean, andrenew all gaskets.23 Tighten the manifold securing nutsprogressively to the specified torque, andsimilarly tighten the exhaust downpipesecuring nuts.

    1 Refer to Chapter 4 Part A, Section 27.2 On all models except 2.0 litre SOHC,flanged joints incorporating gaskets may beused to join exhaust sections on certainmodels. Where applicable, renew the gasketson refitting.3 On models fitted with a catalytic converter,disconnect the battery negative lead anddisconnect the exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO)sensor wiring plug before removing thedownpipe.

    37 Exhaust system - inspection,removal and refitting

    36 Exhaust manifold - removaland refitting

    35 Exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO)sensor (2.0 litre DOHC/1.6 &1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH) -removal and refitting

    Fuel and exhaust systems - fuel injection 4B15

    4B

    35.5 Sliding the heat shield from theexhaust gas oxygen sensor

    34.7 Carbon canister-purge solenoidlocation (arrowed) - 1.6/1.8 litre (R6A) CVH

  • 4B16 Notes

  • System type1.3 litre models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch inductive discharge system1.6 litre models (except Economy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch inductive discharge system1.6 litre Economy models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESC system with Lucas Hall effect distributor1.6 litre CVH (R6A type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distributorless controlled by EEC IV system1.8 litre SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESC II system with Bosch Hall effect distributor1.8 litre CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESC Hybrid system1.8 litre CVH (R6A type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distributorless controlled by EEC IV system2.0 litre SOHC carburettor models up to 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch inductive discharge system2.0 litre SOHC carburettor models from 1985 (except P100) . . . . . . . . . ESC II system with Bosch Hall effect distributor2.0 litre DOHC carburettor models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESC II systemP100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch inductive discharge system2.0 litre SOHC fuel injection models up to 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EEC IV system with Motorcraft Hall effect distributor2.0 litre SOHC fuel injection models from 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EEC IV system with Bosch Hall effect distributor2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EEC IV system

    CoilAll models except CVH (R6A type) and 2.0 litre DOHCOutput (minimum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.0 kilovoltsPrimary winding resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.72 to 0.88 ohmSecondary winding resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4500 to 7000 ohms

    1.6 and 1.8 litre CVH (R6A type)Output (minimum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.0 kilovoltsPrimary winding resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.50 0.05 ohms

    2.0 litre DOHC carburettor modelOutput (minimum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.0 kilovoltsPrimary winding resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.72 to 0.88 ohmsSecondary winding resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4500 to 8600 ohms

    2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection modelOutput (minimum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.0 kilovoltsPrimary winding resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.72 to 0.88 ohmsSecondary resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4500 to 8600 ohms

    DistributorDirection of rotor arm rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ClockwiseFiring order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 3 - 4 - 2 (No 1 cylinder nearest timing cover)Dwell angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatically controlled by electronic module (not adjustable)

    Chapter 5Engine electrical systems

    Alternator - testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Alternator - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Alternator brushes - removal, inspection and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Alternator drivebelt(s) - checking, renewal and tensioning . . . . . . . . . .5Battery - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Battery - testing and charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Coil - testing, removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Distributor (OHC models) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Distributor cap and rotor arm (OHC models) - removal and refitting .13Distributor components (CVH models) - removal and refitting . . . . . .14EEC IV system components - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

    Electronic modules - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18ESC Hybrid system components - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . .20ESC II system components - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19General information and precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Ignition timing - adjustment for use with unleaded petrol . . . . . . . . .17Ignition timing (OHC models) - adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Starter motor - brush renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Starter motor - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Starter motor - testing in the vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Spark control system components - removal and refitting . . . . . . . .22Spark plugs and HT leads - removal, inspection and refitting . . . . . .11

    51

    Specifications

    Contents

    5

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • Ignition timing Leaded petrol Unleaded petrol(at idle with vacuum pipe disconnected) (4-star, 97 RON) (Premium, 95 RON)Early Economy models (800 rpm - vacuum pipe connected) . . . . . . . 16 BTDC 12 BTDC1.3 litre models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 BTDC 8 BTDC*1.6 litre models with VV carburettor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 BTDC 8 BTDC*1.6 litre models with 2V carburettor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 BTDC 6 BTDC1.8 litre SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 BTDC 6 BTDC1.8 litre CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESC Hybrid controlled, no adjustment possible2.0 litre carburettor models up to 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 BTDC 4 BTDC*2.0 litre carburettor models from 1985 (except P100) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 BTDC 6 BTDCP100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 BTDC 2 BTDC2.0 litre fuel injection models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 BTDC 8 BTDC*Fill with leaded petrol (4-star, 97 RON) every 4th tankfulNot all vehicles are suitable for continuous operation on unleaded petrol.

    Spark plugsMake and type:All models except 1.8 CVH, CVH (R6A), 2.0 DOHC and P100 . . . . . . . . Champion RF7YCC or RF7YC1.8 CVH engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RC7YCC or RC7YCP100 model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RF7YC or F7YC1.6 and 1.8 CVH (R6A type) and 2.0 DOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RC7YCC

    Electrode gap:Champion F7YCC or RC7YCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 mm (0.032 in)Champion RF7YC, F7YC or RC7YC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 mm (0.028 in)Note: The electrode gap above is the figure quoted by Champion for use with their recommended spark plugs. If plugs of any other type are fitted,refer to their manufacturers gap recommendations.

    HT leadsAll SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion LS-09 or LS-10 boxed set1.8 CVH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion LS-10 boxed set1.6 and 1.8 CVH (R6A type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion LS-30 boxed set2.0 DOHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion LS-29 boxed setMaximum resistance per lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 000 ohms

    AlternatorType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch, Lucas, Motorola, or MitsubishiRegulated output voltage at 4000 rpm (3 to 7 amp load) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 to 14.6 voltsMinimum brush length:

    All alternator types except Motorola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0 mm (0.20 in)Motorola type alternators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 mm (0.16 in)

    Starter motorType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre-engaged; Bosch, Cajavec, Lucas, or NippondensoMinimum brush length:

    All except Bosch long frame 1.1 kW and JF, and Nippondenso . . . . 8.0 mm (0.32 in)Bosch long frame 1.1 kW and JF, Nippondenso starter motors . . . . 10.0 mm (0.40 in)

    Battery charge condition:Poor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 voltsNormal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 voltsGood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 volts

    Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftSpark plugs:

    SOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 28 15 to 21CVH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 33 13 to 24DOHC models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 to 21 11 to 15

    Crankshaft speed/position sensor clamp bolt (ESC Hybrid system) . . . 4 to 7 3 to 5Crankshaft speed/position sensor screw (DOHC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 to 5 2 to 4Camshaft sprocket bolt (CVH models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 to 115 70 to 85Air charge temperature sensor (CVH-R6A and DOHC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Engine coolant temperature sensor (CVH-R6A and DOHC) . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Fuel temperature sensor (DOHC injection) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8Alternator adjustment bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 28 15 to 20Alternator mounting bolts:

    With coloured patch on threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 51 30 to 38Without coloured patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18

    52 Engine electrical systems

  • General informationThe electrical system is of the 12 volt

    negative earth type, and consists of a 12 voltbattery, alternator with integral voltageregulator, starter motor and related electricalaccessories, components and wiring. Thebattery is of the low maintenance ormaintenance-free sealed for life type and ischarged by an alternator which is belt-drivenfrom the crankshaft pulley. The starter motoris of the pre-engaged type, incorporating anintegral solenoid. On starting the solenoidmoves the drive pinion into engagement withthe flywheel ring gear before the starter motoris energised. Once the engine has started, aone-way clutch prevents the motor armaturebeing driven by the engine until the piniondisengages from the flywheel.

    The ignition system is responsible forigniting the air/fuel mixture in each cylinder atthe correct moment in relation to enginespeed and load. A number of different ignitionsystems are fitted to models within theSierra/P100 range, ranging from a basicbreakerless electronic system to a fullyintegrated engine management systemcontrolling ignition and fuel injection systems.

    The ignition system is based on feeding lowtension voltage from the battery to the coilwhere it is converted to high tension voltage.The high tension voltage is powerful enoughto jump the spark plug gap in the cylindersmany times a second under high compressionpressures, providing that the system is ingood condition. The low tension (or primary)circuit consists of the battery, the lead to theignition switch, the lead from the ignitionswitch to the low tension coil windings(terminal + /15) and also to the supply terminalon the electronic module, and the lead fromthe low tension coil windings (terminal - /1) tothe control terminal on the electronic module.The high tension (or secondary) circuitconsists of the high tension coil windings, theHT (high tension) lead from the coil to thedistributor cap, the rotor arm, the HT leads tothe spark plugs, and the spark plugs.

    The system functions in the followingmanner. Current flowing through the lowtension coil windings produces a magneticfield around the high tension windings. As theengine rotates, a sensor produces anelectrical impulse which is amplified in theelectronic module and used to switch off thelow tension circuit.

    The subsequent collapse of the magneticfield over the high tension windings produceshigh tension voltage which is then fed to therelevant spark plug via the distributor cap androtor arm. The low tension circuit isautomatically switched on again by theelectronic module, to allow the magnetic fieldto build up again before the firing of the nextspark plug. The ignition is advanced andretarded automatically to ensure that the

    spark occurs at the correct instant in relationto the engine speed and load.

    To improve driveability during warm-upconditions and to reduce exhaust emissionlevels, a vacuum-operated,temperature-sensitive spark control system isfitted to certain vehicles.

    Inductive discharge systemThis is the least sophisticated system fitted

    to the Sierra/P100 range, and comprises abreakerless distributor and an electronicswitching/amplifier module in addition to thecoil and spark plugs.

    The electrical impulse which is required toswitch off the low tension circuit is generatedby a magnetic trigger coil in the distributor. Atrigger wheel rotates within a magnetic stator,the magnetic field being provided by apermanent magnet. The magnetic field acrossthe two poles (stator arm and trigger wheel) isdependent on the air gap between the twopoles. When the air gap is at its minimum, thetrigger wheel arm is directly opposite thestator arm, and this is the trigger point. As themagnetic flux between the stator arm andtrigger wheel varies, a voltage is induced inthe trigger coil mounted below the triggerwheel, and this voltage is sensed and thenamplified by the electronic module and usedto switch off the low tension circuit. There isone trigger wheel arm and one stator arm foreach cylinder (4).

    The ignition advance is a function of thedistributor and is controlled both mechanicallyand by a vacuum operated system. Themechanical governor mechanism consists oftwo weights which move out from thedistributor shaft as the engine speed rises dueto centrifugal force. As they move outwards,they rotate the trigger wheel relative to thedistributor shaft and so advance the spark.The weights are held in position by two lightsprings and it is the tension of the springswhich is largely responsible for correct sparkadvancement.

    The vacuum control consists of adiaphragm, one side of which is connectedvia a small bore hose to the carburettor orinlet manifold and the other side to thedistributor. Depression in the inlet manifoldand/or carburettor, which varies with enginespeed and throttle position, causes thediaphragm to move, so moving the baseplateand advancing or retarding the spark. A finedegree of control is achieved by a spring inthe diaphragm assembly.

    ESC (Electronic Spark Control) systemThis system is only fitted to early

    Economy models, and comprises a Halleffect distributor, and an ESC module, inaddition to the coil and spark plugs.

    The electrical impulse which is required toswitch off the low tension circuit is generatedby a sensor in the distributor. A trigger vanerotates in the gap between a permanentmagnet and the sensor. The trigger vane hasfour cut-outs, one for each cylinder. Whenone of the trigger vane cut-outs is in line withthe sensor, magnetic flux can pass between

    the magnet and the sensor. When a triggervane segment is in line with the sensor, themagnetic flux is diverted through the triggervane away from the sensor. The sensorsenses the change in magnetic flux and sendsan impulse to the ESC module, whichswitches off the low tension circuit.

    The ignition advance is a function of theESC module and is controlled by vacuum. Themodule is connected to the inlet manifold by avacuum pipe, and a transducer in the moduletranslates the vacuum signal into electricalvoltage. From the vacuum signal, the ESCmodule determines engine load, and enginespeed is determined from the intervalbetween impulses supplied by the distributorsensor. The module has a range of sparkadvance settings stored in its memory, and asuitable setting is selected for the relevantengine speed and load. The degree ofadvance can thus be constantly varied to suitthe prevailing engine speed and loadconditions.

    ESC II (Electronic Spark Control II)system1.8 and 2.0 litre SOHC carburettor models

    This system is a development of the ESCsystem described previously in this Section,but it enables more accurate control of engineoperation due to the inclusion of additionalmonitoring features and control outputs.

    Vehicles fitted with the ESC II system have anelectric inlet manifold heater which warms theair/fuel mixture when the engine is cold, thusreducing the amount of fuel enrichmentrequired, lowering fuel consumption andimproving driveability when the engine is cold.The heater is operated by the ESC II modulereceiving information on the engine temperaturefrom an engine coolant temperature sensormounted in the inlet manifold.

    On 2.0 litre SOHC models, the ESC IImodule operates a carburettor stepper motorto control the engine idle speed. Usinginformation on engine speed, load,temperature and throttle position (supplied bya switch on the carburettor), the moduleoperates the stepper motor to maintain aconstant idle speed. On models equippedwith automatic transmission and/or airconditioning, additional inputs are supplied tothe module to allow it to operate the steppermotor to compensate for the additional engineload imposed by the automatictransmission/air conditioning. The ESC IImodule also operates a power hold relaywhich allows the stepper motor to functionbriefly after the ignition has been switched offin order to perform an anti-run-on andmanifold ventilation cycle.2.0 litre DOHC carburettor models

    A development of the ESC II system is usedto control the operation of the engine. Themodule receives information from acrankshaft speed/position sensor (similar tothat described for the ESC Hybrid system),except that the sensor is activated by atoothed disc on the rear of the crankshaft,inside the cylinder block), and an enginecoolant temperature sensor.

    1 General information andprecautions

    Engine electrical systems 53

    5

  • The ignition advance is a function of theESC II module, and is controlled by vacuum.The module is connected to the carburettorby a vacuum pipe, and a transducer in themodule translates the vacuum signal into anelectrical voltage. From the vacuum signal,the module determines engine load; enginespeed and temperature are determined fromthe crankshaft speed/position sensor and theengine coolant temperature sensor. Themodule has a range of spark advance settingsstored in its memory, and a suitable setting isselected for the relevant engine speed, loadand temperature. The degree of advance canthus be constantly varied to suit the prevailingengine speed and load conditions.

    ESC Hybrid (Electronic Spark ControlHybrid) system

    This system is fitted to 1.8 CVH models,and comprises various sensors and an ESCHybrid module, in addition to the coil andspark plugs. The distributor serves purely todistribute the HT voltage to the spark plugsand consists simply of a rotor arm mounteddirectly on the end of the camshaft, and adistributor cap.

    The electrical impulse which is required toswitch off the low tension circuit is generatedby a crankshaft speed/position sensor whichis activated by a toothed wheel on thecrankshaft. The toothed wheel has 35 equallyspaced teeth with a gap in the 36th position.The gap is used by the sensor to determinethe crankshaft position relative to TDC (topdead centre) of No 1 piston.

    Engine load information is supplied to theESC Hybrid module by a vacuum transducerwithin the module which is connected to theinlet manifold by a vacuum pipe. Additionalinputs are supplied by an inletmanifold-mounted engine coolant temperaturesensor, and an air charge temperature sensormounted in the base of the air cleaner. Themodule selects the optimum ignition advancesetting based on the information received fromthe various sensors. The degree of advancecan thus be constantly varied to suit theprevailing engine conditions.

    In addition to the ignition circuit, the modulealso controls an electric choke heater, and asolenoid valve which in turn controls a throttledamper on the carburettor. The electric chokeheater is operated by the module usinginformation supplied by the engine coolanttemperature sensor. The heater is used toslow down the rate at which the choke comesoff, thereby improving driveability and overallfuel consumption when the engine is cold. Thesolenoid valve controls the vacuum supply tothe carburettor throttle damper. The throttledamper prevents sudden closing of the throttleduring deceleration, thus maintainingcombustion of the air/fuel mixture whichreduces harmful exhaust gas emissions.

    Note that there is no provision foradjustment of ignition timing with the ESCHybrid system.

    EEC IV (Electronic Engine Control IV)system2.0 litre SOHC fuel injection models

    This system controls both the ignition andfuel injection systems. The EEC IV modulereceives information from a Hall effectdistributor sensor (similar to that describedpreviously in this Section for the ESC system),an engine coolant temperature sensormounted in the inlet manifold, a throttleposition sensor, and an air flow meter.

    Additionally, on models equipped withautomatic transmission and/or airconditioning, additional inputs are supplied tothe module to allow it to raise the idle speedto compensate for the additional engine loadimposed by the automatic transmission/airconditioning. The module provides outputs tocontrol the fuel pump, fuel injectors, idlespeed, and ignition circuit. Using the inputsfrom the various sensors, the EEC IV modulecomputes the optimum ignition advance, andfuel injector pulse duration to suit theprevailing engine conditions. This systemgives very accurate control of the engineunder all conditions, improving fuelconsumption and driveability, and reducingexhaust gas emissions. A limited operationstrategy (LOS) means that the vehicle is stilldriveable, albeit at reduced power andefficiency, in the event of a failure in themodule or its sensors.2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models

    A development of the EEC IV system isused to control both the ignition and fuelinjection systems. The module receivesinformation from a crankshaft speed/positionsensor (similar to that described for the ESCHybrid system), except that the sensor isactivated by a toothed disc on the rear of thecrankshaft, inside the cylinder block), athrottle position sensor, an engine coolanttemperature sensor, a fuel temperaturesensor, an air charge temperature sensor, amanifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor, anda vehicle speed sensor (mounted on thegearbox). Additionally, on models with acatalytic converter, an additional input issupplied to the EEC IV module from anexhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor. Onmodels with automatic transmission,additional sensors are fitted to thetransmission, to inform the EEC IV modulewhen the transmission is in neutral, and whenthe kickdown is being operated.

    The module provides outputs to control thefuel pump, fuel injectors, idle speed, ignitionsystem and automatic transmission.Additionally, on models with air conditioning,the EEC IV module disengages the airconditioning compressor clutch when startingthe engine, and when the engine is suddenlyaccelerated. On models fitted with a catalyticconverter, the EEC IV module also controlsthe carbon canister-purge solenoid valve.

    Using the inputs from the various sensors,the EEC IV module computes the optimumignition advance, and fuel injector pulseduration to suit the prevailing engineconditions. A limited operation strategy (LOS)

    means that the vehicle is still driveable, albeit atreduced power and efficiency, in the event of afailure in the module or one of its sensors.1.6 litre and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH models

    A development of the EEC IV system isused to control both the ignition and fuelinjection systems. A fully electronicDistributorless Ignition System (DIS) is fitted,replacing the mechanical distribution of hightension voltage (by a rotating distributor) withstatic solid-state electronic components.

    The system selects the most appropriateignition advance setting for the prevailingengine operating conditions from a three-dimensional map of values stored in the EECIV control module memory. The moduleselects the appropriate advance valueaccording to information supplied on engineload, speed, and operating temperature fromvarious sensors.

    The EEC IV module receives informationfrom a crankshaft speed/position sensor(similar to that described for the ESC Hybridsystem), except that on 1.6 litre engines, thesensor is activated by a toothed disc on theflywheel), a throttle position sensor, an enginecoolant temperature sensor, an air chargetemperature sensor, a manifold absolutepressure (MAP) sensor, a vehicle speedsensor (mounted on the gearbox), and anexhaust gas oxygen sensor.

    The module provides outputs to control thefuel pump, fuel injector, throttle valve controlmotor, pulse-air control solenoid, carboncanister purge solenoid (where applicable),and the ignition system.

    Using the inputs from the various sensors,the EEC IV module computes the optimumignition advance and fuel injector pulse dura-tion to suit the prevailing engine conditions. Alimited operation strategy (LOS) means thatthe vehicle will still be driveable, albeit atreduced power and efficiency, in the event ofa failure in the module or one of its sensors.

    PrecautionsGeneral

    It is necessary to take extra care whenworking on the electrical system to avoiddamage to semi-conductor devices (diodesand transistors), and to avoid the risk ofpersonal injury. In addition to the precautionsgiven in the Safety first! Section at thebeginning of this manual, take note of thefollowing points when working on the system.

    Always remove rings, watches, etc beforeworking on the electrical system. Even withthe battery disconnected, capacitivedischarge could occur if a component liveterminal is earthed through a metal object.This could cause a shock or nasty burn.

    Do not reverse the battery connections.Components such as the alternator or anyother having semi-conductor circuitry couldbe irreparably damaged.

    If the engine is being started using jumpleads and a slave battery, connect thebatteries positive to positive and negative tonegative. This also applies when connecting abattery charger.

    54 Engine electrical systems

  • Never disconnect the battery terminals, oralternator multi-plug connector, when theengine is running.

    The battery leads and alternator multi-plugmust be disconnected before carrying out anyelectric welding on the car.

    Never use an ohmmeter of the typeincorporating a hand cranked generator forcircuit or continuity testing.

    Ignition and engine managementsystems

    Engine management modules are verysensitive components, and certainprecautions must be taken to avoid damageto the module when working on a vehicleequipped with an engine management systemas follows.

    When carrying out welding operations onthe vehicle using electric welding equipment,the battery and alternator should bedisconnected.

    Although underbonnet-mounted modules(all except EEC IV) will tolerate normalunderbonnet conditions, they can beadversely affected by excess heat or moisture.If using welding equipment or pressurewashing equipment in the vicinity of themodule, take care not to direct heat, or jets ofwater or steam at the module. If this cannot beavoided, remove the module from the vehicle,and protect its wiring plug with a plastic bag.

    Before disconnecting any wiring, orremoving components, always ensure that theignition is switched off.

    On models with underbonnet-mountedmodules, do not run the engine with the moduledetached from the body panel, as the body actsas an effective heat sink, and the module maybe damaged due to internal overheating.

    Do not attempt to improvise fault diagnosisprocedures using a test lamp or multimeter,as irreparable damage could be caused to themodule.

    After working on ignition/enginemanagement system components, ensurethat all wiring is correctly reconnected beforereconnecting the battery or switching on theignition.

    On some early Bosch distributors it ispossible that with the distributor cap removed,if the engine is cranked, the cap securing clipsmay fall inward and jam the triggerwheel/vane, knocking it out of alignment. If thishappens, the distributor will have to berenewed as the trigger wheel/vane cannot berepositioned. Care should therefore be takennot to crank the engine with the distributor capremoved. Later distributors have redesignedclips which eliminate the problem.

    Removal1 The battery is located in the enginecompartment on the left-hand side of thebulkhead.2 Disconnect the leads at the negative (earth)terminal by unscrewing the retaining nut andremoving the bulb. Pull off the plastic cover,and disconnect the positive terminal leads inthe same way.3 Unscrew the clamp bolt sufficiently toenable the battery to be lifted from its location(see illustration). Keep the battery in anupright position to avoid spilling electrolyte onthe bodywork.

    Refitting4 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but smearpetroleum jelly on the terminals whenreconnecting the leads, and always connectthe positive lead first and the negative lead last.

    Testing

    Standard and low maintenance battery 1 If the vehicle covers a small annual mileageit is worthwhile checking the specific gravityof the electrolyte every three months todetermine the state of charge of the battery.Use a hydrometer to make the check andcompare the results with the following table.Ambient temperature:

    above 25C below 25CFully charged 1.21 to 1.23 1.27 to 1.2970% charged 1.17 to 1.19 1.23 to 1.25Fully discharged 1.05 to 1.07 1.11 to 1.13Note that the specific gravity readings assumean electrolyte temperature of 15C (60F); forevery 10C (50F) below 15C (60F) subtract0.007. For every 10C(50F) above 15C(60F)add 0.007.2 If the battery condition is suspect firstcheck the specific gravity of electrolyte ineach cell. A variation of 0.040 or morebetween any cells indicates loss of electrolyteor deterioration of the internal plates.3 If the specific gravity variation is 0.040 ormore, the battery should be renewed. If thecell variation is satisfactory but the battery isdischarged, it should be charged asdescribed later in this Section.

    Maintenance-free battery 4 In cases where a sealed-for-lifemaintenance-free battery is fitted, topping-upand testing of the electrolyte in each cell is notpossible. The condition of the battery cantherefore only be tested using a batterycondition indicator or a voltmeter.5 If testing the battery using a voltmeter,connect the voltmeter across the battery andcompare the result with those given in the

    Specifications under charge condition. Thetest is only accurate if the battery has notbeen subject to any kind of charge for theprevious six hours. If this is not the case,switch on the headlights for 30 seconds, thenwait four to five minutes before testing thebattery after switching off the headlights. Allother electrical components must be switchedoff, so check that the doors and tailgate arefully shut when making the test. 6 If the voltage reading is less than 12.2 volts,then the battery is discharged, whilst areading of 12.2 to 12.4 volts indicates apartially discharged condition.7 If the battery is to be charged, first removeit from the vehicle.

    Charging Standard and low maintenance battery8 Charge the battery at a rate of 3.5 to 4amps and continue to charge the battery atthis rate until no further rise in specific gravityis noted over a four hour period.9 Alternatively, a trickle charger charging at therate of 1.5 amps can be safely used overnight.10 Specially rapid boost charges which areclaimed to restore the power of the battery in1 to 2 hours are not recommended as theycan cause serious damage to the batteryplates through overheating.11 While charging the battery, note that thetemperature of the electrolyte should neverexceed 37.8C (100F).

    Maintenance-free battery 12 This battery type takes considerablylonger to fully recharge than the standardtype, the time taken being dependent on theextent of discharge, but it can take anythingup to three days.13 A constant voltage type charger isrequired, to be set, when connected, to 13.9to 14.9 volts with a charger current below 25amps. Using this method the battery shouldbe useable within three hours, giving a voltagereading of 12.5 volts, but this is for a partiallydischarged battery and, as mentioned, fullcharging can take considerably longer.14 If the battery is to be charged from a fullydischarged state (condition reading less than12.2 volts) have it recharged by your Forddealer or local automotive electrician as thecharge rate is higher and constant supervisionduring charging is necessary.

    3 Battery - testing and charging

    2 Battery - removal and refitting

    Engine electrical systems 55

    5

    2.3 Battery securing clamp and bolt

    Warning: The HT voltagegenerated by an electronicignition system is extremelyhigh, and in certain

    circumstances could prove fatal. Take careto avoid receiving electric shocks from theHT side of the ignition system. Do nothandle HT leads, or touch the distributoror coil when the engine is running. Iftracing faults in the HT circuit, use wellinsulated tools to manipulate live leads.

  • Removal1 Disconnect the battery leads.2 Disconnect the multi-plug, or disconnectthe wires from their terminals on the rear ofthe alternator, noting their locations (asapplicable), then slacken the mounting andadjustment bolts and tilt the alternatortowards the engine (see illustrations).3 Remove the drivebelt(s) from the alternatorpulley(s).4 Remove the mounting and adjustment nutsand bolts, and withdraw the alternator fromthe engine.

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, noting thefollowing points.6 To avoid breakage of the alternatormounting bracket lugs, it is important that thefollowing procedure is adhered to whenrefitting the mounting bolts.7 Always refit the large flat washer (A) (seeillustration).8 Earlier models (before 1985) also have asmall washer (B) which must be fitted betweenthe sliding bush and the mounting bracket.9 Ensure that the bushes and bolts areassembled as shown - except on 2.0 litreDOHC models where a through-bolt is used,then tension the drivebelt(s) and tighten themounting and adjustment bolts as shown inthe relevant illustration in Chapter 3.

    Refer to Chapter 1, Section 21.

    Note: To carry out the complete test procedureuse only the following test equipment - a 0 to20 volt moving coil voltmeter, a 0 to 100 ampmoving coil ammeter, and a rheostat rated at30 amps.1 Check that the battery is at least 70%charged by using a hydrometer.2 Check the drivebelt tension. 3 Check the security of the battery leads,alternator multi-plug, and interconnecting wire.

    Cable continuity check 4 Pull the multi-plug from the alternator andswitch on the ignition, being careful not to crankthe engine. Connect the voltmeter between agood earth and each of the terminals in themulti-plug in turn. If battery voltage is notindicated, there is an open circuit in the wiringwhich may be due to a blown ignition warninglight bulb if on the small terminal.

    Alternator output check5 Connect the voltmeter, ammeter andrheostat as shown (see illustration). Run theengine at 3000 rpm and switch on theheadlamps, heater blower and, where fitted,the heated rear window. Vary the resistance

    to increase the current and check that thealternator rated output is reached without thevoltage dropping below 13 volts.

    Charging circuit positive sidecheck 6 Connect the voltmeter as shown (seeillustration). Start the engine and switch onthe headlamps. Run the engine at 3000 rpmand check that the indicated voltage dropdoes not exceed 0.5 volt. A higher readingindicates a high resistance such as a dirtyconnection on the positive side of thecharging circuit.

    Charging circuit negative sidecheck7 Connect the voltmeter as shown (seeillustration). Start the engine and switch onthe headlamps. Run the engine at 3000 rpmand check that the indicated voltage dropdoes not exceed 0.25 volt. A higher readingindicates a high resistance such as a dirtyconnection on the negative side of thecharging circuit.

    Voltage regulator check8 Connect the voltmeter and ammeter asshown (see illustration). Run the engine at3000 rpm and when the ammeter records acurrent of 3 to 5 amps check that the voltmeterrecords 13.7 to 14.15 volts. If the result isoutside the limits the regulator is faulty.

    6 Alternator - testing

    5 Alternator drivebelt(s) - checking,renewal and tensioning

    4 Alternator - removal andrefitting

    56 Engine electrical systems

    4.2a Disconnecting the multi-plug from aBosch alternator

    4.7 Alternator mounting bracketarrangement

    A Large flat washerB Small flat washer (models up to 1985 only)C Mounting bracket (engine)D Mounting lugs (alternator)

    6.7 Alternator negative check circuit6.6 Alternator positive check circuit6.5 Alternator output test circuit

    4.2b Removing the insulating cap from themain wiring terminal on a Lucas A127

    alternator (CVH model)

  • 1 Remove the alternator.

    Bosch type2 Remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the regulator/brush box assemblyfrom the rear of the alternator (seeillustration).3 If the length of either brush is less than theminimum given in the Specifications, unsolderthe wiring and remove the brushes and thesprings (see illustration).4 Wipe the slip rings clean with a fuel-moistened cloth. If the rings are very dirty usefine glasspaper to clean them, then wipe withthe cloth (see illustration).

    5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but makesure that the brushes move freely in theirholders.

    Lucas A 115 and A 133 type6 Disconnect the wiring plug, then removethe securing screw and withdraw theinterference suppression capacitor from therear cover.7 Extract the two securing screws andremove the alternator rear cover.8 Make a careful note of the fitted positions ofthe regulator wires, then disconnect the wiresfrom the diode pack and the brush box.9 Remove the regulator securing screws andwithdraw the regulator. Note that the regulatorsecuring screw also holds one of the brushmounting plates in position. 10 Remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the brush box. Remove the securing

    screws and lift the brushes from the brush box.11 If the length of either brush is less than theminimum given in the Specifications, renewboth brushes. 12 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 4 and 5.

    Lucas A 127 type 13 Where applicable, for improved accessremove the terminal cover from the rear of thealternator, then remove the three screwssecuring the regulator/brush box assembly tothe rear of the alternator (see illustration).14 Tip the outside edge of the assemblyupwards, and withdraw it from its location.Disconnect the wiring plug and withdraw theassembly from the alternator (seeillustration). 15 If the length of either brush is less than theminimum given in the Specifications, thecomplete regulator/brush box assembly mustbe renewed (see illustration). 16 Proceed as described in paragraphs 4and 5 (see illustration).

    Motorola type 17 Remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the regulator. Disconnect theregulator wires after noting their locations. 18 Remove the single securing screw (35 and45 amp types) or two securing screws (55 and70 amp types) and carefully withdraw thebrush box.19 If the length of either brush is less than theminimum given in the Specifications, thebrush box must be renewed.20 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 4 and 5.

    7 Alternator brushes - removal,inspection and refitting

    Engine electrical systems 57

    5

    7.3 Compare the brush length with the figurein the Specifications - Bosch alternator

    7.16 Inspect the condition of the slip rings(arrowed) - Lucas A127 alternator

    7.15 Compare the brush length with thefigure given in the Specifications - Lucas

    A127 alternator

    7.14 Disconnect the wiring plug andwithdraw the regulator/brushbox - Lucas

    A127 alternator

    7.13 Removing the terminal cover from aLucas A127 alternator.

    7.4 Inspect the condition of the slip rings(arrowed) - Bosch alternator

    7.2 Withdrawing the regulator/brush boxfrom a Bosch alternator

    6.8 Alternator voltage regulator test circuit

  • Mitsubishi type21 Unscrew the pulley nut. To prevent theshaft rotating, insert an Allen key in the end ofthe shaft.22 Remove the spring washer, pulley, fan,spacer and dust shield.23 Scribe an alignment mark along the lengthof the alternator to facilitate reassembly of thedrive end housing, stator and rear housing.24 Unscrew the through-bolts and withdrawthe drive end housing from the rotor shaft.25 Remove the seal and spacer from therotor shaft.26 Remove the rotor from the rear housingand the stator. This may require theapplication of local heat to the rear housingusing a large soldering iron. Do not use a heatgun, as this may result in damage to thediodes.27 Unscrew the four securing bolts andwithdraw the diode pack stator assemblyfrom the rear housing.28 Unsolder the stator leads from the diodepack terminals. Use a pair of pliers whenunsoldering to act as a heat sink, otherwisedamage to the diodes may occur (seeillustration).29 If the length of either brush is less than theminimum given in the Specifications, thebrush box must be renewed.30 To renew the brush box, unsolder theconnection to the diode pack, and solder the

    connection to the new brush box. Use a pairof pliers as a heat sink to avoid damage to thediodes. 31 Examine the surfaces of the slip rings.Clean them with a fuel moistened cloth, or ifnecessary fine glasspaper and then the cloth. 32 Solder the stator leads to the diode packterminals, again using a pair of pliers as a heatsink.33 Refit the diode pack/stator assembly tothe rear housing and tighten the securingbolts.34 Insert a thin rod (an Allen key is ideal)through the hole in the rear housing to holdthe brushes in the retracted position.35 Fit the rotor to the rear housing and thenremove the temporary rod to release thebrushes.36 Reassemble the remaining componentsby reversing the dismantling operations. Makesure that the scribed marks are in alignment.

    Removal1 Apply the handbrake, jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Working underneath the vehicle, unscrew

    the nut and disconnect the main cable fromthe starter solenoid (see illustration). 4 Disconnect the ignition switch wire from thesolenoid. 5 Unscrew the three mounting bolts andwithdraw the starter motor from the gearboxbellhousing (see illustration).

    Refitting6 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    1 If the starter motor fails to operate firstcheck the condition of the battery.2 Check the security and condition of allrelevant wiring.

    Solenoid check3 Disconnect the battery negative lead and allleads from the solenoid.4 Connect a 3 watt test lamp and a 12 voltbattery between the starter terminal on thesolenoid and the solenoid body as shown(see illustration). The testlamp should light. Ifnot, there is an open circuit in the solenoidwindings.5 Now connect an 18 watt testlamp betweenboth solenoid terminals (see illustration),then energise the solenoid with a further leadto the spade terminal. The solenoid should beheard to operate and the testlamp shouldlight. Reconnect the solenoid wires.

    On load voltage check6 Connect a voltmeter across the batteryterminals, then disconnect the low tensionlead from the coil positive terminal andoperate the starter by turning the ignitionswitch. Note the reading on the voltmeterwhich should not be less than 10.5 volts.7 Now connect the voltmeter between thestarter motor terminal on the solenoid and thestarter motor body. With the coil low tensionlead still disconnected operate the starterand check that the recorded voltage is notmore than 1 volt lower than that noted inparagraph 6. If the voltage drop is more than1 volt a fault exists in the wiring from thebattery to the starter.

    9 Starter motor - testing in thevehicle

    8 Starter motor - removal andrefitting

    58 Engine electrical systems

    7.28 Stator-to-diode pack connections (A)and brushbox-to-diode pack terminal (B) -

    Mitsubishi alternator

    8.5 Unscrew the starter motor mountingbolts

    9.5 Starter motor solenoid continuity testcircuit

    A Battery terminalB Motor terminalC Spade terminal

    9.4 Starter motor solenoid winding testcircuit

    A Battery terminalB Motor terminalC Spade terminal

    8.3 Solenoid wiring connections on LucasM79 starter motor- CVH engine

  • 8 Connect the voltmeter between the batterypositive terminal and the terminal on thestarter motor. With the coil low tension leaddisconnected operate the starter for two orthree seconds. Battery voltage should beindicated initially, then dropping to less than 1volt. If the reading is more than 1 volt, there isa high resistance in the wiring from the batteryto the starter and the check in paragraph 9should be made. If the reading is less than 1volt proceed to paragraph 10.9 Connect the voltmeter between the twomain solenoid terminals and operate thestarter for two or three seconds. Batteryvoltage should be indicated initially, thendropping to less than 0.5 volt. If the reading ismore than 0.5 volt, the ignition switch andconnections may be faulty.10 Connect the voltmeter between thebattery negative terminal and the startermotor body, and operate the starter for two orthree seconds. A reading of less than 0.5 voltshould be recorded. If the reading is morethan 0.5 volt, there is a fault in the earthcircuit, and the earth connections to thebattery and body should be checked.

    Bosch long frame and JF, andCajavec types1 With the starter motor removed from thevehicle and cleaned, grip the unit in a vicefitted with soft jaw protectors.2 Remove the two screws securing thecommutator end housing cap, then removethe cap and rubber seal (see illustration).3 Wipe any grease from the armature shaft,and remove the C-clip, or E-clip, asapplicable, and shims from the end of theshaft (see illustrations).4 Unscrew the two nuts and remove thewashers, or remove the securing screws (asapplicable), then lift off the commutator endhousing (see illustrations).5 Carefully prise the thrust retaining springsfrom their locations, then slide the brushesfrom the brush plate.6 If the brushes have worn to less than thespecified minimum, renew them as a set. To

    renew the brushes, cut the leads at theirmidpoint and make a good soldered jointwhen connecting the new brushes.7 The commutator face should be clean andfree from burnt spots. Where necessaryburnish with fine glass paper (not emery) andwipe with a fuel-moistened cloth. 8 On starter motors where the commutatorend housing is secured by nuts and washers,position the brush plate over the end of thearmature, with the cut-outs in the brush platealigned with the end housing securing studs.9 On starter motors where the commutatorend housing is secured by screws, positionthe brush plate over the end of the armaturewith the cut-outs in the brush plate alignedwith the loops in the field windings (seeillustration). The brush plate will be positivelylocated when the commutator end housingscrews are fitted.10 Position the brushes in their respectivelocations in the brush plate, and fit the brushretaining springs.11 Guide the commutator end housing intoposition, at the same time sliding the rubberinsulator into the cut-out in the housing.Secure the commutator end housing with thenuts and washers or screws, as applicable.12 Fit sufficient shims to the end of thearmature shaft to eliminate endfloat when theC-clip or E-clip, as applicable is fitted, then fitthe clip. 13 Fit the armature shaft bearing seal to thecommutator end housing, then apply a littlelithium-based grease to the end of thearmature shaft and refit the end housing cap,securing with the two screws.

    Bosch short frame, EV and EFtypes14 To remove and refit the brush assembly,proceed as for the Bosch long frame exceptfor the following (see illustration):15 Release the brush holders complete withbrushes by pushing the brush holderstowards the commutator and unclipping themfrom the brush plate. Withdraw the brushplate.16 To renew the brushes, the leads must beunsoldered from the terminals on the brushplate, and the leads of the new brushes mustbe soldered to the terminals.17 To refit the brush assembly, position thebrush plate over the end of the armature shaft,then assemble the brush holders, brushes andsprings, ensuring that the brush holder clipsare securely located. The brush plate will be

    10 Starter motor - brush renewal

    Engine electrical systems 59

    5

    10.3b . . . and shims from the end of thearmature shaft - Bosch long frame starter

    motor

    10.9 Align the cut-outs in the brush plate(B) with the loops in the field windings (A) -

    Bosch long frame starter motor

    10.4b Commutator end housing removedto expose brush plate - Bosch long frame

    starter motor

    10.4a Remove the commutator endhousing securing screws - Bosch long

    frame starter motor

    10.3a Remove the C-clip . . .10.2 Remove the commutator end housingcap securing screws - Bosch long frame

    starter motor

  • positively located when the commutator endhousing screws are fitted.

    Bosch DM and DW types18 The procedure is basically as describedpreviously for the Bosch short frame and EFtype starter motors, except that a commutatorend plate is fitted in place of the end housing(see illustrations).

    Lucas 5M90 typeNote: New star clips must be obtained for thearmature shaft on reassembly19 With the starter motor removed from thevehicle and cleaned, grip the unit in a vicefitted with soft jaw protectors.20 Remove the plastic cap from the end ofthe armature shaft, then remove the star clipfrom the end of the shaft, using a chisel at anangle of 45 to the shaft to distort the prongs

    of the clip until it can be removed (seeillustrations).21 Unscrew the two securing nuts andremove the connector cable from the mainfeed terminal (see illustration).22 Extract the two commutator end platesecuring screws, and carefully tap the endplate to free it. Lift the end plate clear to allowaccess to the two field brushes. Disconnectthe two field brushes from the brush box toallow complete removal of the commutatorend plate. Take care not to damage thegasket as the end plate is removed.23 Remove the nut, washer and insulatorfrom the main terminal stud on thecommutator end plate, then push the studand the second insulator through the endplate and unhook the brushes.24 To remove the brush box, drill out therivets securing the brush box to the end plate,then remove the brush box and gasket.

    25 If the brushes have worn to less than thespecified minimum, renew them as a set. Torenew the brushes, cut the leads at theirmidpoint and make a good soldered jointwhen connecting the new brushes.26 The commutator face should be clean andfree from burnt spots. Where necessaryburnish with fine glass paper (not emery) andwipe with a fuel-moistened cloth. 27 Commence reassembly by positioning thebrush box gasket on the commutator endplate, then position the brush box on thegasket and rivet the brush box to the endplate. Use a new gasket if necessary. 28 Fit the main terminal stud and insulator tothe commutator end plate, then secure thestud with the remaining insulator, washer andnut. Fit the two brushes which are attached tothe terminal stud into their respectivelocations in the brush box.

    510 Engine electrical systems

    10.18a Bosch DM starter motor brush assembly

    1 Yoke2 Brush plate3 Commutator end housing4 Seal5 Shim

    6 C-clip7 Commutator end housing cap8 Securing screw9 Commutator end housing

    securing screw

    10.20a Remove the plastic cap from the end of the armature shaft . . .

    10.18b Bosch DW starter motor brush assembly

    1 Commutator end plate securing screw

    2 Commutator end plate cap3 C-clip

    4 Shim5 Commutator end plate6 Brush plate7 Yoke

    10.14 Bosch EV starter motor brush assembly

    1 Commutator end housing cap2 C-clip3 Shims4 Commutator end housing

    5 Brushes6 Brush plate7 Yoke8 Commutator end housing screw

  • 29 Fit the two field brushes into theirlocations in the brush box, then position thecommutator end plate on the yoke and fit thetwo securing screws.30 Fit a new star clip to the end of thearmature shaft, ensuring that the clip ispressed home firmly to eliminate any endfloatin the armature (see illustration). Fit theplastic cap over the end of the armature shaft.

    Lucas 8M90 type31 The procedure is basically as describedpreviously for the 5M90 type starter motorwith the following difference (see illustration):32 The commutator end plate is secured by twoscrews. The end plate and brush box are servicedas an assembly and should be renewed.

    Lucas M79 type 33 With the starter motor removed from thevehicle and cleaned, grip the unit in a vice

    fitted with soft jaw protectors.34 Unscrew the securing nut and washer anddisconnect the wiring from the solenoid terminal. 35 Remove the two screws securing thecommutator end housing cap. Remove the cap. 36 Remove the C-clip and spacers from theend of the armature shaft. 37 Remove the two commutator end housingsecuring screws and withdraw the endhousing.38 Separate the brush components (seeillustration).39 If the brushes have worn to less than thespecified minimum, renew them as a set. Torenew the brushes, cut the leads at theirmidpoint and make a good soldered jointwhen connecting the new brushes.40 The commutator face should be clean andfree from burnt spots. Where necessaryburnish with fine glass paper (not emery) andwipe with a fuel-moistened cloth.

    Engine electrical systems 511

    5

    10.38 Lucas M79 starter motor brush plate components

    A Brush plateB Brush plate insulatorC Brush holders and springs

    D BrushsE InsulatorsF Brush link

    10.31 Lucas 8M90 starter motor brush assembly

    1 Plastic cap2 Star clip3 Commutator end plate screw4 Commutator end plate5 Brush box

    6 Yoke7 Pole securing screw8 Solenoid connector link9 Pole shoe10 Field coils

    10.30 Use a soft faced hammer and socketto fit a new star clip to the end of the

    armature shaft - Lucas 5M90 starter motor

    10.20b . . . followed by the star clip - Lucas 5M90 startermotor

    10.21 Lucas 5M90 startermotor brush assembly

    1 Main terminal nuts andwashers

    2 Commutator end plate3 Brush box4 Brush spring5 Brushes6 Yoke7 Armature8 Thrustwasher9 Commutator end plate

    securing screw10 Bush11 Thrustplate12 Star clip13 Plastic cap

  • 41 Locate the brush box over thecommutator, position the brushes, then fit thenylon cover over the brushes. Route the brushwiring into the locating channel, then securethe brushes in the channels with the lockingclips and springs.42 Refit the commutator end housing,locating the rubber block in the cut-out in thehousing, then secure with the two screws.43 Refit the spacers and C-clip to the end ofthe armature shaft, then fit the commutator endhousing cap and secure with the two screws.44 Reconnect the wiring to the solenoidterminal and fit the washer and securing nut.

    Nippondenso type45 With the starter motor removed from thevehicle and cleaned, grip the unit in a vicefitted with soft jaw protectors.46 Unscrew the retaining nut and washer anddisconnect the wiring from the terminal on thesolenoid.47 Remove the two screws securing thecommutator end housing cap and remove thecap (see illustration).48 Remove the C-clip from the groove in thearmature shaft, and remove the spring.49 Unscrew the two bolts and washers, andwithdraw the commutator end housing.50 Withdraw the two field brushes from thebrush plate, then remove the brush plate.51 If the brushes have worn to less than thespecified minimum, renew them as a set. Torenew the brushes, cut the leads at theirmidpoint and make a good soldered jointwhen connecting the new brushes.52 The commutator face should be clean andfree from burnt spots. Where necessaryburnish with fine glass paper (not emery) andwipe with a fuel-moistened cloth.

    53 Position the brush plate over the end ofthe armature, aligning the cut-outs in thebrush plate with the loops in the fieldwindings. The brush plate will be positivelylocated when the commutator end housingbolts are fitted.54 Fit the brushes to their locations in thebrush plate, and retain with the springs.55 Fit the commutator end housing andsecure with the two bolts and washers.56 Fit the spring and the C-clip to the end ofthe armature shaft, then smear the end of theshaft with a little lithium-based grease, andrefit the commutator end housing cap,securing with the two screws.57 Reconnect the wiring to the solenoidterminal and fit the washer and retaining nut.

    Note: The correct functioning of the spark plugsis vital for the correct running and efficiency ofthe engine. It is essential that the plugs fitted areappropriate for the engine, and the suitable typeis specified at the beginning of this Chapter. Ifthis type is used and the engine is in goodcondition, the spark plugs should not needattention between scheduled replacementintervals. Spark plug cleaning is rarely necessaryand should not be attempted unless specialisedequipment is available as damage can easily becaused to the firing ends.

    Removal1 Where necessary, for improved accessremove the air cleaner and/or the inlet hose.2 If necessary, identify each HT lead forposition, so that the leads can be refitted to their

    correct cylinders, then disconnect the leadsfrom the plugs by pulling on the connectors, notthe leads. Note that the position of No 1 cylinderHT lead in the distributor cap is marked witheither a pip, or a number 1 .3 On 2.0 litre DOHC carburettor models, thelocation of the spark plugs and the closeproximity of the carburettor makes spark plugaccess difficult, particularly when removingthe plugs from cylinders 2 and 3. It issuggested that a 3/8 inch ratchet drive sparkplug socket with rubber insert and longextension bar is used, possibly in conjunctionwith a universal joint adapter. It is alsoadvisable to disconnect No 3 cylinder HT leadfrom the distributor first, to allow some slackfor disconnection at the spark plug. 4 Clean the area around each spark plugusing a small brush, then using a plugspanner (preferably with a rubber insert),unscrew and remove the plugs. Cover thespark plug holes with a clean rag to preventthe ingress of any foreign matter.

    Inspection5 The condition of the spark plugs will tellmuch about the overall condition of the engine.6 If the insulator nose of the spark plug is cleanand white, with no deposits, this is indicative ofa weak air/fuel mixture, or too hot a plug. (A hotplug transfers heat away from the electrodeslowly - a cold plug transfers it away quickly).7 If the tip and insulator nose is covered withhard black-looking deposits, then this isindicative that the mixture is too rich. Shouldthe plug be black and oily, then it is likely thatthe engine is fairly worn, as well as the mixturebeing too rich.8 If the insulator nose is covered with light tanto greyish brown deposits, then the mixture iscorrect and it is likely that the engine is ingood condition.9 The spark plug gap is of considerableimportance, as, if it is too large or too small,the size of the spark and its efficiency will beseriously impaired. The spark plug gap shouldbe set to the figure given in the Specificationsat the beginning of this Chapter. To set it,measure the gap with a feeler blade, and thenbend open, or close the outer plug electrodeuntil the correct gap is achieved (seeillustrations). The centre electrode shouldnever be bent as this may crack the insulationand cause plug failure, if nothing worse.

    11 Spark plugs and HT leads -removal, inspection andrefitting

    512 Engine electrical systems

    10.47 Nippondenso starter motor brush assembly

    1 Yoke2 Solenoid connecting link3 Pole shoe4 Rubber grommet5 Brush6 Brush spring7 Brush plate

    8 Commutator end housing9 Bush10 Spring11 C-clip12 Commutator end housing cap13 Commutator end housing securing

    bolt

    11.9a Measuring a spark plug gap using afeeler blade

  • 10 The distributor cap (except on 1.6 and 1.8litre CVH (R6A type) engines) and the HTleads should be cleaned and checked at thespecified intervals. To test the HT leads,remove them together with the distributorcap, then connect an ohmmeter to the end ofeach lead and its appropriate terminal withinthe cap in turn (see illustration). If theresistance of any lead is greater than themaximum given in the Specifications, checkthat the lead connection in the cap is goodbefore renewing the lead.

    Refitting11 Before fitting the spark plugs, check thatthe threaded connector sleeves are tight andthat the plug exterior surfaces are clean. Asthe plugs incorporate taper seats also makesure that the threads and seats are clean.12 On DOHC models before refitting the

    spark plugs, coat their threads with suitableantiseize compound, taking care not tocontaminate the electrodes.13 Screw in the spark plugs by hand, thentighten them to the specified torque. Do notexceed the torque figure.14 Push the HT leads firmly onto the sparkplugs, and where applicable refit the aircleaner and/or inlet hose.

    Testing

    All models except 1.6 and 1.8 litreCVH (R6A type)1 The coil is located on the left-hand side ofthe engine compartment and is retained by ametal strap (see illustration). It is of highoutput type and the HT tower should be keptclean at all times to prevent possible arcing.Bosch and Femsa coils are fitted withprotective plastic covers and Polmot coils arefitted with an internal fusible link.2 To ensure that the correct HT polarity at thespark plugs, the LT coil leads must always beconnected correctly. The black lead mustalways be connected to the terminal marked +115, and the green lead to the terminalmarked /1. Incorrect connections can causepoor starting, misfiring, and short spark pluglife.3 To test the coil first disconnect the LT andHT leads. Connect an ohmmeter between

    both LT terminals and check that the primarywinding resistance is as given in theSpecifications. Connect the ohmmeterbetween the HT terminal and either LTterminal and check that the secondarywinding resistance is as given in theSpecifications. If either winding resistance isnot as specified, the coil should be renewed.Reconnect the LT and HT leads oncompletion.

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels4 The coil fitted to these models is locatedtowards the front right-hand side of thecylinder block (see illustration).5 Testing of the coil should be entrusted to aFord dealer or a suitable specialist.

    Removal

    All models except 1.6 and 1.8 litreCVH (R6A type)6 Disconnect the battery negative lead,7 Disconnect the LT and HT leads from thecoil (see illustration).8 Remove the securing screw(s) and detachthe coil and strap assembly from the bodypanel. Note that on models with the ESCsystem, the coil strap is secured by the topESC module securing screw. On certainmodels with the ESC II or EEC IV systems, anoctane adjustment service lead may beconnected to one of the coil securing screws.On 2.0 litre DOHC fuel-injected models, thecoil/ignition module heat shield must beremoved for access to the coil securing bolts.The heat shield is secured by two screws.Note that on certain models, an earthing lead

    12 Coil - testing, removal andrefitting

    Engine electrical systems 513

    5

    11.10 Method of testing an HT lead with anohmmeter

    12.4 Ignition coil (A) and suppressor (B)viewed from under vehicle (shroud removed)

    12.7 Disconnecting the HT lead from thecoil

    12.1 Ignition coil - CVH model. Plasticcover arrowed

    11.9c Adjusting a spark plug gap using aspecial tool

    11.9b Measuring a spark plug gap using awire gauge

  • and/or a suppressor may be secured by oneof the coil securing bolts (see illustrations).

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels 9 Disconnect the battery negative lead.10 Remove the two securing screws, andwithdraw the plastic ignition module shroud.11 Disconnect the ignition coil wiring plugand, where fitted, the suppressor wiring plug,pulling on the plugs, not on the wiring (seeillustrations). 12 Release the securing lugs, and disconnectthe HT leads from the coil, noting theirlocations to aid refitting.13 Remove the four Torx screws, andwithdraw the coil from the cylinder block.

    Refitting14 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butensure that all leads are securely connected.

    SOHC models1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Where applicable, unclip the screening canfrom the top of the distributor and disconnectthe earth strap (see illustration).3 If necessary, identify each HT lead forposition, so that the leads can be refitted totheir correct cylinders, then disconnect theleads from the spark plugs by pulling on theconnectors, not the leads. Similarly,disconnect the HT lead from the coil. Whereapplicable, slide the HT lead holder from theclip on the camshaft cover (see illustration).

    Lucas distributors4 Remove the two securing screws and lift offthe distributor cap. 5 The rotor arm is a push-fit on the end of thedistributor shaft.6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, noting thatthe rotor arm can only be fitted in oneposition. Ensure that the HT leads arecorrectly connected.

    Bosch distributors7 Prise away the spring clips with ascrewdriver and lift off the distributor cap (seeillustration). On fuel injection models,disconnect the crankcase ventilation hosefrom the air inlet hose, then disconnect the airinlet hose from the inlet manifold and theairflow meter for improved access.

    8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, noting thatthe rotor arm can only be fitted in one position.Ensure that the HT leads are correctlyconnected, and on fuel injection modelsensure that the air inlet hose clips are correctlyaligned (refer to illustration, Section 15,Chapter 4, Part B).

    Motorcraft distributors9 For improved access, disconnect thecrankcase ventilation hose from the air inlethose, then disconnect the air inlet hose fromthe inlet manifold and the airflow meter forimproved access.10 Remove the two securing screws and liftoff the distributor cap (see illustration).11 Remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the rotor arm (disc) (seeillustration). Note that on some vehicles, therotor arm tip may be coated with siliconegrease to assist radio interferencesuppression. Do not attempt to clean thegrease off if it is present. If radio interference

    13 Distributor cap and rotor arm(OHC models) - removal andrefitting

    514 Engine electrical systems

    12.8a Ignition coil viewed with heat shieldremoved

    12.11a Disconnecting the coil wiring plug . . .

    13.10 Removing a distributor cap securingscrew - Motorcraft distributor

    13.7 Securing distributor cap with springclip - Bosch distributor

    13.3 HT lead holder on camshaft cover

    13.2 Unclipping the distributor screeningcan - Motorcraft distributor

    12.11b . . . and the suppressor wiring plug

    12.8b Suppressor secured by one of thecoil securing bolts

  • problems are experienced, consult a Forddealer or an in-car entertainment specialist.12 Proceed as described in paragraph 6, butadditionally ensure that the air inlet hose clipsare correctly aligned (refer to illustration,Section 15, Chapter 4, Part B).

    DOHC models13 Disconnect the battery negative lead.14 Unclip the lower section of the distributorshield from the upper section, then unscrewthe two securing nuts, and withdraw theupper section of the shield from the studs onthe upper timing chain cover (seeillustrations).15 If necessary, identify each HT lead forposition, so that the leads can be refitted totheir correct cylinders, then disconnect theleads from the spark plugs by pulling on the

    connectors, not the leads. Similarly,disconnect the HT lead from the coil, andrelease it from the clip on the timing chaincover.16 Using a suitable Torx key or socket,unscrew the two distributor cap securingscrews, then lift off the cap.17 The rotor arm is a push-fit on the end ofthe rotor shaft (see illustration).18 If desired, the rotor housing can be pulledfrom the timing chain cover.19 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the rotor arm is pushed fully home on therotor shaft. Make sure that the HT leads arefitted to their correct cylinders. Note that therotor arm will only fit in one position.

    1 The distributor fitted to the CVH engine isunlike any conventional distributor, in that ithas no main body and no adjustments arepossible. The distributor is used purely todistribute HT voltage to the spark plugs. Toremove the distributor components, proceedas follows.2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.

    Distributor cap3 Pull the two halves of the distributor capshroud apart and remove the shroud.Disconnect the earth strap from the tag on thetiming cover (see illustration).

    4 If necessary, identify each HT lead forposition, so that the leads can be refitted totheir correct cylinders, then disconnect theleads from the spark plugs by pulling on theconnectors, not the leads. Unclip the HT leadholders from their studs on the camshaftcover (see illustration).5 Depress the two securing screws and turnthem anti-clockwise through 90, then lift offthe distributor cap.6 Disconnect the HT lead from the coil bypulling on the connector not the lead, andremove the distributor cap.7 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but ensurethat the HT leads are fitted to their correctcylinders.

    Rotor arm and housing8 With the distributor cap removed asdescribed previously, compress the two lugson the rotor shaft and withdraw the rotor arm(see illustration). 9 The rotor housing can now be removed bypulling it from the timing cover (seeillustration).10 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but notethat the rotor arm can only be fitted in oneposition.

    Rotor shaft11 The rotor shaft is retained by the camshaftsprocket bolt.12 To remove and refit the rotor shaft, firstremove the timing cover and the camshaft

    14 Distributor components (CVHmodels) - removal and refitting

    Engine electrical systems 515

    5

    13.14b . . . and the upper section of thedistributor shield

    14.8 Removing the rotor arm14.4 HT lead holders (arrowed) oncamshaft cover

    14.3 Distributor cap shroud earth strapconnection

    13.17 Removing the distributor cap androtor arm

    13.14a Unclipping the lower section . . .13.11 Removing a rotor arm (disc) securingscrew - Motorcraft distributor

  • sprocket bolt. Note that there is no need toremove the timing belt or the sprockets.

    Note: During production the engine ignitiontiming is accurately set using a microwaveprocess, and sealant is applied to thedistributor clamp bolt. Removal of thedistributor should be avoided except whereexcessive bearing wear has occurred due tohigh mileage or during major engine overhaul.A timing light will be required to check theignition timing after refitting the distributor.

    All models except earlyEconomy

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 If necessary, identify each HT lead forposition, so that the leads can be refitted totheir correct cylinders, then disconnect theleads from the spark plugs by pulling on theconnectors, not the leads.3 Where applicable, unclip the screening canfrom the top of the distributor and disconnectthe earth strap. On fuel injection models,disconnect the crankcase ventilation hosefrom the air inlet hose, then disconnect the airinlet hose from the inlet manifold and theairflow meter for improved access.

    4 Prise away the spring clips with ascrewdriver, or remove the two securingscrews, as applicable, and lift off thedistributor cap.5 Disconnect the HT lead from the coil bypulling on the connector, not the lead, thenslide the HT lead holder from the clip on thecamshaft cover, and withdraw the distributorcap.6 Where applicable, disconnect the vacuumpipe from the vacuum advance unit on theside of the distributor (see illustration).7 Using a suitable socket or spanner on thecrankshaft pulley bolt, turn the crankshaft tobring No 1 cylinder to the firing point. If thedistributor cap is secured by clips, make surethat the clips stay clear of the distributor

    moving parts. No 1 cylinder is at the firingpoint when:a) The relevant timing marks are in

    alignment. b) The tip of the rotor arm is pointing to the

    position occupied by the No 1 cylinder HTlead terminal in the distributor cap. Notethat the position of No 1 HT lead terminalis identified by a pip or a number 1

    c) On Lucas distributors, the cut-out in thetrigger vane is aligned with the sensor(see illustration)

    d) On Bosch distributors, the tip of the rotorarm is aligned with the scribed line on thedistributor body (where applicable,remove rotor arm and dust cover, thenrefit rotor arm to check alignment withscribed line) (see illustration)

    e) On Motorcraft distributors, the tip of therotor arm is aligned with a notch in thedistributor body. Mark the relevant notch(there may be several) for reference whenrefitting. Also, the leading edge of one ofthe trigger vane segments is aligned withthe rib on the sensor (remove the twosecuring screws and lift off the rotor armto view the trigger vane and sensor) (seeillustration).

    8 Disconnect the distributor wiring plug,where applicable depressing the lockingtab(s). Pull on the plug, not the wiring (seeillustration).9 Make alignment marks between thedistributor body and the cylinder block.10 Scrape the sealant from the distributorclamp bolt, then unscrew and remove the boltand clamp (see illustration).11 Withdraw the distributor from the cylinderblock. As the distributor is removed, the rotorarm will turn clockwise due to the skew geardrive. Note the new position of the rotor armrelative to the distributor body, if necessarymaking an alignment mark (some distributorsalready have an alignment mark).12 Check the distributor spindle forexcessive side-to-side movement. If evident,the distributor must be renewed, as the onlyspares available are the cap, rotor arm,module (where applicable), and driveshaftO-ring (see illustration).

    15 Distributor (OHC models) -removal and refitting

    516 Engine electrical systems

    14.9 Removing the rotor housing

    15.7a Lucas distributor showing triggervane position No 1 cylinder at firing point

    A Trigger vane cut-out

    B Sensor

    15.8 Disconnecting distributor wiring plug- Bosch distributor

    15.7c Trigger vane segment leading edgealigned with sensor rib - Motorcraft

    distributor

    15.7b Rotor arm tip aligned with scribedline on distributor body - Bosch distributor

    15.6 Disconnecting vacuum pipe fromvacuum advance unit - Bosch distributor

  • Refitting13 Commence refitting by checking that No 1cylinder is still at the firing point. The relevanttiming marks should be aligned. If the enginehas been turned whilst the distributor hasbeen removed, check that No 1 cylinder is onits firing stroke by removing the No 1 cylinderspark plug and placing a finger over the plughole. Turn the crankshaft until compressioncan be felt, which indicates that No 1 piston isrising on its firing stroke. Continue turning thecrankshaft until the relevant timing marks arein alignment.14 Turn the rotor arm to the position noted inparagraph 11. If a new distributor is beingfitted, and no alignment marks are present,transfer the marks from the old distributor tothe new distributor.15 Hold the distributor directly over theaperture in the cylinder block with thepreviously made marks on the distributorbody and cylinder block aligned, then lowerthe distributor into position. Again, if a newdistributor is being fitted, transfer thealignment mark from the old distributor bodyto the new distributor body. As the skew geardrive meshes, the rotor arm will turnanti-clockwise.16 With the distributor fitted and the markson the distributor body and cylinder blockaligned, check that the rotor arm is positionedas described in paragraph 7 - if not, withdrawthe distributor, re-position the driveshaft andtry again.17 Refit the clamp, then insert and tightenthe bolt. Do not fully tighten the bolt at thisstage.18 Refit the distributor wiring plug, andwhere applicable reconnect the vacuum pipe,and refit the dust cover and/or rotor arm.19 Refit the distributor cap, and reconnectthe HT leads to the spark plugs and coil.Ensure that the leads are refitted to theircorrect cylinders.20 Where applicable, refit the screening canto the top of the distributor and reconnect theearth strap. On fuel injection models,reconnect the air inlet hose, ensuring that theclips are correctly aligned (refer to illustration,Section 15, Chapter 4, Part B).

    21 Reconnect the battery negative lead.22 Check and if necessary adjust the ignitiontiming.

    Early Economy models

    Removal23 Removal of the distributor fitted to thesemodels is a similar process to that describedabove.

    Refitting24 Turn the crankshaft to bring No 1 cylinderto the firing point, with the 16 BTDC mark onthe crankshaft pulley aligned with the pointeron the crankshaft front oil seal housing, asdescribed above.25 Fit the new distributor to the engine asdescribed above, then proceed as follows.26 Cut the original distributor wiring plugfrom the wiring loom. Make the cut close tothe connector.27 Strip back 10 mm of insulation from eachof the wires on the wiring loom, and on theadapter loom supplied with the newdistributor.28 Solder the adapter loom wires to thecorresponding identically coloured wires inthe main loom.29 Carefully insulate each individual solderedjoint using insulating tape, then apply tape tocover the join between the looms.30 Fit a new distributor cap (and screeningcan, where applicable), and connect the HTleads.

    31 Connect the adapter loom to thedistributor.32 Start the engine, and adjust the ignitiontiming to the value given in the Specificationsat the beginning of this Chapter. Work asdescribed above whilst noting that thevacuum pipe must be left connected.

    Note: During production the ignition timing isaccurately set using a microwave process,and sealant is applied to the distributor clampbolt. Because the electronic componentsrequire no maintenance, checking the ignitiontiming does not constitute part of the routinemaintenance schedule, and the procedure istherefore only necessary after removal andrefitting of the distributor. A timing light will berequired for this procedure. For details ofignition timing adjustment in order to operatevehicles on unleaded petrol refer to theappropriate Section of this Chapter.

    All models except 2.0 litre DOHC1 Before checking the ignition timing, thefollowing conditions must be met:a) The engine must be at normal operating

    temperatureb) Where applicable, the vacuum pipe to the

    distributor vacuum unit or electronicmodule (as applicable) must bedisconnected from the vacuum unit orelectronic module and plugged

    c) The idle speed must be below 900 rpm(isolate idle speed adjustment wire ifnecessary)

    d) Any earthed octane adjustment wiresmust be temporarily isolated

    2 Wipe clean the crankshaft pulley timingmarks and the pointer on the crankshaft frontoil seal housing. Note that two alternativetypes of pulley may be fitted (seeillustration). The desired timing values aregiven in the Specifications. If necessary, usewhite paint or chalk to highlight the relevanttiming mark(s) (see illustration).3 Connect a stroboscope timing light to theNo 1 cylinder HT lead, following themanufacturers instructions.4 With the engine idling at normal operatingtemperature, point the timing light at themarks on the crankshaft pulley, and checkthat the appropriate timing mark appearsstationary in line with the timing cover pointer.Take care not to get the timing light leads,clothing etc tangled in the cooling fan bladesor other moving parts of the engine.5 If adjustment is necessary, stop the engine,slacken the distributor clamp bolt, and turnthe distributor body slightly. Turn thedistributor body clockwise to retard theignition timing (move the timing closer to TDC)and anti-clockwise to advance the timing.

    16 Ignition timing (OHC models)- adjustment

    Engine electrical systems 517

    5

    15.12 Removing distributor driveshaft O-ring - Motorcraft distributor

    15.10 Unscrewing distributor clamp bolt -Bosch distributor

    16.2a Highlighted timing marks - SOHCengine with cast crankshaft pulley

  • Note that the required distributor bodymovement will be half of the requiredcrankshaft movement (ie an adjustment of 5in ignition timing will require the distributorbody to be turned 2. Tighten the clamp boltand re-check the timing.6 On models with inductive discharge ignitionsystems, the mechanical and vacuumadvance mechanisms can be checked asfollows. On all other models, proceed toparagraph 10.7 With the engine idling, timing lightconnected, and vacuum pipe disconnected asdescribed in the preceding paragraphs,increase the engine speed to approximately2000 rpm (if desired, connect a tachometer tothe engine in accordance with themanufacturers instructions). Note theapproximate distance which the relevant pulleymark moves out of alignment with the pointer.8 Reconnect the vacuum pipe to thedistributor or electronic module, asapplicable, and repeat the procedure given inthe previous paragraph, when for the sameincrease in engine speed, the alignmentdifferential between the pulley mark andpointer should be greater than previouslyobserved.9 If the pulley mark does not appear to moveduring the first part of the check, a fault in thedistributor mechanical advance mechanism isindicated. No increased movement of themark during the second part of the checkindicates a punctured diaphragm in thedistributor vacuum unit, or a leak in thevacuum line.10 On completion of the adjustments andchecks, stop the engine and disconnect thetiming light. Where applicable, reconnect thevacuum pipe, if not already done, andreconnect any octane adjustment and idlespeed adjustment wires. Make a final checkto ensure that the distributor clamp bolt istight.11 Finally, the idle speed and mixture shouldbe checked and adjusted.

    2.0 litre DOHC carburettor model12 The ignition timing is controlled by theESC II module, and no adjustment is possible.

    2.0 litre DOHC fuel injectionmodel13 The ignition timing is controlled by theEEC IV module, and no adjustment ispossible.

    Note: Refer to the Specifications Section atthe beginning of this Chapter for ignitiontiming values for use with unleaded petrol.1 To run an engine on unleaded petrol,certain criteria must be met, and it may behelpful to first describe the various terms usedfor the different types of petrol:

    Normal leaded petrol (4-star, 97 RON):Petrol which has a low amount of lead addedduring manufacture (0.15 g/litre), in addition tothe natural lead found in crude oil.

    Unleaded petrol (Premium, 95 RON):Has no lead added during manufacture, butstill has the natural lead content of crude oil.

    Lead free petrol: Contains no lead. It hasno lead added during manufacture, and thenatural lead content is refined out. T h i stype of petrol is not currently available forgeneral use in the UK and should not beconfused with unleaded petrol.2 To run an engine continuously on unleadedpetrol, suitable hardened valve seat insertsmust be fitted to the cylinder head.3 The OHC engines fitted to the Sierra/P100range which have suitable valve seat insertsfitted at manufacture can be identified byletters stamped on the cylinder head next toNo 4 spark plug as follows:

    1.6 litre engines M, MM, N, or NN1.6 litre engines S or SS2.0 litre engines L, P, PP, R, or RR

    4 All CVH engines have suitable valve seatinserts fitted.5 Vehicles which have no identification letterstamped on the cylinder head, and are notfitted with suitable valve seat inserts, may stillbe run on unleaded petrol (althoughcontinuous use is not recommended),provided that every fourth tank filling is ofnormal leaded petrol, ie: three tanks ofunleaded petrol followed by one tank ofnormal leaded petrol.6 When running an OHC engine on unleadedpetrol (Premium, 95 RON), the ignition timingmust be retarded as described in thefollowing sub-Sections. There is norequirement for ignition timing adjustmentwhen running CVH engines on unleadedpetrol.

    Inductive discharge ignitionsystem and ESC system7 On vehicles fitted with an inductivedischarge ignition system, or the ESC system,the ignition timing should be retarded asspecified.

    ESC II and EEC IV systems8 On vehicles fitted with the ESC II or EEC IVsystems, there is a facility for retarding theignition timing without physically disturbingthe distributor.9 Adjustment is made by earthing one or twowires (octane adjustment wires) whichterminate in a wiring plug next to the ignitioncoil. Ideally a service adjustment lead,available from a Ford dealer should be used(see illustration). One end of the lead plugsinto the octane adjustment wiring plug, andthe other end should be earthed by fixing toone of the ignition coil securing screws.10 Cut and insulate the wires in the servicelead which are not to be earthed.

    17 Ignition timing - adjustment foruse with unleaded petrol

    518 Engine electrical systems

    17.9 Service adjustment lead and plug -ESC II and EEC IV systems

    A Red, blue and yellow wiresB PlugC Wire cutting point

    16.2b Crankshaft pulley timing marks - SOHC engine

    A Cast pulley B Pressed steel pulley

  • 11 The amount of ignition retardationprovided by earthing the wire(s) is as shown inthe table above.12 Once the ignition timing has beenretarded, the vehicle can be operated oneither leaded or unleaded petrol.13 On 2.0 litre models, if the yellow wire (idlespeed adjustment wire) in the service lead isearthed, the idle speed will be raised by 75rpm. If the vehicle already has a single yellowfly lead connected prior to connecting theservice lead, ensure that the yellow wire in theservice lead is earthed.14 Note that some early models havecoloured Lucar connectors fitted in place ofthe octane adjustment wiring plug (seeillustration). The principle for ignition timingadjustment on these vehicles is as describedpreviously for vehicles with the octaneadjustment wiring plug.

    15 On completion of ignition timingadjustment, the idle speed and mixture shouldbe checked and adjusted as necessary.

    Note: Refer to Section 1 for precautions to beobserved when working with electronicmodules.1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.

    All ESC modules except ESC(early Economy models)2 All modules except the ESC Hybrid moduleare mounted on the left-hand side of theengine compartment (see illustration). TheESC Hybrid module is mounted on theright-hand side of the engine compartment.3 Disconnect the module wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring. On ESC II

    modules, except those fitted to 1.8 litremodels from February 1987, a locking tab atthe lower end of the wiring plug must bedepressed before unhooking the upper end ofthe plug from the module. On ESC II modulesfitted to 1.8 litre models from February 1987(see illustration) and ESC Hybrid modules,the wiring plug is secured by a screw which isintegral with the plug (see illustrations).4 Where applicable, disconnect the vacuumpipe from the module (see illustration).5 Remove the two or three securing screws,as applicable, and withdraw the module fromthe engine compartment. Note that the topsecuring screw of the ESC module alsosecures the ignition coil strap. 6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but ensurethat the underside of the module and thecorresponding area of the body panel are clean.

    ESC module (early Economymodels)7 Remove the module complete with itssecuring bracket, as described above.8 Fit the new module, slightly behind the oldmodule position, on the flat vertical surface ofthe body panel, and secure with the twoscrews supplied. Note that the module mustbe mounted against the flat area of the bodypanel to prevent distortion of the module, andto ensure good heat transfer from the moduleto the body. 9 Reconnect the module vacuum pipe. 10 Connect the adapter loom supplied withthe new module between the module and theold modules wiring plug.11 Where applicable, refit the coil to itsoriginal location.

    18 Electronic modules - removaland refitting

    Engine electrical systems 519

    5

    18.4 Disconnecting ESC II module vacuumpipe

    18.3c Disconnecting ESC Hybrid modulewiring plug

    18.3b Disconnecting ESC II module wiringplug

    18.2 ESC module securing screws (arrowed)A Wiring plug B Vacuum pipe

    18.3a ESC II module - 1.8 litre models fromFebruary 1987

    System Degrees of retardation

    Blue wire Red wire Blue and redwires

    ESC II (except 1.8 litre)models from February1987 2 4 6

    ESC II (1.8 litre models fromFebruary 1987) 4 2 6

    EEC IV 4 2 6

    17.14 Lucar type octaneadjustment connectors -early models with ESC II

    and EEC IV systems

    A Red, blue and yellow connectorsB Coil securing screw (earthing point)

  • EEC IV modules Ignition moduleModels up to 1987 Note: When refitting, the rear face of themodule must be coated with heat sinkcompound. Refer to a Ford dealer for advice ifnecessary. 12 The module is mounted on the distributorbody. 13 Disconnect the distributor wiring plug bydepressing the locking tabs. Pull on the plug,not the wiring.14 Remove the two securing screws from themodule, then slide the module downwardsand withdraw it (see illustration).15 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but therear face of the module must be coated withheat sink compound. Do not force the moduleinto position, as damage to the electricalcontacts may result.Models from 198716 The module is mounted on the left-handside of the engine compartment (seeillustration).17 Disconnect the module wiring plug bydepressing the locking tabs. Pull on the plug,not the wiring.18 Remove the two securing screws andwithdraw the module from the enginecompartment.19 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butensure that the underside of the module andthe corresponding area of the body panel areclean.1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH models 20 The ignition module is located at the frontright-hand side of the engine compartment.

    21 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 22 Release the securing lug, and pull thewiring plug from the module. Pull on the plug,not on the wiring (see illustration). 23 Remove the two securing screws, andwithdraw the module from the body panel. 24 Refitting is a reversal of removal.2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models25 The ignition module is located on the left-hand side of the engine compartment,beneath the coil (see illustration). 26 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 27 Remove the two securing screws, andwithdraw the coil/ignition module heat shield. 28 Release the locking lug and disconnectthe ignition module wiring plug. Pull on theplug, not on the wiring. 29 Remove the two securing screws, andwithdraw the module from the body panel.30 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the underside of the module and thecorresponding area of the body panel are clean.

    Engine management moduleAll models except 1.6 and 1.8 litre CVH(R6A type) and 2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection 31 The module is located inside thepassenger compartment behind thepassenger side facia.32 Unclip the trim panel from below theglovebox on models up to 1987, or fromabove the glovebox on models from 1987.33 Unclip the module retainer and withdrawthe module.34 The wiring plug is secured by a screwwhich is integral with the plug. Disconnect thewiring plug and remove the module.

    35 Refitting is a reversal of removal, notingthat the wiring plug will only fit in one position.1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH models36 The module is located in the passengercompartment, behind the glovebox. 37 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 38 Open the glovebox, and carefully pull itfrom its retaining clips. 39 Unclip and withdraw the module from itsretaining bracket (see illustration).40 The wiring plug is secured by a screwwhich is integral with the plug. Disconnect thewiring plug, and withdraw the module.41 Refitting is a reversal of removal, notingthat the wiring plug will only fit in one position.2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models42 For models up to 1990 refer to the first 5paragraphs of this sub Section.43 For models from 1990 refer to theprocedure given for 1.6 and 1.8 litre CVH (R6Atype) engines.

    Note: Procedures for removal and refitting ofthe ignition system components andelectronic module are given elsewhere in therelevant Sections of this Chapter.1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.

    Engine coolant temperaturesensor All models except 2.0 litre DOHC2 The sensor is located in the underside ofthe inlet manifold.

    19 ESC II system components -removal and refitting

    520 Engine electrical systems

    18.14 EEC IV ignition module securingscrews (arrowed) - models up to 1987

    18.22 Disconnecting the ignition modulewiring plug

    19.4 Disconnect engine temperaturesensor wiring plug - ESC II system

    18.39 Engine management modulewithdrawn from its mounting bracket

    18.25 Ignition module location (arrowed)

    18.16 EEC IV ignition module - modelsfrom 1987

  • 3 Partially drain the cooling system. There is noneed to remove the cylinder block drain plug.4 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring (seeillustration). 5 Unscrew the sensor from the inlet manifoldand remove it. 6 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Fill thecooling system.2.0 litre DOHC models7 The sensor is located in the side of the inletmanifold. The removal and refittingprocedures are as described for the 1.6 and1.8 litre CVH (R6A type) engines in therelevent Section of this Chapter.

    Inlet manifold heaterNote: When refitting the heater, a new gasketand O-ring must be used. 8 Do not attempt to remove the heater while itis hot.9 For improved access, remove the aircleaner.10 Disconnect the wiring from the heater.11 Unscrew the three securing bolts andremove the heater. Recover the gasket andO-ring (see illustration).12 Refitting is a reversal of removal, using anew gasket and O-ring, but be careful totighten the securing bolts evenly, otherwisethe heater may tilt and jam in its recess.

    Carburettor stepper motor (2.0litre models)Note: Irregular idle is not necessarily caused bya faulty or badly adjusted stepper motor. Goodelectrical contact between the stepper motorplunger and the adjusting screw (which from thethrottle position switch) is essential. Beforeattempting adjustment or renewal of the motor,try the effect of cleaning the plunger andadjusting screw contact faces with abrasivepaper followed by switch cleaning fluid. Switchcleaning fluid is available from electroniccomponent shops. Refer to the precautions inChapter 3 before proceeding.13 Remove the air cleaner.14 Depress the locking tab and disconnectthe stepper motor wiring plug. Pull on theplug, not the wiring.15 Remove the four securing screws andwithdraw the stepper motor and bracket fromthe carburettor.16 If desired, the stepper motor can beseparated from the bracket by removing the

    four securing screws (see illustration).17 Commence refitting by securing thestepper motor to the bracket, whereapplicable.18 Refit the stepper motor and bracket to thecarburettor and secure with the four screws.19 Reconnect the wiring plug.20 Reconnect the air cleaner vacuum hose tothe inlet manifold, and position the air cleanerto one side to allow access to the carburettorand stepper motor.21 Reconnect the battery negative lead.22 Connect a tachometer to the engine inaccordance with the manufacturersinstructions.23 Start the engine, then check and ifnecessary adjust the idle mixture.24 Ensure that all electrical loads areswitched off (headlamps, heater blower etc). Ifthe idle speed adjustment wire is earthed,temporarily isolate it. Where applicable,ensure that the automatic transmission gearselector lever is in the N or P position.25 Accelerate the engine to a speed greaterthan 2500 rpm, allow it to return to idle, thenrepeat. Insert a feeler blade of 1.0 mm (0.04in) thickness between the stepper motorplunger and the adjusting screw (seeillustration). With the feeler blade in place theengine speed should be 875 25 rpm.26 If adjustment is necessary, remove thetamperproof cap from the adjusting screwlocknut. Slacken the locknut, then turn theadjusting screw to achieve the correct engine

    speed and tighten the locknut.27 Repeat the procedure given in paragraph24 and check that the engine speed is stillcorrect. Readjust if necessary.28 Stop the engine, remove the feeler blade,and disconnect the tachometer.29 Refit the air cleaner, ensuring that thevacuum hose is securely connected. If theidle speed adjustment wire was previouslyearthed, reconnect it.30 Re-start and then stop the engine,observing the movement of the stepper motorplunger. Immediately after stopping theengine, the plunger should move to theanti-dieselling position, and after a fewseconds it should extend to the ventmanifold/start position (see illustration).31 Re-check and adjust the idle mixture.32 If necessary, refit the tamperproof caps tothe mixture adjustment screw and the steppermotor adjustment screw locknut.

    Crankshaft speed/position sensor(2.0 litre DOHC models) 33 The sensor is located at the right-handrear of the cylinder block behind the oil filter.34 Disconnect the battery negative lead.35 Access is most easily obtained fromunderneath the vehicle. To improve access,apply the handbrake, then jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support it securely on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).36 Disconnect the wiring plug from the sensor.37 Remove the securing screw, andwithdraw the sensor from its location in thecylinder block (see illustration).

    Engine electrical systems 521

    5

    19.25 Carburettor stepper motor adjustment- 2.0 litre models with ESC II system

    A Locknut B Feeler blade

    19.37 Removing the crankshaftspeed/position sensor (engine removed)

    19.30 Carburettor stepper motor plungerpositions - 2.0 litre models with ESC II

    system

    A Vent manifold/startB Anti-diesellingC Normal idle

    19.16 Carburettor stepper motor adjustment- 2.0 litre models with ESC II system

    19.11 Removing inlet manifold heater -ESC II system

  • 38 Before refitting the sensor, examine theO-ring, and renew it if damaged or worn.39 Refitting is a reversal of removal, notingthe torque setting for the sensor screw.

    Note: Procedures for removal and refitting ofthe ignition system components andelectronic module are given elsewhere in therelevant Sections of this Chapter.1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.

    Crankshaft speed/position sensor2 The sensor is mounted in a bracket on thetiming cover.3 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring (seeillustration).4 Slacken the sensor clamping screw andslide the sensor from its bracket.5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but theclearance between the sensor and thetoothed wheel on the crankshaft must be setat 1.0 mm (0.04 in). This can be achieved byinserting a suitable length of wire or rod with adiameter of 1.0 mm (0.04 in) between thesensor and the toothed wheel (seeillustration). Do not overtighten the clampingscrew, as damage to the sensor may result.

    Engine coolant temperaturesensor6 The sensor is located in the side of the inletmanifold (see illustration).7 Partially drain the cooling system.8 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring.9 Unscrew the sensor from the inlet manifoldand remove it.10 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Fill thecooling system.

    Air charge temperature sensor11 The sensor is located in the base of the aircleaner.12 Remove the air cleaner.13 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring (seeillustration).

    14 Unscrew the sensor from the air cleanerusing a suitable spanner. 15 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Refit theair cleaner. Ensure that the vacuum hose issecurely connected.

    Electric choke heater16 The electric choke heater is an integralpart of the automatic choke housing on thecarburettor. Removal and refitting of thechoke housing is covered in Chapter 4.17 The operation of the electric choke heaterrelay can be checked by starting the enginefrom cold, and placing a finger on the relay(see illustration). It should be possible to feelthe relay switching on and off. If this is not thecase, renew the relay.

    Throttle damper control solenoid 18 The solenoid is on the right-hand side ofthe engine compartment (see illustration).

    19 Disconnect the solenoid wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring. 20 Disconnect the two vacuum pipes fromthe solenoid, noting their locations for usewhen refitting. 21 Remove the securing screw and withdrawthe solenoid from the body panel. 22 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but notethat the locating lug on the solenoid bracketshould engage with the body panel, and makesure that the vacuum pipes are correctlyconnected.

    Throttle damper23 Remove the air cleaner.24 Disconnect the vacuum pipe from thethrottle damper.

    20 ESC Hybrid systemcomponents - removal andrefitting

    522 Engine electrical systems

    20.3 Disconnecting crankshaftspeed/position sensor wiring plug - ESC

    Hybrid system

    20.6 Engine coolant temperature sensorlocation - ESC Hybrid system

    20.25 Throttle damper assembly - ESCHybrid system

    A Securing screwsB Adjusting screw

    C Throttle lever20.18 Throttle damper control solenoid -ESC Hybrid system

    20.17 Electric choke heater relay location(arrowed) in main fusebox - ESC Hybrid

    system

    20.13 Disconnecting air chargetemperature sensor wiring plug - ESC

    Hybrid system

    20.5 Setting the gap between the crankshaftspeed/position sensor and the crankshaft

    toothed wheel - ESC Hybrid system

  • 25 Remove the two securing screws anddetach the throttle damper and bracketassembly from the carburettor (seeillustration).26 Commence refitting by securing thethrottle damper and bracket assembly to thecarburettor with the two screws. Ensure thatthe throttle lever is correctly positioned in theslot in the throttle damper actuating arm.27 Reconnect the vacuum pipe to the throttledamper.28 Reconnect the air cleaner vacuum hose tothe inlet manifold, and reconnect the airchange temperature sensor wiring plug, thenplace the air cleaner to one side to allowaccess to the throttle damper.29 Reconnect the battery negative lead.30 Connect a tachometer to the engine inaccordance with the manufacturersinstructions.31 Start the engine, then check and ifnecessary adjust the idle speed and mixture.32 Earth the service adjustment lead,located in the battery negative wiring loom(see illustration), for a minimum of 10seconds. The throttle damper actuating armshould move to the fully retracted position,raising the engine speed.33 The engine speed should stabilise at 1700 100 rpm. If adjustment is necessary, turnthe adjusting screw on the end of the throttledamper actuating arm to give the correctspeed. Turn the screw clockwise to increasethe engine speed, or anti-clockwise to reducethe engine speed.

    34 On completion of adjustment, stop theengine and disconnect the tachometer.35 Where necessary, ensure that anytamperproof seals are refitted, then refit theair cleaner, ensuring that the vacuum hose issecurely connected. Isolate the serviceadjustment lead.36 Start the engine and check that normalidle speed is resumed, then stop the engine.

    Note: Procedures for removal and refitting ofthe ignition system components andelectronic module are given elsewhere in therelevant Sections of this Chapter.

    Engine coolant temperaturesensor2.0 litre SOHC fuel injection models1 For details of engine coolant temperaturesensor removal and refitting, refer to theSection appertaining to the ESC II system. 1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVH models2 The sensor is located in the side of the inletmanifold. 3 Disconnect the battery negative lead.4 Partially drain the cooling system.5 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring (seeillustration).6 Unscrew the sensor from the inlet manifoldand remove it.7 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Refill thecooling system.2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models8 The sensor is located in the side of the inletmanifold, behind the throttle body. Theremoval and refitting procedure is asdescribed for the 1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type)CVH models above.

    Crankshaft speed/position sensor

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels 1.6 litre9 The sensor is located at the left-hand rearof the cylinder block, above the starter motor(see illustration).

    10 Disconnect the battery negative lead.11 Remove the securing screw, andwithdraw the sensor shroud. 12 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug.13 Remove the Torx securing screw, andwithdraw the sensor. 14 Refitting is a reversal of removal.1.8 litre15 Proceed as described for the ESC Hybridmodule. If a new sensor (not the original unit)is being fitted, position it in the mountingbracket so that it is in actual contact with oneof the teeth of the toothed wheel on thecrankshaft. Hold the sensor in this position,and tighten the clamping screw. New sensorshave projections on their base, which willwear away when the engine is cranking, andautomatically set the specified clearance.

    2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models 16 This procedure is as described for the 2.0litre DOHC carburettor models (ESC IImodule).

    Air charge temperature sensor

    1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) CVHmodels 17 The sensor is located in the side of theCFI unit on 1.6 litre engines (see illustration),and on the inlet manifold on 1.8 litre engines.18 Disconnect the battery negative lead.19 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring.20 Unscrew the sensor from its location, andremove it.21 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but coatthe threads of the sensor with suitable sealantbefore fitting.

    2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models 22 The sensor is located in the upper sectionof the inlet manifold. 23 Disconnect the battery negative lead.24 Disconnect the sensor wiring plug bypulling on the plug, not the wiring (seeillustration).25 Unscrew the sensor from the inletmanifold, and remove it.26 Refitting is a reversal of removal, notingthe torque setting for the sensor.

    21 EEC IV system components -removal and refitting

    Engine electrical systems 523

    5

    21.9 Crankshaft speed/position sensor(arrowed) viewed from front of engine with

    shroud removed

    21.17 Air charge temperature sensorlocation on 1.6 litre engines (arrowed)

    21.5 Disconnecting the engine coolanttemperature sensor wiring plug

    20.32 Service adjustment lead location(arrowed) - ESC Hybrid system

  • Vehicle speed sensor

    1.6 and 1.8 litre CVH (R6A type) and2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models27 The sensor is located in the left-hand sideof the gearbox/transmission.28 Disconnect the battery negative lead.29 Jack up the vehicle and support itsecurely on axle stands (see Jacking andVehicle Support).30 Detach the sensor wiring connector fromits bracket, and separate the two halves of theconnector.31 Unscrew the securing bolt, and withdrawthe wiring connector bracket, noting itsorientation.32 Withdraw the sensor from thegearbox/transmission casing (seeillustration).33 Before refitting the sensor, examine theO-ring, and renew if damaged or worn.34 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the wiring connector bracket is correctlylocated.

    Manifold absolute pressure (MAP)sensor

    1.6 and 1.8 litre CVH (R6A type) and2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models35 The sensor is located at the rear right-hand side of the engine compartment (seeillustration).36 Disconnect the battery negative lead.37 Remove the two screws securing thesensor to the body panel, and carefullywithdraw the sensor, taking care not to strain

    the wiring.38 Disconnect the wiring plug from thesensor, pulling on the plug, not the wiring,then disconnect the vacuum hose and removethe sensor.39 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    Fuel temperature sensor -removal and refitting

    2.0 litre DOHC fuel injection models40 The sensor is located in the top of the fuelrail.41 Disconnect the battery negative lead, andto improve access, disconnect the wiring plugfrom the air charge temperature sensor (in theinlet manifold). Disconnect the sensor wiringplug by pulling on the plug, not the wiring.42 Disconnect the fuel temperature sensorwiring plug, again pulling on the plug (seeillustration).43 Unscrew the sensor from the fuel rail, andremove it.44 Refitting is a reversal of removal, notingthe torque setting for the sensor.

    Spark delay and sustain valves1 Disconnect the vacuum pipes at the valveand withdraw the valve. 2 When refitting a spark delay valve, the valvemust be positioned with the black end(marked CARB) towards the carburettor andthe coloured end (marked DIST) towards thedistributor or electronic module (asapplicable).3 When refitting a spark sustain valve, thevalve must be positioned with the end markedVAC towards the carburettor and the sidemarked DIST towards the distributor orelectronic module (as applicable).

    Ported vacuum switch4 Where fitted, the switch(es) may be locatedin the inlet manifold and/or in an adapter fittedin one of the coolant hoses.5 To remove a switch, partially drain thecooling system. Note that there is no need toremove the cylinder block drain plug.6 Mark the vacuum pipes for location so thatthey can be refitted in their correct positions,then disconnect the pipes from the switch.7 Unscrew the valve from its location.8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuringthat the vacuum pipes are correctlyconnected. Refill the cooling system.

    Fuel trap9 Disconnect the vacuum pipes at the fueltrap and withdraw the fuel trap.10 When refitting, the fuel trap must bepositioned with the black end (markedCARB) towards the carburettor, and thewhite side (marked DIST) towards thedistributor, electronic module, or portedvacuum switch (as applicable) (seeillustration).

    Spark control system additionalcomponents11 According to model, engine andequipment, additional components such asone-way valves or solenoids may also befitted as part of the spark control system.12 The removal and refitting procedures forthese components are basically as describedpreviously, and provided that all attachmentsare marked for position prior to removal, noproblems should be encountered.

    22 Spark control systemcomponents (carburettormodels) - removal and refitting

    524 Engine electrical systems

    21.24 Disconnecting the air chargetemperature sensor wiring plug

    21.35 Manifold absolute pressure (MAP)sensor location

    22.10 Fuel trap vacuum connectionmarkings

    21.42 Disconnecting the fuel temperaturesensor wiring plug

    21.32 Withdrawing the vehicle speedsensor from the gearbox casing

  • System typeConventional braking system (except P100 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front discs and rear drums with vacuum servo assistance, dual

    hydraulic circuit split front/rear, deceleration sensitive pressure reliefvalve in rear hydraulic circuit. Cable-operated handbrake on rearwheels.

    ABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front and rear discs operated via electrically-driven hydraulic pump,dual hydraulic circuit split front/rear, pressure regulating valve in rearhydraulic circuit. Cable-operated handbrake on rear wheels

    P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front discs and rear drums with vacuum servo assistance, dualhydraulic circuit split front/rear, load apportioning valve in rearhydraulic circuit. Cable-operated handbrake on rear wheels

    Front discsType:

    1.3 and 1.6 litre models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid1.8 and 2.0 litre models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ventilated

    Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240.0 mm (9.46 in)Maximum disc run-out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.15 mm (0.006 in)Minimum pad friction material thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 mm (0.06 in)

    Rear discsType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SolidDiameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.7 mm (9.96 in)Maximum disc run-out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.15 mm (0.006 in)Minimum pad friction material thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 mm (0.06 in)

    Rear drumsInternal diameter:

    1.3 and 1.6 litre Saloon and Hatchback models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203.2 mm (8.0 in)1.8 and 2.0 litre Saloon and Hatchback models and all Estate models . 228.6 mm (9.0 in)P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256.0 mm (10.1 in)

    Minimum shoe friction material thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 mm (0.04 in)

    Chapter 10Braking system

    Brake disc - examination, removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Brake drum - inspection and renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Brake fluid pipes and hoses - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Brake hydraulic system (ABS) - bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Brake hydraulic system (conventional braking system) - bleeding . . .2Brake pedal - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Computer module (ABS) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Deceleration sensitive valve (Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models

    with conventional braking system) - removal and refitting . . . . . . .23Disc pads - inspection and renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Fluid reservoir (ABS) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Front disc caliper - removal, overhaul and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6General information and precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Handbrake cable - adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Handbrake cable - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Handbrake lever - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

    Hydraulic unit (ABS) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Hydraulic unit accumulator (ABS) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . .17Hydraulic unit pressure switch (ABS) - removal and refitting . . . . . . .19Hydraulic unit pump and motor (ABS) - removal and refitting . . . . . .18Load apportioning valve (P100 models) - adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . .25Load apportioning valve (P100 models) - removal and refitting . . . . .24Master cylinder (conventional braking system) - removal, overhaul and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Rear brake backplate (drum brakes) - removal and refitting . . . . . . .11Rear drum brake shoes - inspection and renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Rear disc caliper - removal overhaul and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Rear disc splash shield - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Rear wheel cylinder (drum brakes) - removal, overhaul and refitting .10Vacuum servo (conventional braking system) - removal and refitting .14Valve block (ABS) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Wheel sensor (ABS) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

    101

    Specifications

    Contents

    10

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftCaliper carrier bracket-to-hub carrier bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 to 61 38 to 45Front caliper guide bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Rear caliper guide bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 to 35 23 to 26Rear brake backplate nuts - P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 54 33 to 40Servo-to-bulkhead nuts (conventional braking system) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 45 26 to 33Master cylinder-to-servo nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Hydraulic unit-to-bulkhead nuts (ABS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 51 30 to 38Hydraulic unit accumulator (ABS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 to 46 25 to 34Pump mounting bolt (ABS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 9 5 to 7High pressure hose-to-pump union (ABS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 12 5 to 9Wheel sensor mounting bolts (ABS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8

    General informationThe braking system is of the dual circuit

    hydraulic type. The front and rear circuits areoperated independently from a tandemmaster cylinder, so that in the event of ahydraulic failure in one circuit, full brakingforce will still be available to two wheelsthrough the remaining circuit.

    A deceleration sensitive valve on Saloon,Hatchback and Estate models not fitted withan Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), and a loadapportioning valve on P100 models, isincorporated in the rear brake hydrauliccircuit. The valve regulates the pressureapplied to the rear brakes and reduces thepossibility of the rear wheels locking underheavy braking.

    All models are fitted with front disc brakes,with solid or ventilated discs depending onmodel. The calipers are of single piston slidingtype, which ensures that equal pressure isapplied to each disc pad.

    Non-ABS models are fitted with rear discbrakes or rear drum brakes, incorporatingleading and trailing shoes operated bydouble-acting wheel cylinders. A self-adjustermechanism is fitted which consists of atoothed quadrant which is kept in contact witha toothed pin attached to the shoe strut bymeans of a spring. The quadrant incorporatesan arm which locates in a slot in the leadingshoe. As the shoe linings wear the quadrant ispulled from the pin when the footbrake isoperated, and automatically repositioned toeffectively lengthen the shoe strut.

    ABS is available as an option for all modelsexcept the P100. The system comprises anelectronic control unit, roadwheel sensors,hydraulic actuator with electrically-drivenhydraulic pump, and the necessary valves andswitches. Disc brakes are fitted to all fourwheels. The front disc brakes are similar tothose fitted to non-ABS models, but the rearbrakes incorporate a self-adjustingmechanism, and a mechanical handbrakemechanism. The purpose of the system is toprevent wheel(s) locking during heavy brakeapplications. This is achieved by automaticrelease of the brake on the locked wheel,

    followed by reapplication of the brake. Thisprocedure is carried out four times per secondby the control valves in the valve block. Thevalves are controlled by the electronic controlunit which itself receives signals from thewheel sensors, which monitor the locked orunlocked state of the wheels. A pressureregulating valve is incorporated in the rearhydraulic circuit to maintain the desiredpressure ratio between the front and rearcircuits.

    PrecautionsNote: Hydraulic fluid is poisonous; wash offimmediately and thoroughly in the case of skincontact and seek immediate medical advice ifany fluid is swallowed or gets into the eyes.Certain types of hydraulic fluid areinflammable and may ignite when allowed intocontact with hot components; when servicingany hydraulic system it is safest to assumethat the fluid is inflammable and to takeprecautions against the risk of fire as though itis petrol that is being handled. Hydraulic fluidis also an effective paint stripper and willattack plastics; if any is spilt, it should bewashed off immediately using copiousquantities of fresh water. Finally, it ishygroscopic (it absorbs moisture from the air)old fluid may be contaminated and unfit forfurther use. When topping-up or renewing thefluid, always use the recommended type andensure that it comes from a freshly-openedsealed containerNote: When working on the brakecomponents, take care not to disperse brakedust into the air, or to inhale it, since it maycontain asbestos which is injurious to health.

    General1 If any of the hydraulic components in thebraking system have been removed ordisconnected, or if the fluid level in thereservoir has been allowed to fall appreciably,it is inevitable that air will have beenintroduced into the system. The removal of allthis air from the hydraulic system is essentialif the brakes are to function correctly, and theprocess of removing it is known as bleeding.2 Where an operation has only affected onecircuit (front or rear) of the hydraulic system,then it will only be necessary to bleed therelevant circuit. If the master cylinder hasbeen disconnected and reconnected, or thefluid level has been allowed to fallappreciably, then the complete system mustbe bled.3 One of three methods can be used to bleedthe system.

    Bleeding

    Two-man method4 Gather together a clean jar and a length ofrubber or plastic bleed tubing which will fit thebleed screws tightly. The help of an assistantwill be required.5 Remove the dust cap where fitted, andclean around the bleed screw on the relevantcaliper or wheel cylinder, then attach thebleed tube to the screw (see illustration). Ifthe complete system is being bled, start at thefront left-hand caliper.6 Check that the fluid reservoir is topped upand then destroy the vacuum in the brakeservo by giving several applications of thebrake pedal.7 Immerse the open end of the bleed tube inthe jar which should contain two or threeinches of hydraulic fluid. The jar should bepositioned about 300 mm (12.0 in) above thebleedscrew to prevent any possibility of airentering the system down the threads of thebleed screw when it is slackened.

    2 Brake hydraulic system(conventional braking system)- bleeding

    1 General information andprecautions

    102 Braking system

    2.5 Removing the dust cap from a wheelcylinder bleed screw

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • 8 Open the bleed screw half a turn and haveyour assistant depress the brake pedal slowlyto the floor and then, after the bleed screw isretightened, quickly remove his foot to allowthe pedal to return unimpeded. Repeat theprocedure.9 Observe the submerged end of the tube inthe jar. When air bubbles cease to appear,tighten the bleed screw when the pedal isbeing held fully down by your assistant.10 Top-up the fluid reservoir. It must be kepttopped up throughout the bleedingoperations. If the connecting holes to themaster cylinder are exposed at any time dueto low fluid level, then air will be drawn intothe system and work will have to start all overagain.11 Assuming that the complete system isbeing bled, the procedure described in thepreceding paragraphs should be repeated onthe front right-hand caliper followed by therear right-hand and left-hand wheel cylinders.12 On completion, remove the bleed tube,and discard the fluid which has been bledfrom the system unless it is required for bleedjar purposes. Never re-use old fluid.13 On completion of bleeding, top-up thefluid level in the reservoir. Check the action ofthe brake pedal, which should be firm and freefrom any sponginess which would indicatethat air is still present in the system.

    With one-way valve14 There are a number of one-man brakebleeding kits currently available from motoraccessory shops. It is recommended that oneof these kits should be used wheneverpossible, as they greatly simplify the bleedingoperation and also reduce the risk of expelledair or fluid being drawn back into the system.15 Proceed as described in paragraphs 5and 6.16 Open the bleed screw half a turn thendepress the brake pedal to the floor andslowly release it. The one-way valve in thebleeder device will prevent expelled air fromreturning to the system at the completion ofeach stroke. Repeat this operation until clearhydraulic fluid, free from air bubbles, can beseen coming through the tube. Tighten thebleed screw.17 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 11 to 13.

    With pressure bleeding kit18 These too are available from motoraccessory shops and are usually operated byair pressure from the spare tyre.19 By connecting a pressurised container tothe master cylinder fluid reservoir, bleeding isthen carried out by simply opening each bleedscrew in turn and allowing the fluid to run out,rather like turning on a tap, until no air bubblesare visible in the fluid being expelled.20 Using this system, the large reserve offluid provides a safeguard against air beingdrawn into the master cylinder during thebleeding operations.

    21 This method is particularly effective whenbleeding difficult systems or when bleedingthe entire system at time of routine fluidrenewal.22 Begin bleeding with reference toparagraphs 5 and 6 and proceed as describedin paragraphs 11 to 13.

    1 Keep the fluid reservoir replenishedthroughout the bleeding operations.2 Remove the dust cap where fitted, andclean around the bleed screw on the left-handfront caliper. Fit a bleed tube to the screw andimmerse the open end in a jar containingclean hydraulic fluid.3 Open the bleed valve one full turn and havean assistant depress the brake pedal fully andhold it down.4 Close the bleed valve and release the brakepedal. Repeat the procedure until fluid ejectedfrom the end of the tube is free from airbubbles.5 Repeat the operations on the right-handfront caliper.6 Fit the bleed tube to the left-hand rearcaliper and open the bleed valve one full turn.7 Have an assistant depress the brake pedalfully and hold it down. 8 Switch on the ignition to position ll.9 Allow the fluid to bleed from the tube for atleast 15 seconds, when the fluid should befree from air bubbles.10 Close the bleed valve.11 Release the brake pedal and wait for thehydraulic pump to stop.12 Fit the bleed tube to the right-hand rearcaliper and open the bleed valve one full turn.13 Have your assistant depress the brakepedal through half its travel and hold it there.Allow the fluid to bleed from the tube for atleast 15 seconds, when the fluid should befree from air bubbles.14 Close the bleed valve.15 Release the brake pedal and wait for thehydraulic pump to stop then switch off theignition.16 Top-up the reservoir with clean fluid.17 When the hydraulic system is being bledfor the purpose of renewing the fluid at thespecified interval, as each caliper is bled,operate the brake pedal continuously untilclean fluid is seen to enter the jar.18 When the hydraulic pump is running itsnote will be heard to change once fluid haspurged through it. Do not allow the pump to

    run continuously for more than two minutes. Ifit does run for a longer period, switch off theignition and allow the motor to cool for tenminutes.19 On completion, discard the fluid whichhas been bled from the system unless it isrequired for bleed jar purposes. Never re-useold fluid.20 Check the action of the brake pedal,which should be firm and free from anysponginess, which would indicate that air isstill present in the system.

    Front disc pads1 The disc pad friction material can beinspected for wear without removing theroadwheels. Working beneath the vehicle,insert a mirror between the caliper and theroadwheel and check that the friction materialthickness is not less than the minimum givenin the Specifications.2 If any one of the pads has worn below thespecified limit, the front pads must berenewed as an axle set (4 pads).3 To renew the pads, slacken the frontroadwheel nuts, apply the handbrake, thenjack up the front of the vehicle and support onaxle stands (see Jacking and VehicleSupport). Remove the roadwheels. On P100models, mark the position of the roadwheelsin relation to the wheel studs before removal.4 Proceed as follows according to model:

    Girling caliper (1.3 and early 1.6 litremodels)5 Where applicable, disconnect the wiring tothe disc pad wear sensor.6 Unscrew and remove the bolt from theupper caliper guide pin while holding the pinstationary with a spanner (see illustration).7 Swing the caliper downwards and lift outthe disc pads. If the outboard pad is stuck to

    4 Disc pads - inspection andrenewal

    3 Brake hydraulic system (ABS)- bleeding

    Braking system 103

    10

    4.6 Unscrewing the bolt from the uppercaliper guide pin - Girling caliper

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

    Caution: The rear brakehydraulic circuit may be underconsiderable pressure, takecare not to allow hydraulic fluid

    to spray into the face or eyes. Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • the caliper, free it using a screwdriver with theguide pin bolt fitted, as shown (seeillustration). Do not use a screwdriver to freethe inboard pad, as this may damage thepiston dust seal. The inboard pad can befreed by hand after lowering the caliper.8 Brush all dust and dirt from the caliper,pads and disc, but do not inhale it as it maybe injurious to health. Scrape any corrosionfrom the disc.9 As the new pads will be thicker than the oldones, the piston must be pushed squarely intoits bore to accommodate the new thickerpads. Depressing the piston will cause thefluid level in the reservoir to rise so to avoidspillage, syphon out some fluid using an oldhydrometer or a teat pipette. Do not leverbetween the piston and disc to depress thepiston ideally a spreader tool, applying equalforce to both sides of the caliper, should beused (see illustration).10 Further refitting is a reversal of removalbearing in mind the following points.11 If disc pads with wear sensors are fitted,the pad with the sensor wire should be fittedinboard.12 Ensure that the anti-rattle clips arecorrectly located on the caliper. 13 Repeat the procedure on the oppositefront brake.14 On completion, apply the footbrake hardseveral times to settle the pads, then checkand if necessary top-up the fluid level in thereservoir.

    15 Avoid heavy braking, if possible, for thefirst hundred miles or so after fitting newpads. This will allow the pads to bed in andreach full efficiency.

    Teves caliper (Later 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0litre models)16 Prise the retaining clip from the caliper.Hold it with a pair of pliers to avoid it causingpersonal injury.17 Unclip the pad wear sensor from thecaliper, and disconnect the wiring plug (seeillustration).18 Using a 7 mm Allen key, unscrew andremove the two guide bolts securing thecaliper to the carrier bracket, and withdrawthe caliper (see illustration). Support thecaliper on an axle stand to avoid straining thehydraulic hose.

    19 Withdraw the disc pads from the caliper(see illustration). It may be necessary to prisethe outboard pad with a screwdriver torelease it from the caliper. Do not use ascrewdriver to free the inboard pad, as thismay damage the piston dust seal.20 Proceed as described in paragraphs 8 to15 inclusive, but in addition ensure that theclip on the back of the inboard pad fits intothe piston recess (see illustration), refit thecaliper retaining clip, and ignore the referenceto the anti-rattle clips (see illustration). OnP100 models align the previously made markson the roadwheels and wheel studs.

    Late model modification21 On some later models, slightly revisedfront brake components are used. A new typeof retaining clip is used to secure the pads in

    104 Braking system

    4.7 Correct and incorrect methods of freeing stuck outboard disc pad. Guide pin bolt (A)must be in position - Girling caliper

    4.9 Using a spreader tool to depress thecaliper piston into its bore

    4.19 Withdraw the disc pads from thecaliper - Teves caliper

    4.18 Withdrawing a caliper from its carrierbracket - Teves caliper

    4.17 Disconnect the pad wear sensorwiring plug - Teves caliper

  • the caliper, and the caliper body is modifiedaccordingly. Also, plastic covers are fitted tothe caliper guide bolts (see illustrations).22 Procedures are unchanged from thosegiven above.

    Rear disc pads23 Slacken the rear roadwheel nuts, chockthe front wheels, then jack up the rear of thevehicle and support on axle stands. (seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Remove theroadwheel.24 The disc pads can be inspected throughthe top of the caliper after removal of theblanking spring clip. Check that the frictionmaterial thickness is not less than theminimum given in the Specifications.25 If any one of the pads has worn below thespecified limit, the rear pads must be renewed

    as an axle set (4 pads).26 To renew the pads, proceed as follows.27 Release the handbrake, and free thehandbrake cable from the suspension lowerarm by bending back the tangs.28 Where applicable, disconnect the wiringto the disc pad wear sensor (see illustration).29 Unscrew and remove the bolt from theforward caliper guide pin, while holding thepin stationary with a spanner (seeillustration).30 Swing the caliper rearwards and lift outthe disc pads (see illustration). Do notdepress the brake pedal with the caliperremoved.31 Brush all dirt and dust from the caliper,pads and disc, but do not inhale it as it maybe injurious to health. Scrape any corrosionfrom the disc.

    32 As the new pads will be thicker than theold ones, the piston must be retracted into itsbore to accommodate the new thicker pads.Retracting the piston will cause the fluid levelin the reservoir to rise, so to avoid spillage,syphon out some fluid using an oldhydrometer or a teat pipette. Retract thecaliper piston by turning it clockwise. Fordtool No 12-006 is designed for this purpose,but a pair of circlip pliers or any similar toolcan be used instead (see illustration).33 Remove the backing paper from the newpads, and fit them to the caliper.34 Further refitting is a reversal of removal,bearing in mind the following points.35 If disc pads with wear sensors are fitted,the pad with the sensor wire should be fittedinboard.36 Repeat the procedure on the oppositerear brake.37 On completion, switch on the ignition andapply the footbrake hard several times tosettle the pads. Switch off the ignition, thencheck and if necessary top-up the fluid level inthe reservoir. Check the operation of thehandbrake.38 Avoid heavy braking, if possible, for thefirst hundred miles or so after fitting newpads. This will allow the pads to bed in andreach full efficiency.

    Braking system 105

    10

    4.21a Later type front disc pad retainingclip

    4.32 Retracting the piston using circlippliers

    4.30 Lift out the disc pads

    4.28 Rear disc pad wear sensor wiring clip(arrowed)

    4.29 Unscrewing the forward caliper guidepin bolt

    4.21b Removing a caliper guide bolt cover- later type

    4.20b Refitting the caliper retaining clip -Teves caliper

    4.20a The clip on the back of the inboarddisc pad fits into the piston recess - Teves

    caliper

  • 1 The shoe friction material can be inspectedfor wear without removing the roadwheels.Working beneath the vehicle, prise the plugfrom the brake backplate, and using aninspection lamp or torch, check that thefriction material thickness is not less than theminimum given in the Specifications.2 If any one of the shoes has worn below thespecified limit, the shoes must be renewed asan axle set (4 shoes).3 To renew the shoes, slacken the rearroadwheel nuts, chock the front wheels, then

    jack up the rear of the vehicle and support onaxle stands (see Jacking and VehicleSupport). Remove the rear roadwheels, andrelease the handbrake. On P100 models,mark the position of the roadwheels in relationto the brake drums before removal.4 Proceed as follows according to model:

    1.3 and 1.6 litre models5 Remove the brake drum retaining spirewasher(s) from the wheel stud(s) and removethe brake drum. If the drum will not pass overthe shoes, it is possible to release theautomatic adjuster mechanism by inserting ascrewdriver through the small hole in the drumand pressing down on the ratchet (seeillustrations).6 Using a wire hook or a pair of long-nosedpliers, remove the top and bottom shoe returnsprings. Note the fitted positions of the

    springs for reference when refitting (seeillustrations).7 Remove the hold-down cup, spring and pinfrom each shoe by depressing the cup andturning it through 90 (see illustration).8 Pull the bottom of the leading (front) shoetowards the front of the vehicle so that theself-adjuster ratchets separate, thendisengage the shoe from the strut by twistingit. Remove the shoe and adjuster mechanism.9 Pull the trailing (rear) shoe away from thebackplate far enough to gain access to thehandbrake cable. Disconnect the handbrakecable from the lever and remove the shoe withstrut and lever (see illustration).10 Clean and inspect all components, andlubricate the shoe contact points on thebackplate (see illustration). Take care not toinhale any dust, as it may be injurious tohealth.

    5 Rear drum brake shoes- inspection and renewal

    106 Braking system

    5.5a Brake drum retaining spire washer(arrowed)

    5.5c Drum removed showing screwdriverpressing on adjuster ratchet

    5.6b Bottom shoe return spring

    5.6a Top shoe return spring (arrowed)

    5.5d Rear drum brake self-adjuster assembly - 1.3 and 1.6 litre models

    A Shoe hold-down pointsB Trailing brake shoeC Self-adjuster strut and top return

    springsD Wheel cylinderE Spring clips

    F Self-adjuster strutG Leading brake shoeH Large ratchet segmentJ Small ratchet segmentK Brake backplate

    5.5b Releasing the automatic adjusterusing a screwdriver

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1

  • 11 Remove the strut from the trailing shoe byunhooking it from its spring. If a handbrakelever is not attached to the new shoe, removethe old lever by prising off the clip and drivingout the pin. Use a new clip on reassembly(see illustration).12 Similarly transfer the self-adjustercomponents to the new leading shoe. Notethat a small clearance (0.2 mm/0.008 in) mustexist between the underside of the smallerratchet segment and the brake shoe web.Insert feeler blades of the correct thicknessbeneath the ratchet when fitting the springclip, then withdraw the blades (seeillustration). The larger segment should befitted without any clearance.13 Commence reassembly by engaging theself-adjuster ratchet teeth as shown (seeillustration).14 Offer the trailing shoe to the backplate,fitting the handbrake cable to the handbrakelever and (if not already done) the strut andspring to the top of the shoe (seeillustration).15 Fit the leading shoe and adjustermechanism, engaging the hole in the adjusterwith the hook on the strut (see illustration).16 Fit the top and bottom return springs: thisis most easily done by allowing the ends ofthe shoe to pass in front of the wheel cylinderand the bottom pivot point, then engaging theshoes in their correct positions after thesprings have been fitted. Be careful not todamage the wheel cylinder rubber boots.

    17 Fit and secure the hold-down pins,springs and cups.18 Back off the self-adjuster mechanism, bydepressing the lower (small) ratchet segment,to enable the brake drum to pass over theshoes. Centre the shoes relative to thebackplate.19 Refit the drum, making sure that the smallhole is in line with one of the two large holes inthe drive flange. Secure the drum by pushingthe spire washer(s) over the wheel stud(s).20 Have an assistant operate the footbrakeseveral times: a series of clicks should beheard from the drum as the self- adjustermechanism operates. When the clicking nolonger occurs, adjustment is complete.21 Renew the brake shoes on the other sideof the vehicle, then check the handbrakeadjustment.

    22 Refit the roadwheels, lower the car andtighten the wheel nuts.23 Avoid harsh braking if possible for the firsthundred miles or so until the new linings havebedded in.

    1.8 and 2.0 litre models24 Proceed as described in paragraph 5, buton P100 models mark the position of thebrake drum in relation to one of the wheelstuds (see illustration). 25 Remove the hold-down cup, spring andpin from the leading (front) shoe bydepressing the cup and turning it through 90(see illustration).26 Note the fitted positions of the shoe returnsprings for reference when refitting, thenrelease the leading shoes from the wheelcylinder and the anchor bracket using ascrewdriver as a lever.

    Braking system 107

    10

    5.10 Lubrication points on brake backplate

    5.15 Engage the hole in the adjuster withthe hook on the strut (arrowed)

    5.14 Strut and spring fitted to top of trailingshoe

    5.13 Fully retract the self-adjuster ratchet(arrowed) before refitting the trailing shoe

    5.12 Using feeler blades to set clearancebetween smaller ratchet segment andbrake shoe web. Spring clip arrowed

    5.11 Handbrake lever-to-trailing shoesecuring clip (arrowed)

    5.9 Disconnecting the handbrake cablefrom the trailing shoe lever

    5.7 Using pliers to remove a shoe hold-down cup

  • 27 Unhook the return springs and remove theleading shoe. Note the direction of wheelrotation arrows on the shoes.28 Remove the hold-down cup, spring andpin from the trailing (rear) shoe by depressingthe cup and turning it through 90.29 Withdraw the trailing shoe and disconnect thehandbrake cable from the lever (see illustration).

    30 Unhook the springs from the trailing shoeand remove the self-adjuster strut.31 Clean and inspect all components andlubricate the shoe contact points on thebackplate - refer to illustration, paragraph 10.Take care not to inhale any dust, as it may beinjurious to health.

    32 Commence reassembly by fitting thesprings to the trailing shoe and attaching theself-adjuster strut.33 Attach the handbrake cable to the leverand position the trailing shoe on the wheelcylinder and anchor bracket. Ensure that theupper return spring is located on theself-adjuster strut.34 Refit the hold-down pin, spring and cup tothe trailing shoe.35 Connect the return springs to the leadingshoe, then locate the lower end in the anchorbracket and lever the upper end onto thetoothed quadrant lever and wheel cylinder. Becareful not to damage the wheel cylinderrubber boot.36 Refit the hold-down pin, spring and cup tothe leading shoe.37 Using a screwdriver, push theself-adjuster toothed quadrant fully towardsthe backplate to its initial setting.38 Proceed as described in paragraphs 19 to23 inclusive, but on P100 models, align thepreviously made marks on the brake drumsand wheel studs, and on the roadwheels andbrake drums.

    Removal1 Apply the handbrake, loosen the relevantroadwheel nuts, then jack up the front of thevehicle and support on axle stands. (seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Remove theroadwheel. On P100 models, mark theposition of the roadwheel in relation to one ofthe wheel studs before removal.2 Remove the brake fluid reservoir cap andsecure a piece of polythene over the filler

    6 Front disc caliper - removal,overhaul and refitting

    108 Braking system

    5.24 Exploded view of rear drum brake assembly - 1.8 and 2.0 litre models

    A Leading brake shoeB Dust-excluding sealC PistonD Piston sealE Spring

    F Wheel cylinder housingG BoltsH Hold-down pinJ Brake backplateK Adjuster plunger

    L Trailing brake shoeM Self-adjuster strutN Hold-down spring and

    cup

    5.25 Leading shoe hold-down cup (arrowed) 5.29 Removing the trailing brake shoeA Handbrake cable and slot

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • neck with a rubber band, or by refitting thecap. This will reduce the loss of fluid duringthe following procedure.3 Disconnect the flexible fluid hose from therigid brake pipe under the wing of the vehicle,or alternatively unscrew the flexible hose fromthe union on the caliper. Take care not to twistthe hose, and plug the open ends to preventfluid loss and dirt ingress.4 Remove the disc pads.5 On models fitted with Girling calipers (1.3and early 1.6 litre models) (see illustration),unscrew and remove the bolt from the lowercaliper guide pin, while holding the pinstationary with a spanner, then remove thecaliper.6 On models fitted with Teves calipers (later1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 litre models) (seeillustration), remove the caliper from thevehicle.7 If required, the caliper carrier bracket canbe unbolted and removed from the hubcarrier.

    Overhaul8 Brush away all external dirt and dust, buttake care not to inhale any dust as it may beinjurious to health.9 Pull the dust-excluding rubber seal from theend of the piston.10 Apply air pressure to the fluid inlet union,and eject the piston. Only low air pressure isrequired for this, such as is produced by afoot-operated tyre pump. Position a thin pieceof wood between the piston and caliper bodyto prevent damage to the end face of thepiston in the event of its being ejectedsuddenly.11 Using a suitable pointed instrument, prisethe piston seal from the groove in the cylinderbore. Take care not to scratch the surface ofthe bore.12 Clean the piston and caliper body withmethylated spirit and allow to dry. Examinethe surfaces of the piston and cylinder borefor wear, damage and corrosion. If the pistonsurface alone is unserviceable, a new pistonmust be obtained, along with seals. If thecylinder bore is unserviceable, the completecaliper must be renewed. The seals must berenewed regardless of the condition of theother components.13 Coat the piston and seals with cleanbrake fluid, then manipulate the piston sealinto the groove in the cylinder bore.14 Push the piston squarely into its bore.15 Fit the dust-excluding rubber sealbetween the piston and caliper, then depressthe piston fully.

    Refitting16 Refit the caliper and where applicable thecarrier bracket by reversing the removaloperations. Tighten the mounting bolts to thespecified torque.

    17 On P100 models, when refitting theroadwheel align the previously made markson the roadwheel and wheel stud.

    18 On completion, bleed the front brakecircuit.

    Braking system 109

    10

    6.6 Exploded view of Teves front disc caliper

    A Guide boltsB Caliper carrier bracketC Caliper retaining clip

    D Disc padsE Dust-excluding sealF Piston seal

    G PistonH Caliper

    6.5 Exploded view of Girling front disc caliper

    A CaliperB Guide pin and dust

    boot

    C Piston sealD PistonE Dust-excluding seal

    F Disc padsG Caliper carrier bracket

  • Note: Complete dismantling of the rear calipershould not be attempted unless Ford springcompressor (tool No 12-007) is available, orunless the problems likely to arise in theabsence of the tool are understood. Renewalof the piston seal dust-excluding seal andpiston adjuster nut seal requires no specialtools.

    Removal1 With the ignition switched off, pump thebrake pedal at least 20 times, or until itbecomes hard, to depressurise the system.2 Chock the front wheels, slacken therelevant roadwheel nuts, then jack up the rearof the vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Remove theroadwheel and release the handbrake.3 Where applicable, disconnect the wiring tothe disc pad wear sensor.4 Proceed as described in Section 6,paragraphs 2 and 3, but note that the rigidbrake pipe is clipped to the suspension lowerarm.5 Unscrew and remove the two guide boltssecuring the caliper to the carrier bracket,while holding the pins with a spanner. Unhook

    the handbrake cable from the lever, andwithdraw the caliper. Alternatively, the twocarrier bracket-to-hub carrier bolts can beunscrewed, and the caliper and carrier can beseparated on the bench, but in this case thehandbrake cable must be disconnected fromthe carrier bracket by removing the retainingcirclip.

    Overhaul6 Clean the caliper, taking care not to inhaleany dust which may be injurious to health, andmount it in a soft-jawed vice.7 Rotate the piston anti-clockwise, usingFord tool No 12-006, or a pair of circlip pliersor similar tool, until it protrudes from thecaliper bore by approximately 20.0 mm (0.8in). Free the dust-excluding seal from thegroove in the piston, then continueunscrewing the piston and remove it. Removeand discard the dust-excluding seal.8 The piston and bore may now be cleanedand examined as described in Section 6,paragraph 12.9 The piston adjuster nut seal should berenewed as follows.10 Remove the circlip from the piston, thenextract the thrustwashers, wave washer andthrust bearing. Note the fitted sequence ofthese components. Finally remove the nut(see illustrations).11 Remove the seal from the nut, notingwhich way round it is fitted. Clean the nut withmethylated spirit. Lubricate the new seal withclean hydraulic fluid and fit it to the nut.

    12 If no further dismantling is required,proceed to paragraph 20.13 For further dismantling it is virtuallyessential to have Ford tool 12-007 in order tocompress the adjuster spring. This toolappears to be a cut-down adjuster nut with ahandle for turning it. In the workshop it wasfound that the actual piston adjuster nut couldbe used to compress the spring if it wereturned with circlip pliers (see illustration).This works well enough for dismantling, butreassembly proved extremely difficultbecause of the limited clearance between theskirt of the nut and the caliper bore.14 Having compressed the adjuster springjust enough to take the load off the circlip,release the circlip inside the caliper bore.Remove the spring compressor, then extractthe circlip, spring cover, spring and washer(see illustrations).

    7 Rear disc caliper - removal,overhaul and refitting

    1010 Braking system

    7.10a Remove the circlip from the rearcaliper piston . . .

    7.10c . . . a wave washer and (not shown)another thrustwasher . . .

    7.14a Extract the circlip from the caliperbore . . .

    7.13 Using the piston adjuster nut tocompress the adjuster spring

    7.10e . . . and finally the adjuster nut itself.Note the seal (arrowed) on the nut

    7.10d . . . then the thrust bearing . . .

    7.10b . . . followed by the thrustwasher . . .

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • 15 A long thin pair of circlip pliers will now berequired to release the key plate retainingcirclip from the caliper bore (see illustration).With the circlip removed, the pushrod and keyplate can be pulled out. 16 Remove the handbrake strut from thecaliper bore.17 Remove the handbrake lever return springand stop bolt. Pull the lever and shaft nut outof the caliper. Prise out the shaft seal (seeillustration).18 Clean the handbrake shaft using wirewool; renew the shaft if it is badly corroded.The shaft bush in the caliper can also berenewed if necessary. Pull out the old bushwith an internal puller or slide hammer, andpress in the new bush to 7.5 mm (0.30 in)below the shaft seal lip (see illustration). Theslot in the side of the bush must line up withthe pushrod bore in the caliper.

    19 Having renewed components asnecessary, commence reassembly bysmearing a little brake grease or anti-seizecompound on the handbrake shaft and bush.20 Fit a new handbrake shaft seal to thecaliper. Pass the shaft through the seal andinto the caliper, taking care not to damage theseal lips.21 Refit the handbrake lever stop bolt andreturn spring.22 Refit the handbrake strut, lubricating itwith brake grease.23 Fit a new O-ring to the base of thepushrod. Refit the pushrod and the key plate,engaging the pip on the key plate with therecess in the caliper. Secure the key platewith the circlip.24 Refit the washer, spring and spring cover.Compress the spring and refit the circlip, thenrelease the spring compressor.25 Lubricate the caliper bore with cleanhydraulic fluid and fit a new piston seal.26 Reassemble the piston components.Lubricate the contact face of the adjuster nutwith a little brake grease, then fit the adjusternut (with new seal), thrust bearing,thrustwasher, wave washer and the secondthrustwasher. Secure with the circlip.27 Fit a new dust-excluding seal to thegrooves in the piston and caliper bore as thepiston is refitted (see illustration). Screw thepiston into the caliper bore with the tool usedduring removal.28 Renew the guide pin gaiters and apply alittle brake grease or anti-seize compound tothe guide pins when refitting the caliper to itscarrier bracket.

    Refitting29 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but oncompletion bleed the rear brake circuit andcheck the operation of the handbrake.

    Note: From 1987, thicker brake discs werefitted. If the later discs are fitted to earliermodels, longer wheel studs must be fitted toaccommodate the increased thickness.Consult a dealer for further advice.

    Front disc1 Apply the handbrake, loosen the relevantroadwheel nuts, then jack up the front of thevehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Remove theroadwheel.2 Remove the disc caliper and carrier bracketbut do not disconnect the flexible hose.Support the caliper on an axle stand to avoidstraining the flexible hose.3 Rotate the disc and examine it for deepscoring or grooving. Light scoring is normal,but if excessive, the disc should be removedand either renewed or reground by a suitablespecialist. Scrape any corrosion from the disc.4 Using a dial gauge or a flat metal block andfeeler blades, check that the disc run-outdoes not exceed the limit given in the

    8 Brake disc - examination,removal and refitting

    Braking system 1011

    10

    7.14d . . . and the washer

    7.27 Dust-excluding seal fitted to pistonand caliper bore

    7.18 Handbrake shaft bush correctly fittedX = 7.5 mm (0.30 in)

    7.17 Handbrake shaft and associatedcomponents

    7.15 Remove the circlip (ends arrowed) torelease the pushrod and key plate

    7.14c . . . the spring itself . . .7.14b . . . then the spring cover . . .

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • Specifications. To do this, fix the measuringequipment, and rotate the disc, noting thevariation in measurement as the disc isrotated. The difference between the minimumand maximum measurements recorded isknown as disc run-out.5 Mark the position of the brake disc inrelation to the drive flange and on Saloon,Hatchback and Estate models, remove theretaining screw or spire washer(s), asapplicable, and remove the disc. On P100models, also mark the position of the wheeladapter plate in relation to the disc and driveflange, then unscrew the five retaining nutsand remove the wheel adapter plate and disc.6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but whenrefitting ensure that the mating faces of thedisc, drive flange and on P100 models thewheel adapter plate, are clean. Align themarks made on the disc, drive flange, andwhere applicable the wheel adapter plate,during removal. Refit the disc caliper andcarrier bracket.

    Rear disc7 Chock the front wheels, loosen the relevantroadwheel nuts, then jack up the rear of thevehicle and support on axle stands.(seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Remove theroadwheel and release the handbrake.8 Detach the handbrake cable from theretaining clip on the lower arm.9 Unscrew the two caliper carrierbracket-to-hub carrier bolts and remove thecaliper assembly. Support the caliper on anaxle stand to avoid straining the flexible hose.10 Proceed as described in paragraphs 3and 4.11 Mark the position of the brake disc inrelation to the drive flange, remove theretaining spire washer(s), and withdraw thedisc.12 Refitting is a reversal of removal, butensure that the mating faces of the disc anddrive flanges are clean, and align the marksmade on the disc and drive flange duringremoval.

    1 Whenever a brake drum is removed, brushout the dust, taking care not to inhale any, asit may be injurious to health.2 Examine the internal friction surface of thedrum. If deeply scored, or so worn that thedrum has become ridged to the width of theshoes, then both drums must be renewed.3 Regrinding is not recommended as theinternal diameter of the drum will no longer becompatible with the shoe friction materialcontact diameter.

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estatemodels1 Chock the front wheels, loosen the relevantroadwheel nuts, then jack up the rear of thevehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Remove theroadwheel and release the handbrake.2 Remove the retaining spire washer(s) fromthe wheel stud(s) and pull off the brake drum.If the drum will not pass over the shoes, it ispossible to release the automatic adjustermechanism by inserting a screwdriver throughthe small hole in the drum and pressing downon the ratchet.3 Remove the brake fluid reservoir cap andsecure a piece of polythene over the fillerneck with a rubber band, or by refitting thecap. This will reduce the loss of fluid duringthe following procedure.4 Unscrew the union nut and disconnect thefluid pipe from the wheel cylinder (seeillustration). Plug the open ends of the pipeand wheel cylinder to prevent fluid loss anddirt ingress.5 Pull the tops of the brake shoes apart sothat the self-adjuster mechanism holds themclear of the wheel cylinder.6 Unscrew the two retaining bolts from therear of the brake backplate, and withdraw thewheel cylinder and sealing ring.7 The wheel cylinder can now be dismantledas follows.8 Prise the dust-excluding rubber seals fromthe ends of the wheel cylinder, and withdrawthe pistons and central spring, identifying thepistons so that they can be refitted in theiroriginal positions.9 Prise the seals from the pistons.10 Clean all the components in methylatedspirit and allow to dry. Examine the surfacesof the pistons and cylinder bore for wear,scoring and corrosion. If evident, thecomplete wheel cylinder must be renewed,but if the components are in good condition,discard the seals and obtain a repair kit.11 Dip the new seals in clean brake fluid andfit them to the piston grooves, using fingersonly to manipulate them. Ensure that the seallips face into the wheel cylinder.12 Carefully insert the pistons and centralspring into the cylinder, and fit thedust-excluding rubber seals. Ensure that thepistons are fitted in their original positions.13 Wipe the brake backplate clean, then fitthe wheel cylinder together with a new sealingring, and tighten the securing bolts.

    14 Reconnect the fluid pipe to the wheelcylinder and tighten the union nut.15 Using a screwdriver, push theself-adjuster toothed quadrant fully towardsthe backplate to its initial setting.16 Further refitting is a reversal of removal,but on completion apply the footbrake severaltimes in order to set the brake shoes in theirnormal positions, and bleed the rear brakecircuit.

    P100 models17 The procedure is as described inparagraphs 1 to 16 inclusive, but with thefollowing differences.18 Before removing the roadwheel, mark itsposition in relation to the brake drum.Similarly, mark the position of the brake drumin relation to one of the wheel studs. Align themarks when refitting.19 The wheel cylinder is secured to the brakebackplate by a circlip instead of the two boltsused on other models (see illustration).

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estatemodels1 Remove the rear brake shoes.2 Disconnect the handbrake cable from thebackplate by extracting the U-clip.

    11 Rear brake backplate (drumbrakes) - removal and refitting

    10 Rear wheel cylinder (drumbrakes) - removal, overhauland refitting

    9 Brake drum - inspection andrenewal

    1012 Braking system

    10.4 Fluid pipe union (1) and wheel cylinderretaining bolts (2)

    10.19 Wheel cylinder securing circlip(arrowed)

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • 3 Remove the wheel cylinder.4 Remove the driveshaft but do not refit thesecuring bolts to the backplate.5 Remove the backplate.6 If required, prise out the handbrake stopbutton.7 Refitting is a reversal of removal.

    P 100 modelsNote: When refitting the backplate, a new rearhub nut and driveshaft O-ring must be used.8 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to 3inclusive.9 Remove the driveshaft.10 Relieve the staking on the rear hub nut,and using a 50 mm socket and a suitableextension bar, unscrew the nut. Note that thenut is extremely tight.11 Pull off the hub.12 Unscrew the six retaining nuts andremove the backplate and the oil baffle (seeillustration).13 If required, prise out the handbrake stopbutton.14 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.15 When refitting the backplate and the oilbaffle, coat the area of the oil baffle shown(see illustration - Chapter 9) with sealant toFord spec SPM-4G-9112-F, then refit thebaffle and the backplate to the axle, tighteningthe six securing nuts to the specified torque.16 Use a new rear hub nut, and tighten to thespecified torque. Stake the nut into the groovein the axle tube after tightening.17 Refit the driveshaft, using a new O-ring.

    Note: A suitable puller will be required toremove the drive flange, and a new rear hubnut must be used on reassembly.

    Removal1 Loosen the rear hub nut with the vehicleresting on its wheels. Note that the left-handnut has a left-hand thread, ie it is undone in aclockwise direction. Before loosening the nut,ensure that the handbrake is applied, andchock the relevant rear wheel. A suitableextension bar will be required, as the nut isextremely tight.2 Loosen the relevant rear roadwheel nuts,chock the front wheels, then jack up the rearof the vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Remove theroadwheel and release the handbrake.3 Free the handbrake cable from its clip onthe suspension lower arm. 4 Unscrew the two caliper carrierbracket-to-hub carrier bolts, and remove thecaliper, supporting it on an axle stand to avoidstraining the flexible hose.5 Mark the position of the brake disc inrelation to the drive flange, remove theretaining spire washer(s), and remove thedisc.6 Unscrew and remove the rear hub nut, andusing a suitable puller, pull off the drive flange.7 Unscrew the four bolts securing the hubcarrier and splash shield to the lower arm.Remove the hub carrier and splash shield,whilst supporting the driveshaft. Support thedriveshaft by placing axle stands underneathit, or by securing with string to the underbody.Avoid bending the driveshaft joints toexcessive angles, and do not allow the shaftto hang down from one end.

    Refitting8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.9 When reassembling the drive flange and thehub carrier, fit the drive flange to the hubcarrier in order to centralise the bearings, thenusing a soft-faced mallet, drive the driveflange/hub carrier assembly onto the end ofthe stub axle.

    10 Refit the hub carrier/splashshield-to-lower arm securing bolts. Note thatthere are two types of bolts used to securethe rear hub carrier to the lower arm. The twotypes of bolt must not be mixed on a vehiclebut can be changed in complete sets for thealternative type. A complete set is eight bolts,four each side. Note that the two types of bolthave different torque wrench settings. Whenrenewing the wheel bearings a suitable pullerwill be required to remove the drive flange,and a new rear hub nut must be used onreassembly.11 When refitting the brake disc, align thepreviously made marks on disc and driveflange.12 Fit a new rear hub nut of the correct type,and tighten it with the vehicle resting on itsroadwheels. Apply the handbrake and chockthe relevant rear wheel when finally tighteningthe hub nut.

    Note: Before commencing overhaul obtain arepair kit containing new pistons and seals.

    Removal1 Depress the brake pedal several times todissipate the vacuum in the servo.2 Disconnect the wiring plug from the lowfluid level switch on the fluid reservoir cap(see illustration).3 Place a suitable container beneath themaster cylinder, then unscrew the union nutsand disconnect the two fluid pipes. Plug theends of the pipes to prevent dirt ingress.

    13 Master cylinder (conventionalbraking system) - removal,overhaul and refitting

    12 Rear disc splash shield -removal and refitting

    Braking system 1013

    10

    13.2 Disconnect the wiring plug from the low fluid level switch(arrowed)

    11.12 Brake backplate and oil baffle retaining nuts

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • 4 Unscrew the two mounting nuts and springwashers, and withdraw the master cylinderfrom the servo. Cover the master cylinder withrag or a plastic bag to prevent spillage ofhydraulic fluid on the vehicle paintwork. If fluidis accidentally spilt on the paintwork, wash offimmediately with cold water.

    Overhaul5 Drain the remaining fluid from the mastercylinder, and clean the exterior surfaces withmethylated spirit.6 Pull the fluid reservoir from the top of themaster cylinder and prise out the sealingrubbers (see illustration).7 Mount the master cylinder in a vice, thendepress the primary piston slightly and extractthe circlip and washer. Withdraw the primarypiston assembly.8 Depress the secondary piston and removethe stop pin from the fluid aperture.9 Remove the master cylinder from the viceand tap it on the bench to remove thesecondary piston assembly.10 Prise the seals from the secondary piston.Do not attempt to dismantle the primarypiston.11 Clean all the components in methylatedspirit and examine them for wear anddamage. In particular check the surfaces ofthe pistons and cylinder bore for scoring andcorrosion. If the cylinder bore is worn, renewthe complete master cylinder, otherwiseobtain a repair kit including pistons and seals.12 Check that the fluid inlet and outlet portsare free and unobstructed. Dip the newpistons and seals in clean brake fluid.13 Fit the seals to the secondary piston usingthe fingers only to manipulate them into thegrooves. Note that the sealing lips must faceaway from each other.14 Insert the secondary piston and springinto the cylinder. Turn the piston slowly as thefirst seal enters to avoid trapping the sealinglip. Similarly insert the primary piston andspring, then fit the washer and circlip.15 Depress the primary and secondarypistons and refit the secondary piston stoppin.16 Fit the fluid reservoir sealing rubbers and

    press the reservoir into them. If the rubbersare worn or perished, or if leakage has beenevident, fit the new rubbers.

    Refitting17 Refitting is a reversal of removal buttighten the mounting nuts and pipe union nutsto the specified torque and finally bleed thehydraulic system.

    Removal1 To remove the servo, first remove themaster cylinder.2 Disconnect the vacuum hose from theservo (see illustration).3 Working inside the vehicle, remove thelower facia panel from the drivers side.4 Remove the clip from the servo pushrod onthe brake pedal (see illustration). 5 Unscrew the two mounting nuts andwashers securing the servo to the bulkhead,and lift the servo from the bulkhead. Note thatthe two mounting nuts also secure the pedalbracket to the bulkhead.

    6 If required, the vacuum hose can bedisconnected from the inlet manifold, and thenon-return valve can be checked for correctoperation by ensuring that it is only possibleto blow through it in one direction.7 No overhaul of the servo is possible, and iffaulty, it must be renewed as a complete unit.

    Refitting8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but whenrefitting the servo to the bulkhead, ensure thatthe pushrod is correctly located in the pedaland that the clip is secure.

    Vacuum hose - modification9 From mid-1989, a new type of brake servovacuum hose-to-inlet manifold connector hasbeen used in production. The connectorcomprises three parts; a collet which locksthe hose in position, an O-ring, and a brassinsert which is pressed into the inlet manifold.10 To disconnect the hose from the inletmanifold, apply light even pressure, push andhold the flange of the collet against themanifold. While holding the collet forward,gently pull the hose from the collet (seeillustration). Take care not to pull at an angleor use excessive force, as this can cause thecollet to snatch and lock the hose.11 To reconnect the hose, push the hose intothe collet until the swage on the hose is hardagainst the collet flange. Pull gently on thehose to check that it is locked by the collet.

    14 Vacuum servo (conventionalbraking system) - removal andrefitting

    1014 Braking system

    14.10 Disconnecting a later-type brakeservo vacuum hose

    14.4 Remove the clip (arrowed) from theservo pushrod

    14.2 Servo vacuum hose non-return valve(A) and servo connection (B) - conventional

    braking system

    13.6 Exploded view of master cylinder -conventional braking system

    A Fluid reservoirB Sealing rubberC SpringD Secondary pistonE Primary pistonF Stop pin

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • Note: New seals must be used between thereservoir and the hydraulic unit on reassembly.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Depressurise the hydraulic system bypumping the brake pedal at least 20 times, oruntil it becomes hard.3 Disconnect the wiring multi-plugs from thereservoir cap and remove the cap.4 Unscrew the reservoir securing screw, andremove the securing clip, noting that the clipalso supports the clutch cable (see illustration).

    5 Prepare a suitable container to collect thefluid as the hydraulic unit is drained, thenremove the securing spring clip anddisconnect the low pressure fluid hose fromthe pump (see illustrations). Allow the fluid todrain out of the hose into the container. If fluidis accidentally spilt on the paintwork, wash offimmediately with cold water.6 Pull the reservoir out of the seals on thehydraulic unit and remove it (see illustration).7 Note the spigot locating bush on the rearhydraulic unit inlet, which may stay in thehydraulic unit or may come out with thereservoir (see illustration).

    Refitting8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but usenew seals between the reservoir and thehydraulic unit.9 On completion, bleed the completehydraulic system and check for leaks aroundall disturbed components.

    Note: A new gasket must be used betweenthe hydraulic unit and the bulkhead onrefitting.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Depressurise the hydraulic system bypumping the brake pedal at least 20 times, oruntil it becomes hard.3 Disconnect the six multi-plugs from thehydraulic unit. They are all different, so thereis no need to label them. When a plug has aspring clip retainer, lift the clip before pullingout the plug. To release the pump plug, pullback the rubber boot and the plug sleeve (seeillustrations).4 Unbolt the earth strap from the unit.5 Prepare a suitable container to catch spiltfluid. Mark the hydraulic pipes so that theycan be refitted in their original positions, thendisconnect them from the base of the unit.Plug the open ends of the pipes and hydraulicunit to prevent fluid leakage and dirt ingress. Iffluid is accidentally spilt on the paintwork,wash off immediately with cold water.6 Working inside the vehicle, remove thelower facia panel from the drivers side.

    16 Hydraulic unit (ABS)- removal and refitting

    15 Fluid reservoir (ABS)- removal and refitting

    Braking system 1015

    10

    15.5b . . . and disconnect the low pressurefluid hose - ABS

    16.3c . . . and the pressure switch multi-plug - ABS

    16.3b . . . the main valve multi-plug . . .16.3a Disconnecting the low fluid levelswitch multi-plug . . .

    15.7 Removing the spigot locating bushfrom the rear hydraulic unit inlet - ABS

    15.6 Removing the fluid reservoir from thehydraulic unit - ABS

    15.5a Remove the securing spring clip . . .15.4 Reservoir securing clip (arrowed) alsosupports clutch cable - ABS

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • 7 Remove the clip from the hydraulic unitpushrod on the brake pedal. 8 With an assistant supporting the hydraulicunit, unscrew the four nuts which secure theunit to the bulkhead (see illustration).Withdraw the unit from under the bonnet.9 Recover the gasket fitted between the unitand the bulkhead.10 Drain the fluid from the reservoir. Do notactuate the pushrod with the unit removed.11 Dismantling of the hydraulic unit shouldbe limited to the operations described in thefollowing Sections (see illustration).

    Refitting12 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.

    13 Do not refill the fluid reservoir untilreassembly and refitting is complete.14 Use a new gasket between the hydraulicunit and the bulkhead.15 Ensure that the hydraulic pipes arereconnected to the correct unions.16 On completion, bleed the completehydraulic system and check for leaks aroundall disturbed components.

    Note: A new O-ring must be used betweenthe accumulator and the hydraulic unit onrefitting.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2 Depressurise the hydraulic system bypumping the brake pedal at least 20 times, oruntil it becomes hard. 3 Wrap a clean rag round the base of theaccumulator to catch any spilt fluid. 4 Unscrew the accumulator using a hexagonkey. Remove the accumulator, noting thesealing ring and being prepared for fluidspillage (see illustration). If fluid is

    accidentally spilt on the paintwork, wash offimmediately with cold water.

    Refitting5 Fit a new O-ring to the base of theaccumulator, fit the accumulator and tightenit.6 Reconnect the battery. Switch on theignition and check that the hydraulic unitpump stops within 60 seconds; if not, theaccumulator is likely to be faulty.7 On completion, bleed the completehydraulic system and check for leaks aroundall disturbed components.

    Note: New sealing washers must be used onthe high pressure fluid hose banjo union, anda new O-ring must be used between theaccumulator and the hydraulic unit on refitting.

    Removal1 Remove the accumulator.2 Prepare a suitable container to catch spiltfluid, and disconnect the high pressure fluidhose from the pump.3 Remove the securing spring clip anddisconnect the low pressure fluid hose fromthe pump. Allow the fluid to drain out of thehose into the container. If fluid is accidentallyspilt on the paintwork, wash off immediatelywith cold water.4 Disconnect the multi-plugs from thepressure switch and the pump motor.5 Remove the pump mounting bolt (seeillustration).6 Pull the pump and motor assembly off themounting spigot and remove it.7 Recover the mounting bushes and renewthem if necessary.8 If a new pump is to be fitted, transfer thepressure switch to it, using a new O-ring.

    18 Hydraulic unit pump and motor(ABS) - removal and refitting

    17 Hydraulic unit accumulator(ABS) - removal and refitting

    1016 Braking system

    16.8 Hydraulic unit-to-bulkhead securingnuts (arrowed) - ABS

    17.4 Unscrew the accumulator and removeit, noting the O-ring (arrowed)

    16.11 Hydraulic unit components - ABS

    A Fluid reservoirB AccumulatorC Main valve

    D Master cylinderE PushrodF Pump and motor

    G BoosterH Pressure switchJ Valve block

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • Refitting9 Commence refitting by offering the pump tothe mounting spigot, then reconnecting thelow pressure fluid hose.10 Refit and tighten the pump mounting bolt.11 Reconnect the high pressure fluid hose,using new sealing washers on the banjounion.12 Refit the accumulator, using a new O-ring.13 Reconnect the multi-plugs and thebattery.14 Refill the fluid reservoir, then switch on theignition and allow the pump to prime itself.Allow the pump to run for a maximum of twominutes at a time then leave it for ten minutesto cool down.15 On completion, bleed the completehydraulic system and check for leaks aroundall disturbed components.

    Note: To remove the pressure switch from thehydraulic unit in situ, Ford tool No 12-008 or alocally made equivalent will be required. Theswitch may be removed without special toolsafter removing the hydraulic unit complete orthe pump above. A new O-ring must be usedwhen refitting the switch.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Depressurise the hydraulic system bypumping the brake pedal at least 20 times, oruntil it becomes hard.3 Disconnect the multi-plug from the switch,then unscrew and remove the switch.

    Refitting4 Refit the switch using a new O-ring.Position the plastic sleeve so that the drainhole faces the pump motor, then tighten theswitch (see illustration).5 Reconnect the multi-plug and the battery.6 On completion, bleed the completehydraulic system and check for leaks aroundall disturbed components.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery negative lead.2 Depressurise the hydraulic system bypumping the brake pedal at least 20 times, oruntil it becomes hard.3 Apply the handbrake, and slacken theleft-hand front wheel nuts. Jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).Remove theleft-hand front wheel.4 Remove the plastic liner from under thewheel arch.5 Prepare a suitable container to catch spiltfluid, clean around the unions on the valveblock, then unscrew and disconnect the fluidpipes (see illustration). Plug the open ends ofthe pipes and valve block to prevent fluidleakage and dirt ingress. If fluid is accidentallyspilt on the paintwork, wash off immediatelywith cold water. 6 Disconnect the multi-plug and the earthstrap from the valve block. 7 Working through the wheel arch, unscrewthe three nuts which secure the valve blockmounting bracket (see illustration).

    8 Remove the valve block and mountingbracket, taking care not to spill brake fluid onthe paintwork.9 No further dismantling of the valve block ispossible, but the pressure regulating valve inthe rear brake pipe union can be renewed ifdesired.

    Refitting10 Refitting is a reversal of removal.11 On completion, bleed the completehydraulic system and check for leaks aroundall disturbed components.

    Removal1 Disconnect the battery.2 Working inside the vehicle, prise out thefacia trim panel from the passengers side.Remove the insulation.3 To remove the now exposed module, pushit as necessary to release the retaining catch.

    21 Computer module (ABS)- removal and refitting

    20 Valve block (ABS) - removaland refitting

    19 Hydraulic unit pressure switch(ABS) - removal and refitting

    Braking system 1017

    10

    20.5 Valve block and associatedcomponents - ABS

    A Bracket screwsB Adapter plateC valve block

    D Multi-plugE Earth strap

    anchor point

    19.4 Refit the pressure switch with thedrain hole (arrowed) in the plastic sleeve

    facing the pump motor - ABS

    18.5 Hydraulic unit pump mounting bolt -ABS

    20.7 Unscrewing the valve block mountingbracket nuts (arrowed) - ABS

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • 4 Withdraw the module, and disconnect themulti-plug (see illustration).

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal but oncompletion check the operation of the ABSwarning lamp as described in themanufacturers handbook.

    Note: A new O-ring must be used whenrefitting a sensor.

    Front wheel sensor1 Apply the handbrake, loosen the relevantfront roadwheel nuts, then jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Remove theroadwheel.2 Working under the bonnet, unclip the ABSwiring loom from the chassis side member,and disconnect the wheel sensor wiring plug.3 Unscrew the mounting bolt and withdrawthe sensor (see illustration).4 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.5 Clean the bore in the hub carrier, and smearthe bore and the sensor with lithium basedgrease.6 Use a new O-ring seal when refitting thesensor.

    Rear wheel sensor7 Chock the front wheels, loosen the relevantrear roadwheel nuts, then jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands.Release the handbrake and remove theroadwheel.8 Working inside the vehicle, lift up the rearseat cushion, then remove the side kick paneland fold the carpet forwards to gain access tothe wheel sensor wiring plug (seeillustrations).9 Remove the wiring plug from its clip, anddisconnect it.10 Prise out the floor panel grommet, thenfeed the sensor wiring through the floor panel.11 Free the handbrake cable from its clip onthe suspension lower arm.

    12 Where applicable, disconnect the wiringto the disc pad wear sensor.13 Unscrew and remove the bolt from theforward caliper guide pin, while holding thepin stationary with a spanner.14 Swing the caliper rearwards to gainaccess to the wheel sensor. 15 Unscrew the bolt securing the sensor toits mounting bracket.16 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.17 Clean the bore in the sensor mountingbracket, and smear the bore and the sensorwith lithium based grease.18 Use a new O-ring seal when refitting thesensor.

    Removal1 The deceleration sensitive valve is locatedon the left-hand side of the enginecompartment (see illustrations).2 Place a suitable container beneath thevalve to catch spilt fluid, then unscrew theunion nuts and disconnect the fluid pipes.

    Plug the open ends of the pipes and valve toprevent fluid leakage and dirt ingress. If fluid isaccidentally spilt on the paintwork, wash offimmediately with cold water.3 On early models, the valve is secured to themounting bracket on the inner wing by asingle bolt. Unscrew the bolt and remove thevalve. 4 On later models, the valve is secured to themounting bracket by a clip. Remove the clipand slide out the valve.

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but notethat the early type of valve must be fitted withthe cover bolts facing forwards, and the latertype of valve must be fitted with the smallerdiameter stepped end facing forwards.6 On completion, bleed the rear hydrauliccircuit.

    23 Deceleration sensitive valve(all models with conventionalbraking system)- removal and refitting

    22 Wheel sensor (ABS)- removal and refitting

    1018 Braking system

    21.4 Withdraw the module and disconnectthe multi-plug - ABS

    22.8a Remove the side kick panel(securing screws arrowed) for access tothe rear wheel sensor wiring plug - ABS

    23.1b Later type deceleration sensitivevalve

    23.1a Early type deceleration sensitivevalve

    22.8b Rear wheel sensor wiring plug(arrowed) - ABS

    22.3 Unscrew the mounting bolt andwithdraw the front wheel sensor - ABS

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • Removal1 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).2 The load apportioning valve is located onthe right-hand side of the vehicle underbodyabove the axle.3 Remove the spring clip and clevis pin, anddetach the spring from the valve operatinglever (see illustration).4 Place a suitable container beneath thevalve to catch spilt fluid, then unscrew theunion nuts and disconnect the fluid pipes.Plug the open ends of the pipes and valve toprevent fluid leakage and dirt ingress.5 Unscrew the three securing nuts and boltsfrom the valve mounting bracket, and removethe valve assembly (see illustration).

    Refitting6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but notethat the fluid inlet pipe from the master cylinder

    must be connected to the lower valve port, andthe fluid outlet pipe to the rear brakes must beconnected to the upper valve port.7 On completion, bleed the rear hydrauliccircuit and check the valve adjustment.

    Models before mid-April 19891 The vehicle must be unladen, at normalkerb weight (a full tank of petrol, but no driveror load).2 With the vehicle standing on its roadwheels,remove the spring clip and clevis pin, anddetach the spring from the valve operatinglever.3 Loosen the locknut on the abutment blockat the bottom of the spring (see illustration).4 Slide the spring through the grommet in thebracket on the axle, until the correct Xdimension is obtained between the centre ofthe spring eye and the centre of the valveoperating lever eye (see illustration).5 Hold the spring in position, slide theabutment block against the underside of thegrommet, and tighten the locknut.6 Attach the free end of the spring to thevalve operating lever, and refit the clevis pinand spring clip.

    Models from mid-April 19897 The procedure is as described above, butnote that the dimension X has been revisedto 92.0 mm (3.6 in) with the vehicle unladen atnormal kerb weight.

    Removal1 To remove a flexible hose, always free itfrom any mounting bracket(s) first by prisingout the U-shaped retaining clip, and thenusing two close-fitting spanners to disconnectthe hose-to-rigid pipe union (see illustration).2 Once disconnected from the rigid pipe, theflexible hose may be unscrewed from thecaliper or wheel cylinder union, as applicable.

    Refitting3 When reconnecting pipe or hose fittings,note that the seal is made at the swaged endof the pipe, so do not continue to tighten aunion if it is tight, yet still stands proud of thesurface into which it is screwed.

    26 Brake fluid pipes and hoses- removal and refitting

    25 Load apportioning valve(P100 models) - adjustment

    24 Load apportioning valve(P100 models) - removal andrefitting

    Braking system 1019

    10

    25.3 Loosen the locknut (arrowed) on theabutment block

    26.1 Flexible hose-to-rigid pipe union. U-shaped retaining cliparrowed

    25.4 Load apportioning valve adjustmentX = 77.0 mm (3.0 in) with vehicle unladen at normal kerb weight

    24.5 Load apportioning valve securingbolts (arrowed)

    24.3 Remove the spring clip (arrowed) andclevis pin from the valve operating lever

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

    Caution: Refer to theprecautions in Section 1.

  • 4 A flexible hose must never be installedtwisted, but a slight set is permissible togive it clearance from adjacent components.This can be achieved by turning the hoseslightly before fitting the U-shaped retainingclip to the mounting bracket.5 Rigid pipelines can be made to pattern bymotor factors supplying brake components.

    Removal1 Chock the front wheels, loosen the rearroadwheel nuts, then jack up the rear of thevehicle and support on axle stands. Releasethe handbrake and remove the roadwheels.2 Slacken the handbrake cable adjuster.3 Extract the securing circlip and pivot pin,and detach the handbrake equaliser from thelinkage on the underbody (see illustration).

    4 On models with a conventional brakingsystem, remove the brake shoes anddisconnect the handbrake cables from theoperating levers, then disconnect the cablesfrom the brake backplates by extracting theU-clips.5 On models with ABS, unhook thehandbrake cables from the operating leverson the calipers, then disconnect the cablesfrom the caliper carrier brackets by removingthe retaining circlips (see illustrations).6 On Saloon, Hatchback and Estate modelsbend back the tangs and release the cablesfrom the lower suspension arms, then feedthe cables through the holes in thesuspension crossmember and release themfrom the brackets on the underbody, notingthat the right-hand cable is retained by acirclip (see illustration). Withdraw the cableassembly from the vehicle.7 On P100 models, release the cables fromthe brackets on the chassis crossmember,noting that the left-hand cable is retained by acirclip, then unhook the cable support springs

    and withdraw the cable assembly from thevehicle (see illustration).

    Refitting8 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Onmodels with a conventional braking systemrefit the brake shoes. 9 On completion, adjust the cable.

    27 Handbrake cable - removaland refitting

    1020 Braking system

    27.3 Handbrake equaliser securing circlip(arrowed) and pivot pin

    27.5b Handbrake cable-to-caliper carrier bracket attachment -ABS

    27.7 Handbrake cable support spring (arrowed)27.6 Handbrake cable-to-lower suspension arm attachment

    27.5a Handbrake cable-to-operating lever attachment - ABS

  • Note: Where fitted, the adjuster locking pinmust be renewed on completion ofadjustment.

    Conventional braking system(except P100 models)1 The handbrake cable is normallyself-adjusting in use, however adjustmentmay be required to compensate for cablestretch over a long period, and is alsonecessary after fitting a new cable.2 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support). Release thehandbrake.3 Unscrew the locknut from the adjusterlocated on the left-hand underbody bracket(see illustration). On later models, a lockingpin is fitted to the bracket to lock the adjusternuts in position. Where applicable, remove thelocking pin before unscrewing the locknut.

    4 Apply the footbrake vigorously severaltimes to set the self-adjuster mechanism.5 Turn the adjuster until the plastic plungerslocated in the brake lockplates are free toturn, and the total movement of both plungersadded together is between 0.5 and 1.0 mm(0.02 and 0.04 in) (see illustration).6 Tighten the adjuster locknut against theadjuster nut by hand (two clicks), then tightenfurther by a minimum of two and a maximumof four clicks, using a suitable spanner orpliers.7 Where applicable, fit a new adjuster lockingpin. The old pin should not be re-used.8 Check that with the handbrake released,the rear wheels are free to rotate and no brakebind is evident. The handbrake lever travelshould be between two and four clicks of theratchet. If brake bind or excessive levertravel is evident, check the handbrake cablerouting, and check the self-adjustermechanism for wear or damage.

    ABS9 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to 3inclusive.10 Bend back the tangs and release thecables from the lower suspension arms.11 Ensure that both handbrake operatinglevers are returned to their stops on thecalipers, then make alignment marks betweenthe levers and the caliper bodies (seeillustration).12 Turn the adjuster until either lever juststarts to move, as indicated by the alignmentmarks.13 Apply the handbrake and release itseveral times to equalise the cable runs.14 With the handbrake released, proceed asdescribed in paragraphs 6 and 7.15 Refit the cables to the lower suspensionarms, and secure by bending over the tangs.16 Check that with the handbrake released,the rear wheels are free to rotate and no brake

    bind is evident. The handbrake lever travelshould be between two and four clicks of theratchet. If brake bind or excessive levertravel is evident, check the handbrake cablerouting, and check the caliper mechanism forwear or damage.

    P100 models17 Proceed as described in paragraphs 1 to4 inclusive, but note that the adjuster islocated on the right-hand side of the chassiscrossmember (see illustration).18 Apply the handbrake, pulling the leverupwards three clicks.19 Turn the adjuster until both rear wheelsare locked and cannot be turned by hand.20 Proceed as described in paragraphs 6and 7.21 Check that with the handbrake released,the rear wheels are free to rotate and no brakebind is evident. The handbrake lever travelshould be between three and five clicks of theratchet. If brake bind or excessive levertravel is evident, check the handbrake cablerouting, and check the self-adjustermechanism for wear or damage.

    28 Handbrake cable - adjustment

    Braking system 1021

    10

    28.5 Plastic plunger (arrowed) in brake backplate

    28.17 Handbrake cable adjuster on right-hand side of chassis crossmember

    28.11 Make alignment marks betweeneach handbrake operating lever and

    caliper body (arrowed) - ABS

    28.3 Handbrake cable adjuster on left-hand underbody bracket(arrowed)

  • Removal1 Chock the rear wheels, jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands.Release the handbrake. Disconnect thebattery negative lead.2 Slacken the handbrake cable adjuster. 3 Extract the securing circlip and pivot pin,and detach the handbrake equaliser from thelinkage on the underbody (see illustration). 4 Working inside the vehicle, remove thehandbrake lever rubber gaiter and/or thecentre console, as necessary. 5 Disconnect the wiring connector from thehandbrake on warning switch.

    6 Unscrew the two handbrake lever mountingbolts, and carefully lift the lever through theunderfloor gaiter. 7 If required, the handbrake on warningswitch can be removed.

    Refitting 8 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but oncompletion, adjust the handbrake cable.

    Removal1 Remove the clutch pedal as described inChapter 6.2 Extract the inboard circlip from the brakepedal end of the pivot shaft (see illustration).

    3 The brake pedal can now be removed fromthe pedal bracket by sliding out the pivotshaft, noting the position of any washers andspacers which may be fitted.4 If desired, the nylon bushes can be prisedfrom each side of the pedal for renewal, andthe brake lamp switch removed.

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, fitting anywashers and spacers in their originalpositions. Refit the clutch pedal.

    30 Brake pedal - removal andrefitting

    29 Handbrake lever - removaland refitting

    1022 Braking system

    29.3 Handbrake equaliser and linkage on underbody 30.2 Extract the inboard circlip (arrowed) to remove the pedalpivot shaft

  • Front suspensionType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Independent by MacPherson struts with coil springs and integral

    telescopic shock absorbers. Anti-roll bar fitted to all models

    Rear suspensionType:

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Independent by semi-trailing arms and coil springs with telescopicshock absorbers mounted behind coil springs on Saloon andHatchback models but concentric with coil springs on Estate models.Self-levelling rear shock absorbers on certain Estate models. Anti-rollbar fitted to certain models

    P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Live beam axle with leaf springs and telescopic shock absorbers

    SteeringType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rack-and-pinion steering gear linked to collapsible steering column by

    flexible coupling and universal joint. Power steering available oncertain models

    Front wheel alignment*Production toe-setting:

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.0 mm (0.08 in) 1.0 mm (0.04 in) toe-inP100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.0 mm (0.08 in) 2.0 mm (0.08 in) toe-in

    Service tolerance before adjustment is required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5 mm (0.02 in) toe-out to 4.5 mm (0.18 in) toe-in*Toe-setting figures are quoted for vehicle at kerb weight with 3.0 litres (0.66 gallons) of fuel in tank

    Chapter 11Suspension and steering

    Front anti-roll bar - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Front anti-roll bar-to-lower arm compliance bushes - renewal . . . . . .8Front hub carrier - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Front suspension crossmember - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . .2Front suspension lower arm - removal, overhaul and refitting . . . . . . .3Front suspension lower arm inner pivot bush - renewal . . . . . . . . . . .9Front suspension strut - removal, overhaul and refitting . . . . . . . . . . .4Front wheel - alignment checking and adjusting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34Front wheel bearings - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Manual steering gear - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Power steering fluid circuit - bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Power steering fluid hoses - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Power steering gear - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Power steering pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Rear anti-roll bar (Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models) - removal

    and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Rear coil spring (Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models) - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Rear shock absorber - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Rear suspension and axle assembly (P100 models) - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

    Rear suspension and final drive unit assembly (Saloon, Hatchback andEstate models) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

    Rear suspension/final drive unit rear mounting (Saloon Hatchback andEstate models) - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

    Rear suspension front mounting (Saloon, Hatchback and Estatemodels) - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

    Rear suspension leaf spring (P100 models) - removal and refitting . .19Rear suspension leaf spring bush (P100 models) - renewal . . . . . . .21Rear suspension leaf spring shackle (P100 models) - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Rear suspension lower arm (Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models) -

    removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Rear wheel bearings - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Steering column adjuster - dismantling and reassembly . . . . . . . . . .25Steering column - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Steering gear rubber gaiter - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Steering intermediate shaft and flexible coupling - removal and

    refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Steering wheel - centralising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Steering wheel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Tie-rod end - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

    111

    Specifications

    Contents

    11

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • WheelsType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressed steel or alloySize:

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models:Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 x 4.50 in, 13 x 5.50 in, or 14 x 5.50 inAlloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 x 5.50 in

    P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 x 5.50 in

    Tyre sizesNote: Manufacturers often modify tyre sizes and pressure recommendations. The following is intended as a guide only. Refer to your vehiclehandbook or a Ford dealer for the latest recommendationsSaloon and Hatchback models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 R 13H, 165 R 135, 165 R 13T, 185/70 R 13H, 185/70 R 135,

    185/70 R13T, 195/60 R 14H, 195/60 VR 14 or 195/65 R 14TEstate models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 R 13H, 175 R 135,175 R 13T, 195/70 R 13H, 195/65 R 14T,

    195/60 R 14H or 195/60 VR 14 P100 models 185R 14 8PR

    Tyre pressures (cold): lbf/in2 (bar): Front RearAll Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models with normal load* . . . . . . . 26 (1.8) 26 (1.8)All Saloon and Hatchback models with full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 (2.0) 36 (2.5)Estate models with full load:

    175 R 13H, 175 R 135,175 R 13T, 195/70 R 13H and 195/65 R14T . 29 (2.0) 48 (2.8)195/60 R 14H and 195/60 VR 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 (2.0) 36 (2.5)

    P100 models with light load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 (1.8) 36 (2.5)P100 models with full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 (3.5) 65 (4.5)

    *Normal load is defined as up to three passengers (or equivalent). For sustained high speeds add 1.5 lbf/in2 (0.1 bar) for every 6 mph (10 km/h)over 100 mph (160 km/h)A light load is defined as one passenger plus up to 100 kg (220 lb) payload

    Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ft

    Roadwheel nutsWheelnuts:

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models (steel and alloy wheels) . . . . 70 to 100 52 to 74P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 to 90 63 to 66

    Hub nuts:Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 to 350 229 to 258P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 to 450 288 to 332

    Front suspensionStrut upper mounting nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 52 30 to 38Hub carrier-to-strut pinch-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 to 92 57 to 68Crossmember-to-underbody bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 90 52 to 66Engine mounting-to-crossmember nut:

    Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 70 37 to 52P100 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 58 30 to 43

    Anti-roll bar-to-lower arm nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 110 52 to 81Anti-roll bar U-clamp-to-underbody bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 70 41 to 52Lower arm-to-hub carrier balljoint nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 to 85 48 to 63Lower arm inner pivot bolt:

    Stage 1 (clampingtorque) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 33Loosen fully, then Stage 2 (snug torque) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 11Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten through a further 90

    Rear suspensionSaloon, Hatchback and Estate models:

    Lower arm-to-crossmember pivot bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 to 95 59 to 70Front guide plate-to-underbody bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 51 30 to 38Front guide plate-to-crossmember bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 74Suspension/final drive unit rear mounting-to-underbody bolts (gold

    coloured) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 44Suspension/final drive unit rear mounting-to-final drive unit rear cover

    bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 50 30 to 37Anti-roll bar-to-underbody bracket bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Hub carrier/brake backplate-to-lower arm bolts*:

    Type X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 to 64 38 to 47Type Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 to 100 59 to 74

    Hub nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 to 290 185 to 214*See Section 15

    112 Suspension and steering

  • Torque wrench settings (continued) Nm lbf ftP100 models:Shock absorber-to-chassis crossmember bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 to 70 44 to 52Leaf spring-to-front bracket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 to 196 116 to 145Leaf spring-to-spring shackle bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 to 196 116 to 145Spring shackle-to-underbody bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 to 85 59 to 63Axle-to-leaf spring U-bolt nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 to 58 29 to 43

    Manual steeringSteering gear-to-crossmember bolts:

    Stage 1 (clamping torque) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 33Loosen fully, then Stage 2 (snug torque) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 11Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten through a further 90

    Steering column adjuster through-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6Tie-rod end locknut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 to 68 42 to 50

    Tie-rod end-to-hub carrier nut* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 32 15 to 24Tie-rod-to-steering rack balljoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 to 88 53 to 65Steering wheel nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 55 33 to 41Intermediate shaft-to-inner column clamp bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18Flexible coupling-to-steering gear clamp nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 to 26 17 to 19Column mounting pinch-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to 55 33 to 41Pinion retaining nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 100 52 to 74Slipper plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 to 5 3 to 4*Tighten nut to specified torque and then tighten to next available split pin holeTighten nut to specified torque and then loosen off 60 to 70

    Power steering (where different to manual steering)Tie-rod to steering rack balljoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 77 52 to 57Flexible coupling-to-steering gear clamp bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15Intermediate shaft-to-inner column clamp bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15Pinion locknut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 to 47 27 to 35Slipper plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 to 4 2 to 3Pump rear support bar nut and bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 51 30 to 38Pump mounting bracket-to-engine bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 to 64 38 to 47Pump pulley bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 12 7 to 9Fluid hose-to-pinion housing bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 26 15 to 19Fluid pressure hose-to-pump union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 to 31 19 to 23Fluid return hose-to-pump union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15

    The front suspension is of independentMacPherson strut type incorporating coilsprings and integral telescopic shockabsorbers. The lower end of each strut isattached to a hub carrier, which carries thewheel hub and bearings, and the brakeassembly. The lower end of each hub carrieris attached to a suspension lower arm by asealed balljoint. The inboard ends of the lowerarms are attached to the front suspensioncrossmember and the lower arms thusprovide lateral location for the strutassemblies. The upper end of each strut isbolted to a suspension turret on the vehiclebody. An anti-roll bar is mounted to the rear ofthe lower arms, and resists the roll tendencyof the front suspension.

    On Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models,the rear suspension is also of independenttype, incorporating semi-trailing arms, coilsprings and telescopic shock absorbers. Thesemi-trailing arms are attached to thesuspension crossmember at their forwardends, and to the hub carriers at the rear. The

    coil springs are located between thesemi-trailing arms and the vehicle underbody.On Saloon and Hatchback models, the shockabsorbers are mounted behind the coilsprings, but on Estate models they areconcentric with the coil springs. On someEstate models the shock absorbers are of theself-levelling type. The suspensioncrossmember is attached to the vehicleunderbody, and to the final drive unit. Certainmodels are fitted with an anti-roll bar which ismounted to the rear of the final drive unit, andis attached to the semi-trailing arms byconnecting links.

    The rear suspension on P100 modelsconsists of a beam axle located andsupported by a leaf spring on each side, andutilizing telescopic shock absorbers to controlvertical movement. The hub and brakeassemblies are attached directly to each sideof the axle. The axle is bolted to the leafsprings using U-bolts and counterplates, andthe shock absorbers are attached to thecounterplates at their lower ends and thevehicle underbody at their upper ends.

    The steering gear is of the conventionalrack and pinion type located ahead of thefront wheels. Movement of the steering wheel

    is transmitted to the steering gear by meansof a shaft containing a universal joint. Thefront hub carriers are connected to thesteering gear by tie-rods, each having an innerand outer balljoint. Power-assisted steering isavailable on some models, assistance beingprovided hydraulically by an engine-drivenpump.

    Removal1 Remove the steering gear.2 Support the engine with a jack andinterposed block of wood under the sump.3 Unscrew and remove the engine mountingnuts from the top of the mountings in theengine bay (see illustration).4 Raise the engine slightly with the jack, andensure that it is safely supported, and justclear of the engine mounting rubbers.5 Unscrew and remove the nuts, washers andpivot bolts securing the lower arms to thecrossmember, and pull the arms from thecrossmember. Note that the pivot bolt headsface to the rear of the vehicle.

    2 Front suspension crossmember- removal and refitting

    1 General information

    Suspension and steering 113

    11

  • 6 Where applicable, remove the brake pipesfrom the clips on the crossmember, takingcare not to strain them, and detach any cablesor electrical leads which may be secured withclips or cable-ties, noting their positions.7 Support the crossmember with a jack, thenunscrew and remove the four mounting bolts(see illustration).8 Lower the crossmember and withdraw itfrom under the vehicle.9 If desired, the engine mountings can nowbe unbolted from the crossmember.

    Refitting10 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but bearin mind the following points.11 Do not tighten the lower arm pivot boltsuntil the weight of the vehicle is resting on itswheels. This is to prevent wind up of therubber bushes which will occur when thevehicle is lowered if the bolts have beentightened with no load on the suspension. Thefollowing procedure must be used whentightening the pivot bolts. Tighten the bolt tothe specified clamping torque, then loosenthe bolt fully. Re-tighten to the specifiedsnug torque and then further tighten the boltthrough the specified angle.12 Refit any cables or electrical leads in theiroriginal positions, where applicable.13 When lowering the engine onto itsmountings, ensure that the locating pegs onthe mountings engage with the holes in themounting brackets.

    Note: A balljoint separator tool will berequired for this operation.

    Removal1 To improve access, raise the front of thevehicle on ramps. Do not jack the vehicle upat this stage. Apply the handbrake.2 Unscrew and remove the nut, washer andpivot bolt securing the relevant lower arm tothe crossmember (see illustration).3 Remove the anti-roll bar-to-lower armsecuring nut and recover the dished washerand plastic cover (where applicable) (seeillustration).

    4 Ensure that the handbrake is applied, jackup the front of the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).5 Remove the split pin and unscrew thecastellated nut from the lower arm balljoint.Using a balljoint separator tool, disconnectthe lower arm from the hub carrier. The lowerarm can now be withdrawn from the vehicle.Recover the remaining dished washer andplastic cover (where applicable) from the endof the anti-roll bar.

    Overhaul6 If the lower arm has been removed due to aworn balljoint, the complete arm must berenewed.7 The anti-roll bar compliance bushes can berenewed as described in Section 8, but notethat the bushes on both sides of the vehiclemust be renewed at the same time. The lowerarm inner pivot bush can be renewed asdescribed in Section 9.

    Refitting8 To refit the lower arm, proceed as follows.9 Fit the shallow dished washer (colourcoded black or green) and the plastic cover(where applicable) to the end of the anti-rollbar, then refit the lower arm to the anti-rollbar. Fit the remaining plastic cover (whereapplicable) and the deep dished washer(colour coded yellow or black) and refit thesecuring nut. Do not tighten the nut at thisstage. Note that the convex faces of thedished washers must face the lower arm.

    10 Reconnect the balljoint to the hub carrier,refit the castellated nut and tighten to thespecified torque. Fit a new split pin.11 Locate the end of the lower arm in thecrossmember and refit the pivot bolt, washerand nut. If necessary, push the outer rim ofthe roadwheel in order to line up the holes inthe lower arm bush and the crossmember.Note that the pivot bolt head should face tothe rear of the vehicle. Do not tighten the boltat this stage.12 Lower the vehicle so that its weight isresting on the roadwheels, and bounce thevehicle to settle the suspension.13 Tighten the lower arm pivot bolt, followingthe procedure given in Section 2.14 Tighten the anti-roll bar-to-lower armsecuring nut to the specified torque.15 Lower the vehicle from the ramps, if notalready done.

    Note: A spring compressor tool will berequired if the strut is to be dismantled.

    Removal1 Loosen the relevant front roadwheel nuts,apply the handbrake, jack up the front of thevehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).2 Remove the roadwheel. On P100 modelsmark the position of the roadwheel in relationto one of the wheel studs before removal.3 Remove the front brake caliper but do notdisconnect the hydraulic hose. Support thecaliper on an axle stand to avoid straining thehose.4 Where applicable, unbolt the ABS wheelsensor from the hub carrier and detach thewire from the clip on the strut. Unplug theconnector and place the sensor to one side.5 Unscrew and remove the pinch-bolt whichsecures the hub carrier to the strut. Using asuitable lever, such as a cold chisel, lever thehub carrier clamp legs and wedge them apart.6 Lever the suspension lower armdownwards to separate the hub carrier fromthe bottom of the strut.

    4 Front suspension strut -removal, overhaul and refitting

    3 Front suspension lower arm -removal, overhaul and refitting

    114 Suspension and steering

    2.3 Engine mounting nut (arrowed)

    3.3 Front anti-roll bar-to-lower armsecuring nut (arrowed)

    3.2 Front suspension lower arm-to-crossmember pivot bolt and nut

    2.7 Front suspension crossmembermounting bolts (arrowed)

  • 7 Working in the engine compartment,unscrew the strut upper mounting nut, at thesame time supporting the strut from below.Use a 6 mm Allen key inserted in the end ofthe strut piston rod to prevent the rod fromturning as the upper mounting nut isunscrewed (see illustration). On somemodels, the upper mounting nut may be fittedwith a plastic cover. Note the upper mountingcup under the nut.8 Withdraw the strut from under the wing ofthe vehicle.

    Overhaul9 To dismantle the strut, proceed as follows.10 Using spring compressors, compress thecoil spring. Do not attempt to compress thespring without using purpose-made springcompressors, as the spring is underconsiderable tension, and personal injury mayoccur if it is suddenly released (seeillustration).11 Hold the piston rod as described inparagraph 7, unscrew the nut from the piston

    rod and remove the lower cup, bearing, springseat, gaiter, coil spring and bump stop (seeillustration).12 Working in the engine compartment,remove the upper cup and nylon spacer, andif required prise out the rubber insulator.13 Clean all the components and examinethem for wear and damage. Check the actionof the shock absorber by mounting it verticallyin a vice and operating the piston rod severaltimes through its full stroke. If any unevenresistance is evident, the shock absorbermust be renewed. Renew any worn ordamaged components as applicable.

    Refitting14 Reassembly and refitting is a reversal ofdismantling and removal, bearing in mind thefollowing points.15 When reassembling, ensure that the gaiteris fitted over the bump stop, and that the endsof the coil spring are correctly located on thespring seats. Also ensure that the bearing iscorrectly located on the upper spring seat.16 Fit the nylon spacer over the piston rodbefore fitting the strut to the top mounting.17 Tighten all fixings to the specified torque.18 On P100 models align the previouslymade marks on the roadwheel and wheelstud.

    Note: A balljoint separator tool will berequired for this operation.

    Removal1 Loosen the relevant front roadwheel nuts,apply the handbrake, jack up the front of thevehicle and support on axle stands (seeJacking and Vehicle Support).2 Remove the roadwheel. On P100 modelsmark the position of the roadwheel in relationto one of the wheel studs before removal.3 Remove the front brake caliper but do notdisconnect the hydraulic hose. Support thecaliper on an axle stand, or suspend it with wirefrom the coil spring to avoid straining the hose. 4 Mark the position of the brake disc inrelation to the drive flange, and on Saloon,Hatchback and Estate models, remove theretaining screw or spire washer(s), asapplicable, and remove the disc. On P100models, unscrew the five retaining nuts andremove the wheel adapter plate and disc.5 Where applicable, unbolt the ABS wheelsensor from the hub carrier and unplug thewiring connector. Place the sensor to one side.6 Remove the split pin and unscrew thecastellated nut securing the tie-rod end to thehub carrier. Using a balljoint separator tool,disconnect the tie-rod end from the hub carrier.7 Repeat the procedure given in the previousparagraph for the lower arm-to-hub carrierballjoint.8 Unscrew and remove the pinch-bolt whichsecures the hub carrier to the strut (seeillustration). Using a suitable lever, such as acold chisel, lever the hub carrier clamp legsand wedge them apart. Withdraw the hubcarrier from the strut.

    Refitting9 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but usenew split pins on the castellated nuts, andalign the previously made marks on the brakedisc and hub. Tighten all fixings to thespecified torque.10 On P100 models align the previouslymade marks on the roadwheel and wheelstud.

    5 Front hub carrier - removal andrefitting

    Suspension and steering 115

    11

    5.8 Unscrewing the hub carrier-to-strutpinch-bolt

    4.11 Cross-section of the front strut upper mounting

    A BearingB Nylon spacerC Upper cup

    D Rubber insulatorE Lower cupF Spring seat

    G Bump stopH Gaiter

    4.10 Suspension strut fitted with springcompressors

    4.7 Hold the strut piston rod with a 6 mmAllen key when unscrewing the upper

    mounting nut

  • 1 Remove the hub carrier.2 Reverse the roadwheel nuts and screwthem fully onto the studs to protect thethreads, then mount the hub carrier assemblyin a vice as shown (see illustration).3 Prise the dust cap from the rear of the hubcarrier, and unscrew the hub nut with asuitable socket. Note that on all modelsmanufactured before late December 1982,both left and right-hand nuts have aright-hand thread, but as from this date,left-hand thread assemblies wereprogressively fitted to the right-hand hubcarrier. The modified right-hand hub can beidentified by the letter R stamped on itsouter face, or by the colour of the hub nutnylon insert, blue indicates a normalright-hand thread, and yellow indicates aleft-hand thread.4 Remove the splined washer, and tap thehub carrier from the drive flange. Recover thebearing inner race and rollers from the innerend of the hub carrier (see illustration).5 Prise the oil seal from the outer end of thehub carrier and remove the remaining bearinginner race and rollers.6 Using a soft metal drift, drive the bearingouter races from the hub carrier, taking carenot to damage the inner surface of the carrier. 7 Clean the hub carrier and drive flange withparaffin, wipe dry and examine for damageand wear. Note that the components aremachined to very close tolerances, and thebearings are supplied in matched pairs,therefore scrupulous cleanliness must beobserved.8 Using a metal tube of suitable diameter,drive the new bearing outer races fully into thehub carrier. Ensure that the races are seatedcorrectly.9 Pack the inner bearing races and rollerswith high-melting-point lithium-based grease,and locate the outer bearing assembly in thehub camber.10 Fill the cavities between the sealing lips ofthe oil seal with grease, then drive it fully intothe hub carrier using a block of wood or ametal tube of suitable diameter. Note that on

    early models the oil seal has a rubber casing,and this early type of seal should be replacedwith the later type which has a metal casing.The oil seal should be renewed regardless oftype, and a new seal of the correct type isnormally supplied with the new wheel bearings.11 With the drive flange mounted in a vice, asduring dismantling, tap the hub carrier ontothe drive flange.12 Fit the inner bearing assembly, tapping itinto place with a metal tube of suitablediameter if necessary, and fit the splinedwasher. Note that the bearings are self-settingon assembly, and no subsequent adjustmentis required.13 Refit the hub nut and tighten it to thespecified torque. 14 Tap the dust cap into position in the hubcarrier.15 Remove the assembly from the vice,remove the roadwheel nuts, and refit the hubcarrier.

    Removal1 To improve access, raise the front of thevehicle on ramps. Do not jack the vehicle upat this stage. Apply the handbrake.

    2 Where applicable bend back the locktabs,then unscrew the two bolts securing each ofthe two anti-roll bar U-clamps to the vehicleunderbody (see illustrations).3 Ensure that the handbrake is applied, jackup the front of the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).4 Remove the anti-roll bar-to-lower armsecuring nuts and recover the dished washersand plastic covers, where applicable (seeillustration).5 Unscrew and remove the nut, washer andpivot bolt securing one of the lower arms tothe crossmember, and pull the end of thelower arm from the crossmember.6 Pull the anti-roll bar from the bush in thefree lower arm then slide the anti-roll barfrom the remaining fixed lower arm. Recoverthe remaining dished washers and plasticcovers (where applicable) from the ends of theanti-roll bar.7 If necessary, the anti-roll bar compliancebushes can be renewed as described inSection 8, and the anti-roll bar U-clampbushes can be renewed by sliding them offthe ends of the bar. Note that although theU-clamp bushes are of a split design, theyshould not be levered open to aid fitting, andthe new bushes must be slid on from the endsof the anti-roll bar. The bushes should alwaysbe renewed in pairs.

    7 Front anti-roll bar - removaland refitting

    6 Front wheel bearings - renewal

    116 Suspension and steering

    6.2 Front hub carrier mounted in vice tounscrew hub nut

    7.2b . . . unscrew the bolts and remove theanti-roll bar U-clamps

    7.2a Bend back the locktabs (arrowed) . . .

    6.4 Front hub components

    A Dust capB Hub nut

    C Splined washerD Taper roller bearing

    E Bearing outer raceF Hub carrier

    G Oil sealH Drive flange

  • Refitting8 To refit the anti-roll bar, proceed as follows.9 Fit the shallow dished washers (colourcoded black or green) and the plastic covers(where applicable) to the ends of the anti-rollbar, then push the anti-roll bar through thebushes in the lower arms. Fit the remainingplastic covers (where applicable) and thedeep dished washers (colour coded yellow orblack) and loosely fit the securing nuts. Notethat the convex faces of the dished washersmust face the lower arm. Do not tighten thenuts fully at this stage.10 Locate the free lower arm inner pivotbush in the crossmember, and refit the pivotbolt, washer and nut. If necessary, push theouter rim of the roadwheel in order to line upthe holes in the lower arm bush and thecrossmember. Note that the pivot bolt headshould face to the rear of the vehicle. Do nottighten the bolt at this stage.11 Lower the vehicle so that its weight isresting on the roadwheels.12 Refit the anti-roll bar U-clamps to thevehicle underbody. Note that various differenttypes of clamping components have beenused during production, and if any of thecomponents are to be renewed, it is importantto retain the old components for identificationwhen ordering new parts. The same type ofclamp assembly must be used on both sidesof the vehicle. Tighten the bolts evenly oneach clamp to the specified torque. Whereapplicable, secure the bolts with the locktabs.13 Bounce the vehicle to settle thesuspension, then tighten the lower arm pivotbolt, following the procedure given in Section 2. 14 Tighten the anti-roll bar-to-lower armsecuring nuts to the specified torque.15 Lower the vehicle from the ramps, if notalready done.

    Note: The compliance bushes must berenewed in vehicle sets, therefore the busheson both sides of the vehicle must be renewedat the same time. If plastic covers were notoriginally fitted between the dished washersand the bushes, suitable covers should beobtained for fitting during reassembly.1 Remove the anti-roll bar.2 Using a thin-bladed chisel or screwdriver,carefully prise out the compliance bushesfrom the lower arms.3 Tap the new bushes into place using asuitable socket or tube drift (see illustration). 4 Some vehicles may have small rubberspacer washers fitted to the ends of theanti-roll bar, and these should be discardedon reassembly. 5 Refit the anti-roll bar.

    1 To improve access, raise the front of thevehicle on ramps. Apply the handbrake.2 Unscrew and remove the nut, washer andpivot bolt securing the relevant lower arm tothe crossmember.3 Remove the anti-roll bar-to-lower armsecuring nut and recover the dished washerand plastic cover (where applicable).4 Ensure that the handbrake is applied, jackup the front of the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).5 Pull the inner end of the lower arm from thecrossmember.6 The pivot bush can now be removed fromthe lower arm using a long bolt with nut,washers and a suitable metal tube.7 Lubricate the new bush with soapy water,and fit with a single continuous action to avoid

    deformation of the bush, again using the bolt,nut, washers and tube.8 Locate the end of the lower arm in thecrossmember, and refit the pivot bolt, washerand nut. If necessary, push the outer rim ofthe roadwheel in order to line up the holes inthe lower arm bush and the crossmember.Note that the pivot bolt head should face tothe rear of the vehicle. Do not tighten the boltat this stage.9 Refit the plastic cover, dished washer(where applicable), and nut to the end of theanti-roll bar. Do not tighten the nut at thisstage.10 Lower the vehicle so that its weight isresting on the roadwheels, and bounce thevehicle to settle the suspension.11 Tighten the lower arm pivot bolt, followingthe procedure given in Section 2.12 Tighten the anti-roll bar-to-lower armsecuring nut to the specified torque.13 Lower the vehicle from the ramps, if notalready done.

    Note: From May 1986, revised final drive unitrear mounting bolts have been used inproduction. Whenever the earlier type of boltsare removed, they should be discarded andthe later type fitted. The earlier bolts arecoloured blue, and the later type bolts arecoloured gold.

    Removal1 Jack up the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support). Itis only strictly necessary to jack up the rear ofthe vehicle, but this provides only limitedaccess. Note that the axle stands should bepositioned under the side members.2 Remove the rear section of the exhaustsystem - ie. from the joint.3 Remove the propeller shaft.4 Disconnect the handbrake equaliser fromthe operating rod by removing the circlip and

    10 Rear suspension and finaldrive unit assembly (Saloon,Hatchback and Estatemodels) - removal and refitting

    9 Front suspension lower arminner pivot bush - renewal

    8 Front anti-roll bar-to-lower armcompliance bushes - renewal

    Suspension and steering 117

    11

    8.3 Tapping a front anti-roll bar-to-lowerarm compliance bush into position

    7.4 Front anti-roll bar-to-lower arm mounting

    A Rear (black or green) shallow dished washer

    B Plastic cover (where applicable)C Compliance bushesD Plastic cover (where applicable) E Front (yellow or black) deep dished

    washer

  • pivot pin. Take care not to lose thecomponents (see illustration).5 Remove the brake cable sheaths from theirbrackets on the vehicle underbody.6 Unscrew the brake pipes from the brakehoses at the brackets on the vehicleunderbody. Plug the ends of the pipes andhoses to prevent leakage and dirt ingress,then detach the hoses from the brackets byremoving the U-shaped retaining clips (seeillustration).7 Where applicable, disconnect the ABSsensors, and detach the leads from the clipson the lower arms.8 Place suitable blocks beneath the rearwheels, then lower the vehicle so that the rearcoil springs are lightly loaded. Reposition theaxle stands under the side members.9 Support the final drive unit with a jack,using an interposed block of wood to spreadthe load.10 Where applicable, unscrew and removethe two anti-roll bar mountings from theunderbody.11 Unscrew and remove the three boltssecuring each of the front guide plates to theunderbody and the suspension crossmember(see illustration). Where applicable, bendback the lockwasher tabs on the larger bolts.12 Unscrew and remove the four boltssecuring the final drive unit rear mounting tothe underbody. Note the location and numberof any shims which may be fitted (seeillustration).13 Working inside the rear of the vehicle,disconnect the shock absorber uppermountings. On Saloon and Hatchback

    models, access is gained by removing thetrim covers behind the side cushions. Eachcover is secured by two self-tapping screws,and the shock absorber is secured by a boltand nut. On Estate models, fold down the rearseat backrest, fold back the floor coveringand remove the front section of the luggagecompartment floor, which is secured with 12self-tapping screws. Remove the nut andwasher from the shock absorber.14 Using a jack and a wooden beampositioned beneath the longitudinalunderbody side members, raise the rear of thevehicle until the rear suspension and finaldrive unit assembly can be withdrawn fromunder the vehicle.15 If desired, the assembly can bedismantled with reference to the relevantSections of this Chapter and Chapter 9.

    Refitting16 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.17 Where applicable, secure the larger frontguide plate bolts by bending up thelockwasher tabs.18 Ensure that the coil springs are locatedcorrectly on their seats on the vehicleunderbody.19 When refitting the final drive rear mountingto the underbody, refit any shims in their originalnoted positions, and fit the bolts with referenceto the note at the beginning of this Section.20 Tighten all fixings to the specified torque.21 On completion, bleed the brakes andadjust the handbrake. With the vehicle level,check the final drive unit oil level.

    Models with rear drum brakes

    Removal1 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands placedunder the side members.2 Remove the relevant driveshaft.3 Remove the handbrake cable from the clipon the lower arm.4 Unscrew the brake pipe from the brakehose at the bracket on the lower arm. Plug theends of the pipe and hose to prevent leakageand dirt ingress, then detach the hose fromthe bracket by removing the U-shapedretaining clip (see illustration).5 Unscrew the brake pipe from the wheelcylinder on the brake backplate and plug theend of the pipe and the cylinder to preventleakage and dirt ingress.6 Unscrew the bolts securing the brakebackplate to the lower arm and tie thebackplate to one side.7 Where applicable, prise the anti-roll barconnecting strap from the lower arm.8 Support the lower arm on a jack, and raiseit slightly to place the coil spring under load.9 Remove the shock absorber.10 Unscrew and remove the three boltssecuring the front guide plate to theunderbody and the suspension crossmember(see illustration). Where applicable, bendback the lockwasher tab(s) on the larger bolt.11 Lower the lower arm, and remove the coilspring and rubber cup.12 Note the orientation of the two lowerarm-to-crossmember pivot bolts and nuts,then unscrew and remove them and withdrawthe lower arm from under the vehicle (seeillustration).13 If the lower arm is to be renewed, unclipthe brake pipe, and refit to the new arm.14 If required, the pivot bushes may berenewed using a long bolt, nut, washers and asuitable metal tube. Lubricate the new busheswith soapy water before fitting.

    11 Rear suspension lower arm(Saloon, Hatchback andEstate models) - removal andrefitting

    118 Suspension and steering

    10.4 Handbrake equaliser-to-operating rodcirclip and pivot pin (arrowed)

    10.11 Rear suspension front guide plate -lockwasher arrowed

    11.4 Brake pipe bracket on lower arm. U-shaped retaining clip arrowed

    10.12 Final drive unit-to-underbody rearmounting

    10.6 Rear underbody brake pipe bracket -U-shaped hose retaining clip arrowed

  • Refitting15 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.16 Where applicable, secure the larger frontguide plate bolt by bending up the lockwashertab(s).17 Before tightening the lowerarm-to-crossmember pivot bolts and nuts,lower the vehicle so that its weight is restingon the roadwheels, and bounce the vehicle tosettle the suspension. Ensure that the boltsare orientated as noted during removal.18 On completion, bleed the brakes andadjust the handbrake.

    Models with rear disc brakesNote: A suitable puller will be required toremove the drive flange, and a new rear hubnut must be used on reassembly.

    Removal19 With the vehicle resting on its wheels,loosen the rear hub nut. A suitable extensionbar will be required, as the nut is extremelytight. Note that the left-hand nut has aleft-hand thread, ie it is undone in a clockwisedirection. Before loosening the nut, ensurethat the handbrake is applied, and chock therelevant rear wheel.20 Loosen the rear roadwheel nuts on theside concerned, chock the front wheels, jackup the rear of the car and support on axlestands placed under the side members.21 Remove the rear roadwheel.22 Remove the rear section of the exhaustsystem - ie from the joint.23 Unscrew the brake pipe from the brakehose at the bracket on the lower arm (seeillustration). Plug the ends of the pipe andhose to prevent leakage and dirt ingress, thendetach the hose from the bracket by removingthe U-shaped retaining clip.24 Remove the handbrake cable from theclip on the lower arm.25 Unbolt the brake caliper and tie it to oneside, taking care not to strain the brake hose.26 Mark the position of the brake disc inrelation to the hub, remove the retaining spirewasher(s), and remove the disc.27 Disconnect the driveshaft from the hubassembly by unscrewing the six securingbolts. Support the driveshaft to avoid straining

    the joints, or alternatively, unbolt it from thefinal drive unit at the inboard end and removethe driveshaft from the vehicle. At all times,avoid bending the driveshaft joints toexcessive angles, and do not allow the shaftto hang down from one end.28 Unscrew and remove the rear hub nut,and using a puller pull off the drive flange.29 Unscrew the four bolts securing the hubcarrier and splash shield to the lower arm.Remove the hub carrier and splash shield.Note that the stub axle is retained in the hubcarrier.30 Disconnect the ABS sensor, and detachthe lead from the clip on the lower arm.31 Remove the propeller shaft. 32 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 7 to 14inclusive.

    Refitting33 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.34 Where applicable, secure the larger frontguide plate bolt by bending up the lockwashertabs.35 When refitting the hub carrier to the lowerarm note that there are two types of bolts used. The two types of bolt must not be mixed on avehicle, but can be changed in complete setsfor the alternative type. A complete set is eightbolts, four each side. Note that the two typesof bolt have different torque wrench settings.When renewing the wheel bearings a suitablepuller will be required to remove the driveflange, and a new rear hub nut must be usedon reassembly.

    36 When refitting the drive flange to the hubassembly, use a new hub nut, and leavetightening until the vehicle is resting on itswheels. Apply the handbrake and chock therelevant rear wheel when tightening the nut.37 When refitting the brake disc, align thepreviously made marks on disc and hub.38 Before tightening the lowerarm-to-crossmember pivot bolts and nuts,lower the vehicle so that its weight is restingon the roadwheels, and bounce the vehicle tosettle the suspension. Ensure that the boltsare orientated as noted during removal.39 On completion, bleed the brakes andadjust the handbrake.

    Saloon and Hatchback models1 With the weight of the vehicle resting on theroadwheels, work under the vehicle tounscrew and remove the shock absorberlower mounting bolt and nut from the relevantlower arm (see illustration). If desired, therear of the vehicle can be raised on ramps toimprove access.2 Working inside the rear of the vehicle,remove the trim cover behind the sidecushion. The cover is secured by twoself-tapping screws (see illustrations).

    12 Rear shock absorber -removal and refitting

    Suspension and steering 119

    11

    11.23 Rear suspension lower arm brakepipe brackets (arrowed)

    A Left-hand bracket B Right-hand bracket

    12.1 Rear shock absorber lower mounting- Saloon and Hatchback models

    11.12 Lower arm-to-crossmember innerpivot

    11.10 Rear suspension front guide plate

    12.2a Remove the trim cover . . .

  • 3 With an assistant supporting the shockabsorber from below, unscrew and removethe upper mounting bolt and nut. Withdrawthe shock absorber from under the vehicle.4 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Tightenthe mounting bolts securely.

    Estate modelsNote: On models fitted with heavy dutyNivomat shock absorbers, follow theprocedure given in Section 13, as the shockabsorber and coil spring are an integrated unit.5 With the weight of the vehicle resting on theroadwheels, work under the vehicle to unscrewand remove the two shock absorber lowermounting bolts from the relevant lower arm (seeillustration). If desired, the rear of the vehiclecan be raised on ramps to improve access.6 Working inside the rear of the vehicle, folddown the rear seat backrest, fold back thefloor covering and remove the front section ofthe luggage compartment floor, which issecured with 12 self-tapping screws.7 With an assistant supporting the shockabsorber from below, unscrew and removethe upper mounting nut and washer (seeillustration). Withdraw the shock absorberfrom under the vehicle.8 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Tightenthe mounting bolts and nut securely.

    P100 models9 With the weight of the vehicle resting on theroadwheels, work under the vehicle tounscrew and remove the shock absorberlower mounting nut, washer, and rubberinsulator. If desired, the rear of the vehicle canbe raised on ramps to improve access.

    10 Unscrew and remove the top mountingbolt, nut and washer from the chassiscrossmember. Withdraw the shock absorberupwards.11 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Tightenthe mounting bolt and nut securely.

    Models with rear drum brakes1 Remove the relevant driveshaft.2 Unscrew the brake pipe from the brakehose at the bracket on the vehicle underbody.Plug the ends of the pipe and hose to preventleakage and dirt ingress.3 Where applicable, prise the anti-roll barconnecting strap from the lower arm.4 Support the lower arm on a jack, and raiseit slightly to place the coil spring under load.5 On Saloon and Hatchback models, unscrewand remove the shock absorber lowermounting bolt and nut from the lower arm.6 On Estate models fitted with standardshock absorbers, remove the shock absorberas described in Section 12. On Estate modelsfitted with heavy duty Nivomat shockabsorbers, disconnect the upper and lowermountings.7 Unscrew and remove the three boltssecuring the front guide plate to theunderbody and the suspension crossmember.Where applicable, bend back the lockwashertab(s) on the larger bolt.

    8 Lower the lower arm, and remove the coilspring, or coil spring/heavy duty shockabsorber as applicable, and the rubber cup.9 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.10 Where applicable, secure the larger frontguide plate bolt by bending up the lockwashertab(s).11 Refit the driveshaft.12 On completion, bleed the brakes.

    Models with rear disc brakes13 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands placedunder the side members.14 Disconnect the driveshaft from the hubassembly by unscrewing the six securingbolts. Support the driveshaft to avoid strainingthe joints, or alternatively, unbolt it from thefinal drive unit at the inboard end and removethe driveshaft from the vehicle. At all times,avoid bending the driveshaft joints toexcessive angles, and do not allow the shaftto hang down from one end.15 Proceed as shown in paragraphs 2 to 8inclusive.16 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Whereapplicable, secure the larger front guide platebolt by bending up the lockwasher tab(s), andon completion, bleed the brakes.

    Saloon, Hatchback and EstatemodelsWith rear drum brakesNote: There are two types of bolts used tosecure the rear hub carrier to the lower arm(see illustration). The two types of bolt mustnot be mixed on a vehicle, but can be changedin complete sets for the alternative type. Acomplete set is eight bolts, four each side.Note that the two types of bolt have differenttorque wrench settings. When renewing thewheel bearings a suitable puller will berequired to remove the drive flange, and a newrear hub nut must be used on reassembly.1 Loosen the rear hub nut with the vehicleresting on its wheels. On early models, relievethe staking before loosening the nut (seeillustration). Later models use self-locking

    14 Rear wheel bearings -renewal

    13 Rear coil spring (Saloon,Hatchback and Estatemodels) - removal and refitting

    1110 Suspension and steering

    12.5 Rear shock absorber lower mountingbolts - Estate models

    14.1a Alternative types of rear hub carrier-to-lower arm securing bolts

    12.7 Rear shock absorber upper mounting(arrowed) - Estate models

    12.2b . . . for access to the rear shockabsorber upper mounting

    14.1b On early models relieve the staking(arrowed) on the rear hub nut

  • nuts, and it is important to note that wherethis type of nut is fitted, the left-hand nut hasa left-hand thread, ie. it is undone in aclockwise direction. Before loosening the nut,ensure that the handbrake is applied, andchock the relevant rear wheel. A suitableextension bar will be required, as the nut isextremely tight.2 Loosen the rear roadwheel nuts on the sideconcerned, chock the front wheels, and jackup the rear of the vehicle and support on axlestands (see Jacking and Vehicle Support).Remove the rear roadwheel.3 Remove the brake drum retaining spirewasher(s) from the wheel stud(s) and removethe brake drum. Ensure that the handbrake isreleased before removing the brake drum,otherwise the drum will be held in place by theclamping action of the brake shoes.4 Remove the two nylon fasteners, andremove the plastic shield from the rear of thebrake backplate (see illustration).5 Unscrew and remove the rear hub nut.6 Using a suitable puller, pull the drive flangefrom the end of the driveshaft (seeillustration).7 Unscrew and remove the four boltssecuring the hub carrier and brake backplateto the lower arm (see illustration). Removethe hub carrier, whilst supporting thedriveshaft. Support the driveshaft by placingaxle stands underneath it, or by securing withstring to the underbody. Note that thedriveshaft joints should not be allowed todeflect through an angle exceeding 13.8 Refit the brake backplate with the foursecuring bolts to avoid straining the brakepipe.9 With the hub carrier removed, the bearingscan be renewed as follows (see illustration).10 Prise the inner and outer oil seals from thehub carrier using a suitable screwdriver, andwithdraw the taper roller bearings.11 Using a soft metal drift, drive the bearingouter races from the hub carrier, taking carenot to damage the inner surface of the carrier.

    12 Clean the hub carrier and drive flange withparaffin, wipe dry and examine for damageand wear. Note that the components aremachined to very close tolerances, and thebearings are supplied in matched pairs,therefore scrupulous cleanliness must beobserved.13 Using a metal tube of suitable diameter,drive the new bearing outer races fully into thehub carrier. Ensure that the races are seatedcorrectly.14 Pack the inner bearing races and rollerswith high-melting-point lithium-based grease,and locate the outer bearing assembly in thehub carrier.15 Fill the cavities between the sealing lips ofthe oil seal with grease, then drive it fully intothe hub carrier using a block of wood or ametal tube of suitable diameter. Note than onearly models the oil seal has a rubber casing,and this type of seal should be replaced withthe later type which has a metal casing. Theoil seal should be renewed regardless of type,and a new oil seal of the correct type isnormally supplied with the new wheelbearings.16 Repeat the procedure shown inparagraphs 14 and 15 for the outer bearingand oil seal.

    17 Fit the drive flange to the hub carrier inorder to centralise the bearings, then removethe securing bolts from the brake backplate,and using a soft-faced mallet, drive the driveflange/hub carrier assembly onto the end ofthe driveshaft.18 Further refitting is a reversal of removal,bearing in mind the following points.19 Refit the hub carrier/brakebackplate-to-lower arm securing bolts withreference to the note at the beginning of thissub-Section.20 Fit a new rear hub nut of the correct type,and tighten it with the vehicle resting on itsroadwheels. Apply the handbrake and chockthe relevant rear wheel. If a staked type nut isused, lock the nut by staking its outer ring intothe groove in the driveshaft.

    With rear disc brakesNote: See note.at the beginning of this Section21 Loosen the rear hub nut with the vehicleresting on its wheels. Note that the left-handnut has a left-hand thread, ie. it is undone in aclockwise direction. Before loosening the nut,ensure that the handbrake is applied, andchock the relevant rear wheel. A suitableextension bar will be required, as the nut isextremely tight.

    Suspension and steering 1111

    11

    14.6 Pull the drive flange from the end ofthe driveshaft

    14.9 Rear hub carrier components - Saloon, Hatchback andEstate models

    A Outer oil sealB Outer bearing

    C Hub carrierD Inner bearing

    E Inner oil seal14.7 Rear hub carrier/brake backplate-to-lower arm securingbolts

    14.4 Remove the nylon fasteners (arrowed)to free the plastic shield from the brake

    backplate

  • 22 Loosen the rear roadwheel nuts on theside concerned, chock the front wheels, andjack up the rear of the vehicle and support onaxle stands. Remove the roadwheel andrelease the handbrake.23 Unbolt the brake caliper carrier bracketand support the caliper on an axle stand,taking care not to strain the flexible hose.24 Mark the position of the brake disc inrelation to the drive flange, remove theretaining spire washer(s), and remove the disc.25 Unscrew and remove the rear hub nut,and using a puller, pull off the drive flange.26 Unscrew the four bolts securing the hubcarrier and splash shield to the lower arm.Remove the hub carrier and splash shield,whilst supporting the driveshaft. Support thedriveshaft by placing axle stands underneathit, or by securing with string to the underbody.Avoid bending the driveshaft joints toexcessive angles, and do not allow the shaftto hang down from one end.27 With the hub carrier removed, thebearings can be renewed as described inparagraphs 10 to 16 of this Section.28 Fit the drive flange to the hub carrier inorder to centralise the bearings, then using asoft-faced mallet, drive the drive flange/hubcarrier assembly onto the end of the stub axle.Do not forget to fit the splash shield.29 Further refitting is a reversal of removal,bearing in mind the following points.30 Refit the hub carrier/splashshield-to-lower arm securing bolts withreference to the note at the beginning of thissub-Section.31 When refitting the brake disc, align thepreviously made marks on disc and driveflange.32 Fit a new rear hub nut of the correct type,and tighten it with the vehicle resting on itsroadwheels. Apply the handbrake and chockthe relevant rear wheel.

    P100 modelsNote: A new rear hub nut must be used onreassembly.33 Remove the relevant driveshaft.34 Relieve the staking on the rear hub nut,and using a 50 mm socket and an extensionbar, unscrew the nut. Note that the nut isextremely tight.35 Pull off the hub, and remove the O-ringand spacer sleeve from the recess in the hub(see illustration).36 Prise the oil seal from the rear of the hubusing a screwdriver.37 Using a block of wood, or a suitable metaltube inserted from the rear of the hub, tap outthe ball-bearing.38 Clean the hub with paraffin, wipe dry andexamine for damage and wear.39 Using a metal tube of suitable diameter,resting on the bearing outer race only, tap thenew bearing into the hub. Ensure that thebearing is correctly seated.40 Carefully fit a new oil seal to the rear of thehub, using a suitable metal tube.

    41 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points. 42 Fit a new rear hub nut, and stake inposition after tightening to the specifiedtorque.

    1 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands placedunder the side members.2 Unscrew and remove the three boltssecuring the relevant front guide plate to theunderbody and the suspension crossmember.Where applicable, bend back the lockwashertab(s) on the larger bolt.3 Using a length of wood, lever thesuspension crossmember downwards a fewinches from the underbody, and insert thewood as a wedge.4 Using a tool similar to the Ford special toolshown (see illustration), or a long bolt withnut, washers and a suitable metal tube, pullthe mounting rubber from the crossmember.5 Lubricate the new mounting rubber withsoapy water, and use the tool described in theprevious paragraph to press the rubber intothe crossmember.6 Further refitting is a reversal of removal.Where applicable, secure the larger frontguide plate bolt by bending up the lockwashertab(s).

    Note: From May 1986, revised rearsuspension/final drive unit rear mounting boltshave been used in production. Whenever theearlier type of bolts are removed, they shouldbe discarded and the later type fitted. Theearlier bolts are coloured blue, and the latertype bolts are coloured gold.

    1 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands placedunder the side members.2 Support the final drive unit with a jack,using an interposed block of wood to spreadthe load.3 Unscrew and remove the four boltssecuring the mounting to the underbody. Notethe location and number of any shims whichmay be fitted.4 Lower the final drive unit sufficiently toenable the mounting to be unbolted from thefinal drive unit rear cover (see illustration).

    16 Rear suspension/final driveunit rear mounting (Saloon,Hatchback and Estatemodels) - renewal

    15 Rear suspension frontmounting (Saloon, Hatchbackand Estate models) - renewal

    1112 Suspension and steering

    15.4 Ford special tool 15-014 for removingrear suspension front mounting rubber

    14.35 Rear hub components - P100 models

    A Oil sealB HubC Ball-bearing

    D Hub nutE Spacer sleeveF O-ring

    16.4 Rear suspension/final drive unit rearmounting-to-final drive unit rear cover

    bolts

  • 5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, withreference to the note at the beginning of thisSection. Refit any shims in their original notedpositions, and tighten all bolts to the specifiedtorque.

    Removal1 Loosen the rear roadwheel nuts, chock thefront wheels, jack up the rear of the vehicleand support on axle stands placed under theside members.2 Prise off the straps which connect theanti-roll bar to the suspension lower arms(see illustration).3 Unbolt the two securing brackets from theunderbody, and remove the anti-roll bar (seeillustration).4 The connecting straps can be prised fromthe ends of the anti-roll bar, and theunderbody mounting brackets and rubbers,which are of a split design, can be pulled off.5 When fitting new mounting components,lubricate the rubber parts with soapy water toease assembly.

    Refitting6 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Tightenthe anti-roll bar-to-underbody securing boltsto the specified torque.

    Note: All self-locking nuts and spring washersmust be renewed on reassembly.

    Removal1 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands placedunder the side members. Note that a loadedvehicle must not be jacked under thedifferential casing.

    2 Support the rear axle with a jack, using aninterposed block of wood to spread the load.3 Remove the propeller shaft.4 Remove the securing circlip and the pivotpin, and detach the handbrake equaliser fromthe linkage on the underbody.5 Remove the handbrake cables from theclips on the underbody, and from the bracketson the crossmember. To remove the cablesfrom the crossmember, remove the U-shapedretaining clips. Note that the cable adjuster issecured to the right-hand crossmemberbracket. Ensure that the handbrake isreleased before attempting to disconnect anypart of the mechanism.6 Unscrew the brake pipe from the brakehose on the right-hand side of the chassiscrossmember. Plug the ends of the pipe andhose to prevent leakage and dirt ingress, thendetach the hose from the crossmember byremoving the U-shaped retaining clip (seeillustration).7 Remove the spring clip and clevis pin anddisconnect the spring from the brake loadapportioning valve lever on the right-handside of the underbody (see illustration). 8 Detach the exhaust system from the tworear mountings. 9 Unbolt the shock absorbers from thechassis crossmember. 10 Unbolt the leaf springs from the frontbrackets on the underbody, (Section 19). 11 Lower the rear axle. 12 Loosen the spring shackle-to-underbodybolts, then unbolt the leaf springs from thespring shackles, and remove the rearsuspension and axle assembly from under the

    vehicle, guiding the handbrake cables overthe exhaust system.

    Refitting13 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.14 Do not fully tighten the leaf springmounting bolts or the springshackle-to-underbody bolts until the weight ofthe vehicle is resting on the roadwheels.15 Renew all self-locking nuts and springwashers.16 On completion, check the brake loadapportioning valve adjustment and thehandbrake adjustment. Bleed the rear brakecircuit and check the axle oil level.

    Note: All self-locking nuts and spring washersmust be renewed on reassembly.

    Removal1 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands placedunder the side members. Note that a loadedvehicle must not be jacked under thedifferential casing.2 Support the relevant side of the rear axlewith a jack, using an interposed block ofwood under the axle tube to spread the load.3 Unscrew the nuts, and remove the twoU-bolts on each side of the vehicle whichsecure the axle to the leaf springs (seeillustration). Note that there is no need to

    19 Rear suspension leaf spring(P100 models) - removal andrefitting

    18 Rear suspension and axleassembly (P100 models) -removal and refitting

    17 Rear anti-roll bar (Saloon,Hatchback and Estatemodels) - removal and refitting

    Suspension and steering 1113

    11

    17.3 Anti-roll bar-to-underbody securingbracket

    18.7 Remove the split pin (arrowed) fromthe brake load apportioning valve lever

    18.6 Brake pipe-to-hose connection onright-hand side of chassis crossmember -

    P100 models

    1 Brake pipe2 U-shaped clip

    3 Brake hose

    17.2 Anti-roll bar-to-lower arm connectingstrap

    19.3 Unscrew the nuts (arrowed) from therear axle-to-leaf spring U-bolts

  • disconnect the shock absorber from theU-bolt counterplate.4 Unbolt the leaf spring from the front bracketon the underbody (see illustration).5 Loosen the spring shackle-to-underbodybolt, then unbolt the leaf spring from thespring shackle and remove the spring (seeillustration).

    Refitting6 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.7 Do not fully tighten the leaf spring mountingbolts or the spring shackle-to-underbody boltuntil the weight of the vehicle is resting on itsroadwheels.8 Renew all self-locking nuts and springwashers.9 Align the axle on the leaf spring so that thelocating pin on the spring engages with thecorresponding hole in the axle. Similarlyensure that the U-bolt counterplate engageswith the locating pin on the leaf spring.

    Note: All self-locking nuts and spring washersmust be renewed on reassembly.

    Removal1 Chock the front wheels, jack up the rear ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands placedunder the side members. Note that a loadedvehicle must not be jacked under thedifferential casing.

    2 Support the relevant side of the rear axlewith a jack, using an interposed block ofwood under the axle tube to spread the load.3 Unscrew and remove the springshackle-to-underbody bolt and the leafspring-to-spring shackle bolt, and remove theshackle components. 4 Examine the components for wear anddamage and renew as necessary.

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but renewall self-locking nuts and spring washers, anddo not fully tighten the bolts until the weight ofthe vehicle is resting on its roadwheels.

    Note: All self-locking nuts and spring washersmust be renewed on reassembly.1 Proceed as described in Section 19,paragraphs 1 to 3 inclusive.2 Unbolt the relevant end of the leaf spring,and lower it to gain access to the bush. Notethat if the shackle end of the spring isunbolted, the shackle-to-underbody boltshould be loosened in order to aid refitting.3 The bush can be removed using a long boltwith nut, washers and a suitable metal tube.4 Lubricate the new bush with soapy waterand fit using the bolt, nut, washers and tube.5 Proceed as described in Section 19,paragraphs 6 to 9 inclusive.

    Removal1 Set the front wheels in the straight-aheadposition.2 Prise the trim insert from the centre of thesteering wheel, and where applicable,disconnect the horn electrical lead(s) (seeillustration).3 Insert the ignition key and check that thesteering lock is disengaged.4 Unscrew the retaining nut and withdraw thesteering wheel from the hexagon shaped innercolumn (see illustration). If the wheel is tighton the inner column, sit in the drivers seatand tap the wheel from behind with the palmsof the hands (but screw the nut back on twoor three turns for safety).

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but checkthat the lug on the direction indicator cam isaligned with the cut-out in the steering wheel,and make sure that the direction indicatorswitch is in the neutral position. Tighten theretaining nut to the specified torque.

    1 This operation is for correcting small errorsin steering wheel centralisation - up to 60.For larger errors, remove the steering wheeland make a rough correction by repositioningthe wheel on refitting.2 Drive the vehicle in a straight line on a levelsurface. Note the angle by which the steeringwheel deviates from the desiredstraight-ahead position.3 Raise the front of the vehicle by driving itonto ramps, or with a jack and axle stands.4 Slacken both tie-rod end locknuts. Alsoslacken the steering rack bellows outer clips.5 Make alignment marks between eachtie-rod end and its rod, so that the amount ofrotation applied can be accurately determined(see illustration).

    23 Steering wheel - centralising

    22 Steering wheel - removal andrefitting

    21 Rear suspension leaf springbush (P100 models) - renewal

    20 Rear suspension leaf springshackle (P100 models) -removal and refitting

    1114 Suspension and steering

    19.5 Leaf spring shackle

    22.4 Removing the steering wheel retainingnut

    22.2 Prise off the steering wheel trim insertand disconnect the horn electrical lead

    19.4 Leaf spring front bracket

    23.5 Make alignment marks (arrowed)between each tie-rod end and its rod when

    centralising the steering wheel

  • 6 Turn both tie-rods in the same direction tocorrect the steering wheel position. As arough guide, 19 of tie-rod rotation willchange the steering wheel position by 1. Tocorrect a clockwise error at the steeringwheel, rotate both tie-rods anti-clockwise(when viewed from the left-hand side of thevehicle), and the reverse to correct an anti-clockwise error. Both tie-rods must be rotatedby the same amount.7 Tighten the bellows clips and the tie-rodend locknuts when adjustment is correct.Lower the vehicle.

    Removal1 Set the front wheels in the straight-aheadposition. 2 Disconnect the battery negative lead.3 Remove the drivers side lower facia trimpanels. 4 Remove the screws and withdraw thesteering column upper and lower shrouds(see illustrations).

    5 Unscrew the two crosshead screws andwithdraw the two combination switches fromthe column. 6 Remove the screw from the bonnet releaselever and remove the lever. 7 Working in the engine compartment,unscrew the bolt securing the intermediateshaft to the inner column, swivel the clampplate to one side, and disconnect theintermediate shaft (see illustration). 8 Unscrew the nuts securing the outercolumn to the facia. 9 Disconnect the multi-plugs and withdrawthe column assembly upwards (seeillustration).

    Refitting10 Refit the column assembly in the car andtighten the upper mounting nuts lightly.Loosen the mounting pinch-bolt.11 Temporarily fit the upper column shroudand adjust the position of the steering columnuntil there is a gap of 5.0 mm (0.2 in) betweenthe shroud and the facia (see illustration).12 Tighten the pinch-bolt and the mountingnuts and remove the upper column shroud.13 With the steering wheel in thestraight-ahead position, reconnect the

    intermediate shaft and tighten the clamp platebolt to the specified torque.14 Refit the bonnet release lever andcombination switches and reconnect themulti-plugs.15 Refit the steering column shrouds andtrim panels. 16 Reconnect the battery negative lead.

    Note: A new adjuster locknut and washermust be used on reassembly.

    Dismantling1 To dismantle the adjuster assembly,proceed as follows.2 Remove the locknut and washer securingthe adjuster through-bolt (see illustration). 3 Remove the through-bolt, adjuster handle,locking plates, sliders and washers, thenunclip the spring assembly.

    Reassembly4 Reassemble the components as follows.5 Refit the spring to the adjuster assemblybracket.

    25 Steering column adjuster -dismantling and reassembly

    24 Steering column - removaland refitting

    Suspension and steering 1115

    11

    24.4b . . . and lower shroud

    24.11 Upper column shroud-to-facia gap adjustment

    X = 5.0 mm (0.2 in)

    24.9 Steering column components

    A Direction indicator camB ThrustwashersC Bearings

    D Outer columnE SpringF Inner column

    24.7 Intermediate shaft-to-inner columnuniversal joint and clamp plate (arrowed)

    24.4a Remove the steering column uppershroud . . .

  • 6 Align the washers, sliders and lockingplates, ensuring that the handle locking plateis fitted so that the cut-out and Ford logo arepositioned as shown (see illustration).7 Coat the through-bolt threads with asuitable thread-locking compound, then refitthe through-bolt and the adjuster handle,ensuring that all components are engaged.8 Position the handle in the locked position,and secure the through-bolt with a newlocknut and washer.

    Removal1 Apply the handbrake, jack up the front ofthe vehicle and support on axle stands.2 Working in the engine compartment,unscrew the bolt securing the intermediateshaft to the inner column, swivel the clampplate to one side, and disconnect theintermediate shaft.3 Unscrew and remove the clamp boltsecuring the flexible coupling to the steeringgear (see illustration).4 Mark the coupling in relation to the pinion,then pull off the intermediate shaft andremove it from the vehicle. The pinion has amaster spline, but making alignment markswill aid refitting (see illustration).

    Refitting5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, but alignthe marks on the coupling and pinion, andtighten all bolts to the specified torque.

    Note: A balljoint separator tool will berequired for this operation.

    Removal1 Set the front wheels in the straight-aheadposition. Ensure that the steering lock isengaged and remove the ignition key.2 Apply the handbrake. Loosen the frontroadwheel nuts, jack up the front of thevehicle and support on axle stands.3 Remove the roadwheels. On P100 models,mark the position of the roadwheels in relationto the wheel studs.4 Unscrew and remove the clamp boltssecuring the intermediate shaft flexiblecoupling to the steering gear.5 If the original steering gear is to be refitted,mark the coupling in relation to the pinion. Thepinion has a master spline, but makingalignment marks will aid refitting.6 Slacken the tie-rod end locknuts (seeillustration).7 Remove the split pins and unscrew thecastellated nuts from the tie-rod end-to-hubcarrier balljoints.8 Using a balljoint separator tool, disconnectthe tie-rod ends from the hub carriers.

    9 Unscrew the two steering gear-to-frontsuspension crossmember securing bolts, andwithdraw the steering gear from under thevehicle.10 If required, remove the tie-rod ends.

    Refitting11 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.12 If new steering gear is being fitted, thecentral pinion position can be ascertained byhalving the number of turns required to movethe rack from lock to lock.13 Where applicable, align the marks madeon the coupling and pinion.14 When tightening the steering gear-to-frontsuspension crossmember bolts, the followingprocedure should be used. Tighten the boltsto the specified clamping torque, thenloosen the bolts fully. Re-tighten to thespecified snug torque and then furthertighten the bolts through the specified angle.15 Tighten all fixings to the specified torque,and use new split pins on the balljointcastellated nuts.16 On P100 models, align the previouslymade marks on the roadwheels and wheelstuds.17 On completion, check the front wheelalignment.

    Note: New power steering fluid hose O-ringswill be required when refitting.

    Removal1 The procedure is as described for manualsteering gear with the following differences(see illustration).2 Before removing the steering gear from thesuspension crossmember, place a suitablecontainer beneath the steering gear. Unscrewthe single bolt securing the power steeringfluid hoses to the pinion housing. Unscrew thehose unions and drain the power steeringfluid. Plug the ends of the hoses and thesteering gear apertures, or cover them withmasking tape to prevent dirt ingress.

    28 Power steering gear- removal and refitting

    27 Manual steering gear -removal and refitting

    26 Steering intermediate shaftand flexible coupling -removal and refitting

    1116 Suspension and steering

    25.6 Cut-out and Ford logo (A) must bepositioned as shown when reassembling

    adjustable steering column

    26.4 Master spline location on the steeringgear pinion and intermediate shaft

    coupling26.3 Intermediate shaft-to-steering gear

    flexible coupling

    25.2 Adjustable steering column assembly

    A Adjuster handleB Locking platesC Through-boltD SlidersE Spring

  • Suspension and steering 1117

    11

    27.6 Manual steering gear componentsA Pinion retaining nutB PinionC Steering gear housingD Rack support bushE Tie-rodF GaiterG Slipper plugH SpringJ Slipper

    28.1 Power steering gear componentsA Pinion locknut assemblyB PinionC Pinion upper bearing and sealD Slipper assemblyE Pinion lower bearing assemblyF RackG Tie-rodH Tie-rod endJ GaiterK Rack support bearing and sealL Inner rack seal and support bearingM Rack support bearing locking wireN Steering gear housing

  • Refitting3 When refitting the fluid hoses, use newO-rings, and take care not to overtighten theunions. Note that with the unions fullytightened it is still possible to rotate and movethe hoses.4 On completion of refitting, bleed the powersteering fluid circuit (Section 34).

    Note: New power steering fluid hose O-ringswill be required when refitting.

    All engines except 1.8 litre (R6A)CVH and 2.0 litre DOHC1 Place a suitable container under the powersteering pump, unscrew the fluid hose unions,and drain the fluid. Ensure that fluid is notallowed to spill onto the alternator.2 Remove the drivebelts and unbolt thepower steering pump pulley if necessary toease removal. 3 Unbolt the rear support bar from the pumpand the engine block (see illustration). 4 Unbolt the pump from its mounting bracket,and withdraw the pump from the engine. 5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, noting thefollowing points. 6 Tension the drivebelts correctly. 7 When refitting the fluid hoses, use newO-rings, and take care not to overtighten theunions.

    8 On completion of refitting, bleed the powersteering fluid circuit.

    1.8 litre (R6A) CVH engine9 The removal and refitting procedures arebasically the same as described below for the2.0 litre DOHC engine, except that the pumpis mounted on a bracket above the alternatoron the front left-hand side of the engine.

    2.0 litre DOHC engine 10 The pump is mounted on a bracket on thefront right-hand side of the cylinder block.11 Place a suitable container under thepump, unscrew the fluid pipe unions, anddrain the fluid.12 Remove the drivebelt which also drivesthe coolant pump and alternator.13 Prevent the pulley from rotating using astrap wrench (which can be improvised usingan old drivebelt and a large socket andwrench), and unscrew the three pulleysecuring bolts. Withdraw the pulley.14 Unscrew the three pump securing boltsfrom the front of the pump bracket, and thesingle bolt from the rear of the bracket, andwithdraw the pump (see illustrations).15 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearingin mind the following points.16 Reconnect the fluid unions using new O-rings.17 On completion, bleed the power steeringfluid circuit.

    Note: New fluid hose O-rings will be requiredwhen refitting.

    Removal1 Clean around the hose unions on thesteering gear. Place a suitable containerbeneath the steering gear, then remove thesingle bolt securing the hoses to the pinionhousing, unscrew the hose unions and drainthe power steering fluid.2 Clean around the hose unions on the pump.Place a suitable container beneath the pump,unscrew the hose unions, and drain anyremaining fluid. Ensure that no fluid is allowedto spill onto the alternator.

    3 If the hoses are to be left disconnected for along period of time, plug the ends of thehoses and the apertures in the steering gearand pump, or cover them with masking tapeto prevent dirt ingress.

    Refitting4 Refit in reverse order using new O-rings.5 On completion top-up the fluid and bleedthe system.

    1 Unscrew the filler cap from the powersteering pump reservoir and top-up the fluidlevel to the maximum mark using the specifiedfluid.2 Disconnect the low tension negative leadfrom the ignition coil and crank the engineseveral times for two second periods whileslowly turning the steering wheel fromlock-to-lock. Top-up the fluid level ifnecessary and continue cranking the engineuntil the fluid is free of air bubbles.3 Reconnect the coil lead and start theengine. Check the system for leaks.4 Switch off the engine and refit the filler cap.5 Drive the vehicle for a few miles to warm upthe fluid and expel any remaining air, thenstop the engine and make a final fluid levelcheck.

    1 Remove the tie-rod end.2 Unscrew and remove the tie-rod endlocknut from the tie-rod.3 Remove the clips and slide the gaiter fromthe tie-rod and steering gear.4 Slide the new gaiter over the tie-rod andonto the steering gear. Where applicable,make sure that the gaiter seats in the cut-outsin the tie-rod and steering gear.5 Secure the gaiter with new clips.6 Refit the tie-rod end locknut to the tie-rod.7 Refit the tie-rod end.

    Note: A balljoint separator tool will berequired for this operation.

    Removal1 Loosen the relevant front roadwheel nuts,apply the handbrake, jack up the front of thevehicle and support on axle stands.2 Remove the roadwheel. On P100 modelsmark the position of the roadwheel in relationto one of the wheel studs before removal.3 Make alignment marks on the tie-rod andtie-rod end, then loosen the locknut by aquarter of a turn.

    33 Tie-rod end - removal andrefitting

    32 Steering gear rubber gaiter -renewal

    31 Power steering fluid circuit- bleeding

    30 Power steering fluid hoses- removal and refitting

    29 Power steering pump- removal and refitting

    1118 Suspension and steering

    29.3 Power steering pump rear support barbolts (arrowed)

    29.14b Power steering pump rear securingbolt

    29.14a Unbolt the power steering pumppulley for access to the front pump

    securing bolts (arrowed)

  • 4 Extract the split pin and unscrew thecastellated nut (see illustration).5 Using a balljoint separator tool, release thetie-rod end from the hub carrier (seeillustration).6 Unscrew the tie-rod end from the tie-rod,noting the number of turns necessary toremove it.

    Refitting7 Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing inmind the following points.8 Screw the tie-rod end onto the tie-rod thenumber of turns noted during removal.9 Tighten the nuts to the specified torque,and fit a new split pin to the castellated nut.10 On P100 models, align the previouslymade marks on the roadwheel and wheelstud.11 On completion, check and if necessaryadjust the front wheel alignment.

    1 Front wheel alignment is defined bycamber, castor steering axis inclination andtoe setting. The first three factors aredetermined in production; only toe can beadjusted in service. Incorrect toe will causerapid tyre wear.2 Toe is defined as the amount by which thedistance between the front wheels, measuredat hub height, differs from the front edges to

    the rear edges. If the distance between thefront edges is less than that at the rear, thewheels are said to toe-in; the opposite case isknown as toe-out.3 To measure toe, it will be necessary toobtain or make a tracking gauge. These areavailable in motor accessory shops, or onecan be made from a length of rigid pipe or barwith some kind of threaded adjustment facilityat one end. Many tyre specialists will alsocheck toe free, or for a nominal sum.4 Before measuring toe, check that allsteering and suspension components areundamaged and that tyre pressures arecorrect. The vehicle must be at approximatelykerb weight, with the spare wheel and jack intheir normal positions and any abnormal loadsremoved.5 Park the vehicle on level ground andbounce it a few times to settle the suspension.6 Use the tracking gauge to measure thedistance between the inside faces of the frontwheel rims, at hub height, at the rear of thefront wheels. Record this distance; call itmeasurement Y (see illustration).

    7 Push the vehicle forwards or backwards sothat the wheels rotate exactly 180 (half aturn). Measure the distance between the frontwheel rims again, this time at the front of thewheels. Record this distance; call itmeasurement X.8 Subtract measurement X frommeasurement Y. If the answer is positive it isthe amount of toe-in; if negative it is theamount of toe-out. Permissible values aregiven in the Specifications.9 If adjustment is necessary loosen thetie-rod end locknuts and the outer bellowsclips, then rotate each tie-rod by equalamounts until the setting is correct. Hold thetie-rod ends in their horizontal position with aspanner while making the adjustment.10 Tighten the locknuts and outer bellowsclips.11 Provided the tie-rods have been adjustedby equal amounts the steering wheel shouldbe central when moving straight-ahead. Theamount of visible thread on each tie-rodshould also be equal. If necessary refer toSection 23.

    34 Front wheel alignment- checking and adjusting

    Suspension and steering 1119

    11

    34.6 Front wheel alignment

    A Camber B Castor C Toe setting

    For X and Y, see text

    33.5 Using a balljoint separator tool torelease the tie-rod end from the hub

    carrier

    33.4 Extracting the split pin from the tie-rod balljoint castellated nut

  • 1120 Notes

  • Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ftFront seat belt stalk-to-seat bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 to 28 18 to 22Seat belt anchor bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 to 41 22 to 30Seat belt inertia reel securing bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 to 41 22 to 30Seat mounting bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 32 18 to 24Cab safety grille securing bolts (P100 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 27 15 to 20Rear bump stop securing nuts (P100 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8Cargo area-to-chassis bolts (P100 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 50 29 to 37Tailboard hinge securing screws (P100 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 to 25 15 to 18

    Chapter 12Bodywork and fittings

    Bonnet - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Bonnet lock - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Bonnet lock release cable - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Boot lid (Saloon models) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Boot lid lock (Saloon models) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Bumper - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Bumper trim moulding - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Cab air vent panel (P100 models) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . .35Cab interior trim panels (P100 models) - removal and refitting . . . . .42Cargo area (P100 models) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Centre console - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44Door - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Door check arm - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Door exterior handle - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Door inner trim panel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Door interior handle - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Door lock - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Door lock barrel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Door mirror - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Door window - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Door window regulator - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Exterior rear pillar trim panel (Saloon models) - removal and refitting .34Facia panels - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43Front seat air cushion assembly - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . .49Fuel filler flap - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

    Headlining - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46Inner gutter weatherstrip (Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models)-

    removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38Interior pillar trim panels - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41Interior trim panels - general information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40Maintenance - bodywork, underside and fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Maintenance - upholstery and carpets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Major body damage - repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Minor body damage - repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Overhead console - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45Opening rear quarter window - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Radiator grille panel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Rear seat catch - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48Seats - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47Seat belts - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50Sunroof - removal, refitting and adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39Tailboard (P100 models) - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Tailgate/boot lid/fuel filler flap release cable - removal and refitting .14Tailgate/boot lid spoiler - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Tailgate (Hatchback and Estate models) - removal and refitting . . . .11Tailgate lock (Hatchback and Estate models) - removal and refitting . .12Tailgate strut (Hatchback and Estate models) - removal and refitting .13Wheel arch liners - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Windscreen cowl panel - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Windscreen, rear window and fixed rear quarter windows - removal

    and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

    121

    Specifications

    Contents

    12

    Easy, suitable fornovice with littleexperience

    Fairly easy, suitablefor beginner withsome experience

    Fairly difficult,suitable for competentDIY mechanic

    Difficult, suitable forexperienced DIYmechanic

    Very difficult,suitable for expertDIY or professional

    Degrees of difficulty

  • The model range includes 4-door Saloon, 3and 5-door Hatchback, 5-door Estate, and 2-door Pick-up body styles.

    Each body is of all-steel welded energy-absorbing monocoque construction, with aseparate load-bearing rear chassis frame onP100 Pick-up models. Corrosion protection isapplied to all new vehicles, and includes zincphosphate dipping of the body panels, andwax injection of box sections and doors.

    All models have flush direct-glazed fixed glasspanels, and integrated polycarbonate bumpers.

    All body panels are welded, including thefront wings, so it is recommended that majorbody damage repairs are entrusted to a dealer.

    A wide range of interior equipment and trimoptions are available depending on model.The procedures given in this Chapter apply tooriginal equipment fitments, and do not coverafter-market products.

    The general condition of a vehiclesbodywork is the one thing that significantlyaffects its value. Maintenance is easy butneeds to be regular. Neglect, particularly afterminor damage, can lead quickly to furtherdeterioration and costly repair bills. It isimportant also to keep watch on those parts ofthe vehicle not immediately visible, for instancethe underside, inside all the wheel arches andthe lower part of the engine compartment.

    The basic maintenance routine for thebodywork is washing - preferably with a lot ofwater, from a hose. This will remove all theloose solids which may have stuck to thevehicle. It is important to flush these off insuch a way as to prevent grit from scratchingthe finish. The wheel arches and underframeneed washing in the same way to remove anyaccumulated mud which will retain moistureand tend to encourage rust. Oddly enough,the best time to clean the underframe andwheel arches is in wet weather when the mudis thoroughly wet and soft. In very wetweather the underframe is usually cleaned oflarge accumulations automatically and this isa good time for inspection.

    Periodically, except on vehicles with a wax-based underbody protective coating, it is agood idea to have the whole of the underframeof the vehicle steam cleaned, enginecompartment included, so that a thoroughinspection can be carried out to see whatminor repairs and renovations are necessary.Steam cleaning is available at many garagesand is necessary for removal of theaccumulation of oily grime which sometimes isallowed to become thick in certain areas. Ifsteam cleaning facilities are not available,there are one or two excellent grease solventsavailable, which can be brush applied. The dirtcan then be simply hosed off. Note that these

    methods should not be used on vehicles withwax-based underbody protective coating orthe coating will be removed. Such vehiclesshould be inspected annually, preferably justprior to winter, when the underbody should bewashed down and any damage to the waxcoating repaired using a proprietry brandundershield. Ideally, a completely fresh coatshould be applied. It would also be worthconsidering the use of such wax-basedprotection for injection into door panels, sills,box sections, etc, as an additional safeguardagainst rust damage where such protection isnot provided by the vehicle manufacturer.

    After washing paintwork, wipe off with achamois leather to give an unspotted clearfinish. A coat of clear protective wax polish, willgive added protection against chemicalpollutants in the air. If the paintwork sheen hasdulled or oxidised, use a cleaner/polishercombination to restore the brilliance of theshine. This requires a little effort, but suchdulling is usually caused because regularwashing has been neglected. Care needs to betaken with metallic paintwork, as special non-abrasive cleaner/polisher is required to avoiddamage to the finish. Always check that thedoor and ventilator opening drain holes andpipes are completely clear so that water can bedrained out. Bright work should be treated inthe same way as paint work. Windscreens andwindows can be kept clear of the smeary filmwhich often appears by the use of a proprietaryglass cleaner. Never use any form of wax orother body or chromium polish on glass.

    At the specified intervals, check theoperation of the door locks and check strapsand lubricate the hinges with a little oil. Alsolubricate the hinges of the bonnet and boot lidor tailgate, as applicable, and the bonnetrelease mechanism.

    Mats and carpets should be brushed orvacuum cleaned regularly to keep them free ofgrit. If they are badly stained remove themfrom the vehicle for scrubbing or sponging andmake quite sure they are dry before refitting.Seats and interior trim panels can be keptclean by wiping with a damp cloth and aproprietry wax polish. If they do becomestained (which can be more apparent on lightcoloured upholstery) use a little liquiddetergent and a soft nail brush to scour thegrime out of the grain of the material. Do notforget to keep the headlining clean in the sameway as the upholstery. When using liquidcleaners inside the vehicle do not over-wet thesurfaces being cleaned. Excessive dampcould get into the seams and padded interiorcausing stains, offensive odours or even rot. Ifthe inside of the vehicle gets wet accidentally itis worthwhile taking some trouble to dry it outproperly, particularly where carpets areinvolved. Do not leave oil or electric heatersinside the vehicle for this purpose.

    Repair of minor scratches inbodywork

    If the scratch is very superficial, and does notpenetrate to the metal of the bodywork, repair isvery simple. Lightly rub the area of the scratchwith a paintwork renovator, or a very fine cuttingpaste, to remove loose paint from the scratchand to clear the surrounding bodywork of waxpolish. Rinse the area with clean water.

    Apply touch-up paint to the scratch using afine paint brush; continue to apply fine layersof paint until the surface of the paint in thescratch is level with the surroundingpaintwork. Allow the new paint at least twoweeks to harden: then blend it into thesurrounding paintwork by rubbing the scratcharea with a paintwork renovator or a very finecutting paste. Finally, apply a good wax polish.

    Where the scratch has penetrated rightthrough to the metal of the bodywork, causingthe metal to rust, a different repair technique isrequired. Remove any loose rust from thebottom of the scratch with a penknife, thenapply rust inhibiting paint, to prevent theformation of rust in the future. Using a rubber ornylon applicator fill the scratch with bodystopperpaste. If required, this paste can be mixed withcellulose thinners to provide a very thin pastewhich is ideal for filling narrow scratches. Beforethe stopper-paste in the scratch hardens, wrapa piece of smooth cotton rag around the top of afinger. Dip the finger in cellulose thinners; andthen quickly sweep it across the surface of thestopper-paste in the scratch; this will ensure thatthe surface of the stopper-paste is slightlyhollowed. The scratch can now be painted overas described earlier in this Section.

    Repair of dents in bodyworkWhen deep denting of the vehicles

    bodywork has taken place, the first task is topull the dent out, until the affected bodyworkalmost attains its original shape. There is littlepoint in trying to restore the original shapecompletely, as the metal in the damaged areawill have stretched on impact and cannot bereshaped fully to its original contour. It is betterto bring the level of the dent up to a point whichis about 1/8 in (3 mm) below the level of thesurrounding bodywork. In cases where the dentis very shallow anyway, it is not worth trying topull it out at all. If the underside of the dent isaccessible, it can be hammered out gently frombehind, using a mallet with a wooden or plastichead. Whilst doing this, hold a suitable block ofwood firmly against the outside of the panel toabsorb the impact from the hammer blows andthus prevent a large area of the bodywork frombeing belled-out.

    Should the dent be in a section of thebodywork which has a double skin or someother factor making it inaccessible frombehind, a different technique is called for. Drillseveral small holes through the metal insidethe area particularly in the deeper section.

    4 Minor body damage - repair

    3 Maintenance - upholstery andcarpets

    2 Maintenance - bodywork,underside and fittings

    1 General information

    122 Bodywork and fittings

  • Then screw long self-tapping screws into theholes just sufficiently for them to gain a goodpurchase in the metal. Now the dent can bepulled out by pulling on the protruding headsof the screws with a pair of pliers.

    The next stage of the repair is the removal ofthe paint from the damaged area, and from aninch or so of the surrounding soundbodywork. This is accomplished most easily byusing a wire brush or abrasive pad on a powerdrill, although it can be done just as effectivelyby hand using sheets of abrasive paper. Tocomplete the preparation for filling, score thesurface of the bare metal with a screwdriver orthe tang of a file, or alternatively, drill smallholes in the affected area. This will provide areally good key for the filler paste.

    To complete the repair see the Section onfilling and re-spraying.

    Repair of rust holes or gashes inbodywork

    Remove all paint from the affected area andfrom an inch or so of the surrounding soundbodywork, using an abrasive pad or a wire brushon a power drill. If these are not available a fewsheets of abrasive paper will do the job just aseffectively. With the paint removed you will beable to gauge the severity of the corrosion andtherefore decide whether to renew the wholepanel (if this is possible) or to repair the affectedarea. New body panels are not as expensive asmost people think and it is often quicker andmore satisfactory to fit a new panel than toattempt to repair large areas of corrosion.

    Remove all fittings from the affected areaexcept those which will act as a guide to theoriginal shape of the damaged bodywork (egheadlamp shells etc). Then, using tin snips or ahacksaw blade, remove all loose metal andany other metal badly affected by corrosion.Hammer the edges of the hole inwards in orderto create a slight depression for the filler paste.

    Wire brush the affected area to remove thepowdery rust from the surface of theremaining metal. Paint the affected area withrust inhibiting paint; if the back of the rustedarea is accessible treat this also.

    Before filling can take place it will benecessary to block the hole in some way. Thiscan be achieved by the use of aluminium orplastic mesh, or aluminium tape.

    Aluminium or plastic mesh or glass fibrematting is probably the best material to use fora large hole. Cut a piece to the approximatesize and shape of the hole to be filled, thenposition it in the hole so that its edges arebelow the level of the surrounding bodywork. Itcan be retained in position by several blobs offiller paste around its periphery.

    Aluminium tape should be used for small orvery narrow holes. Pull a piece off the roll andtrim it to the approximate size and shaperequired, then pull off the backing paper (ifused) and stick the tape over the hole; it canbe overlapped if the thickness of one piece isinsufficient. Burnish down the edges of thetape with the handle of a screwdriver orsimilar, to ensure that the tape is securelyattached to the metal underneath.

    Bodywork repairs - filling and re-spraying

    Before using this Section, see the Sections ondent, deep scratch, rust holes and gash repairs.

    Many types of bodyfiller are available, butgenerally speaking those proprietary kitswhich contain a tin of