Ford Sierra 4-Cylinder Service and Repair Manual
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Ford SierraService and Repair ManualSteve Rendle and Christopher Rogers
Models coveredSaloon (Sapphire and Hatchback), Estate and P100 Pick-up models, including special/limited editions, with four-cylinder SOHC, DOHC & CVH petrol engines and two-wheel-drive
Does not cover V6 or Diesel engine models, four-wheel-drive models, or RS Cosworth (903 - 368 - 11Y8)
Haynes Publishing 1996
A book in the Haynes Service and Repair Manual Series
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, recording or by any information storageor retrieval system, without permission in writing from thecopyright holder.
ISBN 1 85960 090 5
British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from from the British library.
Printed by J H Haynes & Co. Ltd, Sparkford, Nr Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ
Haynes PublishingSparkford, Nr Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ England
Haynes North America, Inc861 Lawrence Drive, Newbury Park, California 91320 USA
Editions Haynes S.A.147/149, rue Saint Honore, 75001 PARIS, France
LIVING WITH YOUR FORD SIERRAIntroduction to the Ford Sierra Page 04
Acknowledgements Page 04
Safety first! Page 05
ROADSIDE REPAIRSJacking, vehicle support and wheel changing Page 06
Towing Page 07
Identifying leaks Page 08
Jump starting Page 09
Weekly ChecksIntroduction Page 010
Underbonnet check points Page 010
Engine Oil level Page 012
Coolant level Page 012
Screen washer fluid level Page 013
Brake fluid level Page 013
Power steering fluid level Page 014
Electrical systems Page 014
Battery Page 015
Wiper blades Page 015
Tyre condition and pressure Page 016
Lubricants and fluids Page 017
Tyre pressures Page 018
MAINTENANCERoutine Maintenance and Servicing Page 11
Maintenance schedule Page 14
Maintenance procedures Page 19
REPAIRS AND OVERHAUL
Engine and Associated SystemsSOHC engines Page 2A1
DOHC engines Page 2B1
CVH engines Page 2C1
Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems Page 31
Fuel/exhaust systems - carburettor models Page 4A1
Fuel/exhaust systems - fuel injection models Page 4B1
Engine electrical systems Page 51
TRANSMISSIONClutch Page 61
Manual gearbox Page 7A1
Automatic transmission Page 7B1
Propellor shaft Page 81
Final drive and driveshafts Page 91
BRAKES AND SUSPENSIONBraking system Page 101
Suspension and steering Page 111
BODY EQUIPMENTBodywork, trim and fittings Page 121
Body electrical systems Page 131
Wiring Diagrams Page 1322
ReferenceGeneral dimensions and weights Page REF1
Buying spare parts and vehicle identification Page REF3
General repair procedures Page REF4
Tools and working facilities Page REF5
MOT test checks Page REF7
Fault finding Page REF11
Glossary of technical terms Page REF18
Index Page REF23
The Ford Sierra was first introduced in late 1982 with the option ofseven different engines and four different trim levels. This manualcovers the four cylinder in-line petrol engines, but other models in therange are fitted with V6 or diesel engines.
The Sierra was introduced by Ford as the successor to the Cortinaand initially received a mixed reception as it was one of the firstvehicles to make use of the aeroback body style designed to reducethe air drag coefficient to a minimum in the interests of fuel economy.Mechanically the Sierra is similar to the Cortina with the exception ofall-round independent suspension.
Initially, 1.3, 1.6 and 2.0 litre SOHC carburettor engines wereavailable, with Hatchback and Estate body styles. In late 1984, a 1.8litre SOHC engine became available and in 1985, a performanceorientated 2.0 litre SOHC fuel injection engine was introduced.
Towards the end of 1986, the 1.3 litre engine was phased out. In orderto fill a gap in the range, a Saloon body style, designated the Sapphire,was introduced in early 1987 and shortly afterwards, a 1.8 litre CVHengine replaced the previously used 1.8 litre SOHC engine throughoutthe model range.
A 1.6 litre CVH engine was introduced in September 1991 to replacethe 1.6 litre SOHC engine used previously, this engine being broadlysimilar to the original 1.8 litre CVH engine which was in turn uprated inMarch, 1992.
A 2.0 litre DOHC (Double OverHead Camshaft) engine was in-troduced in August 1989 to replace the 2.0 litre SOHC engine.
In early 1988, a Sierra-based P100 pick-up model became availableto replace the previous Cortina-based design. The P100 consists of aSierra-type cab and front suspension, and a Ford Transit-type rear
suspension and 2.0 litre engine.A wide range of standard and optional
equipment is available within the Sierrarange to suit most tastes, including ananti-lock braking system.
For the home mechanic, the Sierra is astraightforward vehicle to maintain andrepair since design features have beenincorporated to reduce the actual cost ofownership to a minimum, and most of theitems requiring frequent attention areeasily accessible.
Ford Sierra L
Ford Sierra Ghia Estate
We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in thismanual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and designchanges during the production run of a particular vehicle of which theydo not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors orpublishers for loss, damage or injury caused by errors in, or omissionsfrom, the information given.
Thanks are due to Champion Spark Plug who supplied the illustrationsshowing spark plug conditions. Certain other illustrations are thecopyright of the Ford Motor Company and are used with theirpermission. Thanks are also due to Sykes-Pickavant Limited, whoprovided some of the workshop tools, and to all those people atSparkford who helped in the production of this manual.
Introduction to the Ford Sierra
05Safety First!Working on your car can be dangerous.
This page shows just some of the potentialrisks and hazards, with the aim of creating asafety-conscious attitude.
General hazardsScalding Dont remove the radiator or expansiontank cap while the engine is hot. Engine oil, automatic transmission fluid orpower steering fluid may also be dangerouslyhot if the engine has recently been running.
Burning Beware of burns from the exhaust systemand from any part of the engine. Brake discsand drums can also be extremely hotimmediately after use.
Crushing When working under or neara raised vehicle,alwayssupplement thejack with axlestands, or usedrive-onramps.Neverventureunder a car whichis only supported by a jack. Take care if loosening or tightening high-torque nuts when the vehicle is on stands.Initial loosening and final tightening shouldbe done with the wheels on the ground.
Fire Fuel is highly flammable; fuel vapour isexplosive. Dont let fuel spill onto a hot engine. Do not smoke or allow naked lights(including pilot lights) anywhere near avehicle being worked on. Also beware ofcreating sparks (electrically or by use of tools). Fuel vapour is heavier than air, so dontwork on the fuel system with the vehicle overan inspection pit. Another cause of fire is an electricaloverload or short-circuit. Take care whenrepairing or modifying the vehicle wiring. Keep a fire extinguisher handy, of a typesuitable for use on fuel and electrical fires.
Electric shock Ignition HTvoltage can bedangerous,especially topeople with heartproblems or apacemaker. Dontwork on or near theignition system withthe engine running orthe ignition switched on.
Mains voltage is also dangerous. Makesure that any mains-operated equipment iscorrectly earthed. Mains power points shouldbe protected by a residual current device(RCD) circuit breaker.
Fume or gas intoxication Exhaust fumes arepoisonous; they oftencontain carbonmonoxide, which israpidly fatal if inhaled.Never run theengine in aconfined spacesuch as a garagewith the doors shut. Fuel vapour is alsopoisonous, as are the vapours from somecleaning solvents and paint thinners.
Poisonous or irritant substances Avoid skin contact with battery acid andwith any fuel, fluid or lubricant, especiallyantifreeze, brake hydraulic fluid and Dieselfuel. Dont syphon them by mouth. If such asubstance is swallowed or gets into the eyes,seek medical advice. Prolonged contact with used engine oil cancause skin cancer. Wear gloves or use abarrier cream if necessary. Change out of oil-soaked clothes and do not keep oily rags inyour pocket. Air conditioning refrigerant forms apoisonous gas if exposed to a naked flame(including a cigarette). It can also cause skinburns on contact.
Asbestos Asbestos dust can cause cancer if inhaledor swallowed. Asbestos may be found ingaskets and in brake and clutch linings.When dealing with such components it issafest to assume that they contain asbestos.
Specia hazardsHydrofluoric acid This extremely corrosive acid is formedwhen certain types of synthetic rubber, foundin some O-rings, oil seals, fuel hoses etc, areexposed to temperatures above 4000C. Therubber changes into a charred or stickysubstance containing the acid. Once formed,the acid remains dangerous for years. If itgets onto the skin, it may be necessary toamputate the limb concerned. When dealing with a vehicle which hassuffered a fire, or with components salvagedfrom such a vehicle, wear protective glovesand discard them after use.
The battery Batteries contain sulphuric acid, whichattacks clothing, eyes and skin. Take carewhen topping-up or carrying the battery. The hydrogen gas given off by the batteryis highly explosive. Never cause a spark orallow a naked light nearby. Be careful whenconnecting and disconnecting batterychargers or jump leads.
Air bags Air bags can cause injury if they go offaccidentally. Take care when removing thesteering wheel and/or facia. Special storageinstructions may apply.
Diesel injection equipment Diesel injection pumps supply fuel at veryhigh pressure. Take care when working onthe fuel injectors and fuel pipes.
Warning: Never expose the hands,face or any other part of the bodyto injector spray; the fuel can
penetrate the skin with potentially fatalresults.
Remember...DO Do use eye protection when using powertools, and when working under the vehicle.
Do wear gloves or use barrier cream toprotect your hands when necessary.
Do get someone to check periodicallythat all is well when working alone on thevehicle.
Do keep loose clothing and long hair wellout of the way of moving mechanical parts.
Do remove rings, wristwatch etc, beforeworking on the vehicle especially theelectrical system.
Do ensure that any lifting or jackingequipment has a safe working load ratingadequate for the job.
A few tipsDONT Dont attempt to lift a heavy componentwhich may be beyond your capability getassistance.
Dont rush to finish a job, or takeunverified short cuts.
Dont use ill-fitting tools which may slipand cause injury.
Dont leave tools or parts lying aroundwhere someone can trip over them. Mopup oil and fuel spills at once.
Dont allow children or pets to play in ornear a vehicle being worked on.
The jack supplied with the vehicle tool kitshould only be used for changing roadwheels.When carrying out any other kind of work,raise the vehicle using a trolley jack, andalways supplement the jack with axle standspositioned under the vehicle jacking points.
To change a roadwheel, first remove thespare wheel and jack from their stowagepositions. On Saloon, Hatchback and Estatemodels, the jack and spare wheel are locatedin the luggage compartment. On P100models, the jack is located behind thepassenger seat, and the spare wheel islocated under the rear of the cargo area.Firmly apply the handbrake and engage firstgear on manual gearbox models or P on
automatic transmission models. Place chocksat the front and rear of the wheel diagonallyopposite the one to be changed.
Where applicable, remove the wheel trimand slacken the wheel nuts using the wheelbrace provided in the vehicle tool kit. Positionthe jack head under the jacking point nearestto the wheel to be changed. Raise the jackuntil the wheel is clear of the ground, thenremove the wheel nuts and the wheel. Fit thespare wheel and secure it with the wheel nuts.Lower the jack until the wheel is just touchingthe ground, and tighten the wheel nutsmoderately tight. Now lower the jack fully andtighten the wheel nuts securely in a diagonalsequence. Where applicable, refit the wheel
trim , then withdraw the jack and stow thewheel and jack in thier respective locations.
When jacking up the vehicle with a trolleyjack, position the jack under one of therelevant jacking point (note that on P100models, the jackng points for use with a trolleyjack are different to those for use with thevehicle jack). Do not jack the vehicle under thesump or or any of the steering or suspensioncomponents. Supplement the jack using axlestands. The jacking points and axle standpositions are shown in the accompanyingillustrations. Never work under, around or neara raised vehicle unless it is adequatelysupported in at least two places.
Jacking, vehicle support and wheel changing
Location of jacking points - Saloon,Hatchback and Estate models
A Jacking points for use with vehicle jackB Jacking points for use with trolley jack or
Location of jacking points - P100 modelsA Jacking points for use with vehicle jack
B Jacking points for use with trolley jack or axle stands
Rear jacking point - Hatchback model Jack location by front wheel - Hatchback model
Axle stand correctly positioned underfront jacking point - Hatchback model
Rear towing eye - Hatchback model
Front towing eye - Hatchback model
TowingTowing eyes are fitted to the front and rear
of the vehicle for attachment of a tow rope.Always turn the ignition key to position IIwhen thew vehicle is being towed, so that thesteering lock is released and the directionindicator and brake lamps are operational.
Before being towed, release the handbrakeand place the gear lever in neutral. On
automatic transmission models, the towingspeed must not exceed 25 mph (40 kph), andthe towing distance must not exceed 12 miles(20 km). For longer distances, or iftransmission damage is suspected, thepropellor shaft should be removed, or the rearof the vehicle should be lifted clear of theground.
Push or tow starting is not possible onvehicles fitted with automatic transmission.
08 Roadside repairs
Puddles on the garage floor or drive, orobvious wetness under the bonnet or underneath the car, suggest a leak that needsinvestigating. It can sometimes be difficult todecide where the leak is coming from,especially if the engine bay is very dirtyalready. Leaking oil or fluid can also be blownrearwards by the passage of air under the car,giving a false impression of where theproblem lies.
Warning: Most automotive oilsand fluids are poisonous. Washthem off skin, and change out ofcontaminated clothing, withoutdelay.
Identifying leaksThe smell of a fluid leakingfrom the car may provide aclue to whats leaking. Somefluids are distin...