"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"


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"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors". Robert Lefkowitz Brian Kobilka G G G . Additional HW: (one page A4 ). As yet, how many Nobel Prize in - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<ul><li><p>"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"Robert LefkowitzBrian KobilkaGG GAs yet, how many Nobel Prize in ChemistryYou know? Additional HW: (one page A4 ) : 1 2011; 22010</p></li><li><p>Reactions in Aqueous SolutionChapter 4</p></li><li><p>Why we talk about solutionMost of chemical reaction and bio-processing occurs in solution phase*DNA in buffer solutionLi-ion battery</p></li><li><p>*A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substancesThe solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s)The solvent is the substance present in the larger amountSoft drink(l)Air(g)Soft Solder(s)H2ON2PbSugar, CO2O2, Ar, CH4SnDefinition of Solution</p></li><li><p>*An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity.A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, results in a solution that does not conduct electricity.Electrolyte</p></li><li><p>*Strong Electrolyte 100% dissociationWeak Electrolyte not completely dissociatedCH3COOH CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq)Conduct electricity in solution?Cations (+) and Anions (-)The degree of dissociation</p></li><li><p>*Ionization of acetic acidCH3COOH CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq)A reversible reaction. The reaction can occur in both directions.(Until it reach the chemical equilibrium)Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte because its ionization in water is incomplete.</p></li><li><p>*Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity?No cations (+) and anions (-) in solution</p></li><li><p>*Electrolyte in Electrochemical Reaction: applications Solar cell (Dye-sensitized solar cell)Electroplating Battery(Li-ion battery etc)Chemical sensor or biomedical sensorEtching and so on </p></li><li><p>* Graphene Ink Electrochemical Exfoliation of graphite to produce thin graphene films </p><p> Vedio clip C.Y. Su et al., ACS Nano (2011) </p></li><li><p>*Hydration is the process in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner.Hydration()</p></li><li><p>*Precipitation ReactionsPrecipitate insoluble solid that separates from solutionmolecular equationionic equationnet ionic equationNa+ and NO3- are spectator ions</p></li><li><p>*Precipitation of Lead IodidePbI2</p></li><li><p>*Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature.AgCl</p></li><li><p>*Examples of Insoluble CompoundsCdSPbSNi(OH)2Al(OH)3</p></li><li><p>*Writing Net Ionic EquationsWrite the balanced molecular equation.Write the ionic equation showing the strong electrolytes completely dissociated into cations and anions.Cancel the spectator ions on both sides of the ionic equationCheck that charges and number of atoms are balanced in the net ionic equationWrite the net ionic equation for the reaction of silver nitrate with sodium chloride.</p></li><li><p>*Properties of AcidsHave a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrusfruits contain citric acid.React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas.React with carbonates and bicarbonatesto produce carbon dioxide gasCause color changes in plant dyes.2HCl(aq) + Mg(s) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity.()</p></li><li><p>*Have a bitter taste.Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases.Properties of BasesCause color changes in plant dyes.Aqueous base solutions conduct electricity.Examples:Ex: NaOH</p></li><li><p>*Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H+ (H3O+) in waterArrhenius base is a substance that produces OH- in waterArrhenius theory: </p></li><li><p>*A Brnsted acid is a proton donorA Brnsted base is a proton acceptoracidbaseacidbaseA Brnsted acid must contain at least one ionizable proton!Brnsted theory:Donate proton</p></li><li><p>*Hydronium ion, hydrated proton, H3O+</p></li><li><p>*Example:</p></li><li><p>*Monoprotic acidsStrong electrolyte, strong acidStrong electrolyte, strong acidWeak electrolyte, weak acidDiprotic acidsHSO4- H+ + SO42-Strong electrolyte, strong acidWeak electrolyte, weak acidTriprotic acidsH3PO4 H+ + H2PO4-H2PO4- H+ + HPO42-HPO42- H+ + PO43-Weak electrolyte, weak acidWeak electrolyte, weak acidWeak electrolyte, weak acidStrong and Weak acid </p></li><li><p>*Identify each of the following species as a Brnsted acid, base, or both. (a) HI, (b) CH3COO-, (c) H2PO4-Brnsted acidBrnsted baseBrnsted acidBrnsted baseExample:</p></li><li><p>*Neutralization Reaction ()</p></li><li><p>*Neutralization Reaction Involving a Weak Electrolyte</p></li><li><p>*Neutralization Reaction Producing a Gas</p></li><li><p>*Oxidation-Reduction Reactions()(electron transfer reactions)Oxidation half-reaction (lose e-)Reduction half-reaction (gain e-)</p></li><li><p>*</p></li><li><p>*Zn is oxidizedCu2+ is reducedZn is the reducing agentCu2+ is the oxidizing agentCopper wire reacts with silver nitrate to form silver metal.What is the oxidizing agent in the reaction?Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)Ag+ is reducedAg+ is the oxidizing agentElectron transfer reactions</p></li><li><p>Oxidation number()The charge the atom would have in a molecule (or anionic compound) if electrons were completely transferred.4.4EX: H2(g)+Cl2(g)2HCl(g) S(s)+ O2(g)SO2(g)0000+1-1+4-2(ClO)(HS)</p></li><li><p>Determine the oxidation number()**Free elements (uncombined state) have an oxidation number of zero.Na, Be, K, Pb, H2, O2, P4 = 0In monatomic ions, the oxidation number is equal to the charge on the ion.Li+, Li = +1; Fe3+, Fe = +3; O2-, O = -2The oxidation number of oxygen is usually 2. In H2O2 and O22- it is 1. </p></li><li><p>*The oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 except when it is bonded to metals in binary compounds. In these cases, its oxidation number is 1.(LiH, NaH, CaH2)6. The sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms in a molecule or ion is equal to the charge on the molecule or ion.(NH4+)Group IA metals are +1, IIA metals are +2 and fluorine is always 1.HCO3-O = 2H = +13x(2) + 1 + ? = 1C = +4What are the oxidation numbers of all the elements in HCO3- ?7. Oxidation numbers do not have to be integers. Oxidation number of oxygen in the superoxide ion, O2-, is .</p></li><li><p>*The Oxidation Numbers of Elements in their Compounds1.2. </p></li><li><p>*NaIO3Na = +1O = -23x(-2) + 1 + ? = 0I = +5IF7F = -17x(-1) + ? = 0I = +7K2Cr2O7O = -2K = +17x(-2) + 2x(+1) + 2x(?) = 0Cr = +6What are the oxidation numbers of all the elements in each of these compounds? NaIO3 IF7 K2Cr2O7Example:</p></li><li><p>*Types of Oxidation-Reduction ReactionsCombination ReactionDecomposition Reaction00+2-3+1+5-2+1-10()()1Al+Br22AlBr3</p></li><li><p>*Types of Oxidation-Reduction ReactionsCombustion Reaction()00+4-200+2-2</p></li><li><p>*Displacement Reaction()Hydrogen DisplacementMetal DisplacementHalogen DisplacementTypes of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions0+1+200+40+20-1-10</p></li><li><p>*The Activity Series for MetalsHydrogen Displacement ReactionM is metalBC is acid or H2OB is H2</p></li><li><p>*The Activity Series for HalogensHalogen Displacement Reaction0-1-10F2 &gt; Cl2 &gt; Br2 &gt; I2</p></li><li><p>*PrecipitationAcid-BaseRedox (H2 Displacement)Redox (Combination)Classify each of the following reactions.Examples:</p></li><li><p>*Solution Stoichiometry()The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution.What mass of KI is required to make 500. mL of a 2.80 M KI solution?M KIM KI500. mL= 232 g KI</p></li><li><p>*Preparing a Solution of Known Concentration</p></li><li><p>*Dilution is the procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution.</p></li><li><p>*How would you prepare 60.0 mL of 0.200 M HNO3 from a stock solution of 4.00 M HNO3?MiVi = MfVfMi = 4.00 MMf = 0.200 MVf = 0.0600 LVi = ? L = 0.00300 L = 3.00 mLDilute 3.00 mL of acid with water to a total volume of 60.0 mL.</p></li><li><p>*Gravimetric Analysis()Dissolve unknown substance in waterReact unknown with known substance to form a precipitateFilter and dry precipitateWeigh precipitateUse chemical formula and mass of precipitate to determine amount of unknown ion</p></li><li><p>*Titrations()In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete.Equivalence point the point at which the reaction is completeIndicator substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point Slowly add baseto unknown acidUNTILthe indicatorchanges color: </p></li><li><p>*Titrations can be used in the analysis of Acid-base reactions</p><p>Redox reactions, HOH</p></li><li><p>*What volume of a 1.420 M NaOH solution is required to titrate 25.00 mL of a 4.50 M H2SO4 solution?WRITE THE CHEMICAL EQUATION!25.00 mL= 158 mLExamples</p></li><li><p>*WRITE THE CHEMICAL EQUATION!0.01642 L= 0.4358 M16.42 mL of 0.1327 M KMnO4 solution is needed to oxidize 25.00 mL of an acidic FeSO4 solution. What is the molarity of the iron solution?16.42 mL = 0.01642 L25.00 mL = 0.02500 L</p></li><li><p>*Give the oxidation number of the underlined atoms in the following molecules and ions: (a) ClF, (b) IF7, (c) CH4, (d) C2H2, (e) C2H4, (f) K2CrO4, (g) K2Cr2O7, (h) KMnO4</p><p>Describe how to prepare 1.00 L of 0.646 M HCl solution, starting with a 2.00 M HCl solution.</p><p>Calculate the concentration (in molarity) of a NaOH solution if 25.0 mL of the solution are needed to neutralize 17.4 mL of a 0.312 M HCl solution.</p><p>HW ch4</p></li></ul>


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