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Food Safety and Sanitation1Importance of Food Safety and SanitationLack of proper food safety and food sanitation can cause:Loss of customers and salesLoss of prestige and reputationLawsuitsresulting in lawyer and court feesIncreased insurance premiumsLowered employee moraleEmployee absenteeismNeed for retraining employeesEmbarrassment2Suggested Reading AssignmentsServSafe Certification Course BookThe Art and Science of Culinary Preparation pg. 16-18,434,519It is not possible to over emphasize the importance of safety and sanitation in the preparation of food. The food handler has no greater responsibility than protecting the people who eat the food they prepare. Confusion may occur in the discussion of safe and sanitary food handling based on misinterpretation of the term wholesome. Food does not have to be well seasoned or good tasting to be considered wholesome. In the foodservice contextSafe is the act of applying the principles of sanitary food storage, handling, and preparation to maintain the wholesomeness (fit for human consumption) of the food. Sanitary is defined as clean or hygienic. Clean is the removal of visible dirt and soil. Sanitize is the reduction of pathogens on an object or in an environment to a safe level.IllnessA disease transmitted by food is called a foodborne illness
Many cases go unreported because people mistake their symptoms for the flu
Biological ContaminationBacteriaCan multiply rapidly to disease-causing levels at favorable temperaturesCan produce toxins in food that can poison humans when the food is eatenCause most foodborne illnesses
4Current epidemiological data indicate that the most important foodborne diseases are caused by microbes, primarily Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Meat and poultry products remain important sources of foodborne disease. The microorganism most often involved in foodborne illness is bacteria. Bacteria are single celled organisms which require nutrients to maintain its functions. Can appear 30 minutes to 30 days after eating: Abdominal cramps, Diarrhea, Fatigue, Headache, Fever, VomitingMany cases go unreported because of flu like symptoms
Biological ContaminationcontinuedViruses Do not grow in food, but can be transported by food itemsTransported by many food items, including ice and water
5Bacteria living in food cause foodborne illness either through infection, intoxication or a combination of these two termed toxin-mediated infection. Infection foodborne illness is caused by a type of bacterium called a pathogen. A pathogen is a bacteria that is an infectious disease-causing agent which feeds on nutrients in potentially hazardous foods and multiplies rapidly at favorable temperatures. A pathogen causes illness, when it is present in sufficient number. Intoxication foodborne illness is caused by toxin producing bacteria, such as staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria are not infectious in themselves, but as they multiply in food they discharge toxins (poisons) harmful to humans.Toxin-mediated infections are caused by bacteria such as clostridium perfrigens . These bacteria grow colonies in human and animal intestinal tracts. The bacteria itself causes illness when present in sufficient number and while it is reproducing it is discharging toxins that poison the host.Bacteria reproduce in a very simple way. They split, producing a clone of themselves. When the conditions are right a single cell will become billions of cells in 10-12 hours.
Biological ContaminationcontinuedParasitesLive inside a host to surviveCan cause people to become infected if they eat raw or undercooked meatFungiMolds: Cause illnesses, infections, and allergiesYeast: Spoils food
6Bacteria, as with all living things, need nourishment to survive. The foods that best provide this nourishment are termed potentially hazardous foods. A potentially hazardous food meets all three requirements for the food best for bacteria: a water activity level of at least .85, high in protein, and a moderate pH level. The list of potentially hazardous foods includes meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, and dairy products. While most vegetables and fruits do not contain sufficient protein to be classified as potentially hazardous, there are some grains, vegetables, and grain and vegetable products that when cooked are classified as potentially hazardous including tofu, beans, winter squash and rice. Protein and potato salads, low-acid foods, cream-filled products, custards and sauces other than those high in acid are all considered potentially hazardous. These types of foods must be handled with great care to prevent foodborne illness. Temperature and time are two of the major areas of control. The temperature range at which the majority of bacteria grow rapidly is between 60oF (16oC) and 120oF (49oC). Note that this temperature is very close to the temperature range commonly thought of as room temperature. Based on this temperature range a Danger Zone for the handling and holding of potentially hazardous and prepared foods has been established. The recommended and most commonly used range for the Danger Zone is considered to be 40oF (4oC)-to-140oF (60oC). The basic rule is that cold food should be kept below 40oF (4oC) and hot food should be kept above 140oF (60oC).Chemical and Physical HazardsCleaning suppliesPesticidesToxic metalsForeign objects accidentally introduced into food (broken glass, jewelry, bandage, and staples)Naturally occurring objects, such as bones in fillets7The acid/alkali balance is based on the pH scale. The pH scale is a measurement of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of an item. The scale ranges from 0, highest acid to 14 highest alkaline. A pH of 7 is considered neutral (balanced). Bacteria grow best in the neutral to slightly acidic range, specifically between 6.6 and 7.5. A pH below 4.6 generally stops bacterial growth. The amount of acid, such as vinegar, citrus juice, and tomato, does not generally provide a pH sufficiently low to be considered a total control of bacterial growth. Temperature and time are still critical to control of bacterial growth.Physical contaminants are foreign items that are not supposed to be part of a food item or product but have found there way into the item or product. Examples of physical contaminants are glass chips or shards, metal shavings, hair, dirt, screws and nails. These are generally introduced to the items through poor safety and sanitation procedures. Physical contamination can also be the result of intentional tampering with the food item or product.Chemical contaminants include a variety of chemicals and metal based reactions. This type of contamination is usually accidentally, however, very dangerous because it is normally invisible and very difficult to detect. Chemical contaminants can be placed in to four groups: pesticides; foodservice chemicals; additives, preservatives, and spices; acidic metal reactions and toxic metals.
FAT-TOMFoodAcidityTimeTemperatureOxygenMoistureConditions that favor the growth of most foodborne organisms8Temperature is used to control bacteria not only through application of the Danger Zone limits. It is known that when foods are cooked or reheated the temperature necessary to insure they are safe and that pathogens present in the food have been destroyed requires temperatures higher than 140oF (60oC). Potentially hazardous foods and foods which are being reheated must be brought to specific temperatures to be safe, such as 165oF (74oC) for stuffed fish . The killing of bacteria can be achieved in the kitchen with high heat, however, it generally cannot be done with the removal of heat. The temperature of freezers in kitchens is not low enough to kill bacteria. When foods are frozen, bacteria simply enter a state similar to suspended animation. When the food is thawed the bacteria immediately become active again. Refrigeration of raw or prepared foods also does not kill bacteria. Refrigeration below 40oF (4oC) slows down the growth of bacteria, it does not stop the growth. Foods which have been cooked and are being reheated need to be heated to 165oF (74oC) to kill bacteria present in the food. Controlling bacterial growth through temperature must also include consideration of time. The length of time bacteria are allowed to remain at a temperature suitable for bacteria growth is critical to the success of control. A food item that has remained in the Danger Zone for two hours has had ample time for the growth of bacteria to dangerous levels. The amount of time a food item remains in the Danger Zone must be kept to an absolute minimum and this must include chill-down time.Temperature Danger Zone41F (5C) to 135F (57C)
Most bacteria will grow between these temperatures. 9Bacteria needs moisture to survive. Potentially hazardous foods provide the moisture needed. The Water Activity (Aw) level in foods is a factor in determining which foods are potentially hazardous. The Aw of water is 1.0 and potentially hazardous foods generally have an Aw of .85 or above. Food items with an Aw of below .85 are not good hosts for bacteria growth. It is important to remember, that a low Aw only stops growth, it does not kill bacteria. Dried items, such as beans and pastas that are rehydrated in preparation must be treated with the same respect as other prepared foods.Atmosphere, the presence of oxygen is critical to the growth of some bacteria. The majority of bacteria require oxygen to grow. These bacteria are termed aerobic. Minimizing the amount of oxygen available through packaging, such as canning, vacuum packaging, or inert gas packaging can reduce the growth of bacteria. This method of control is far from full proof. There are bacteria, anaerobic, which do not require oxygen to grow and other bacteria, facultative, which can adapt to