fm 3-05.20 special forces operations.pdf

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FM 3-05.20 Special Forces Operations

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CHQSOFTWARE.COM*FM 3-05.20 (FM 31-20)Field Manual No. 3-05.20 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 26 June 2001

SPECIAL FORCES OPERATIONSContentsPage

PREFACE ................................................................................................................... iv Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL FORCES............................................................... 1-1 The Evolution of Special Forces .............................................................................. 1-1 Special Forces Applications in Todays Environment .............................................. 1-4 Regional Orientation ................................................................................................ 1-5 Core Competencies ................................................................................................. 1-6 Role of Special Forces in National Security Strategy............................................... 1-9 Overt, Low-Visibility, Covert, and Clandestine Operations .................................... 1-14 Special Forces and the Principles of War.............................................................. 1-15 Army Values........................................................................................................... 1-18 Special Forces Core Values .................................................................................. 1-18 Army Special Operations Forces Truths ................................................................ 1-18 Special Operations Imperatives ............................................................................. 1-20 Special Operations Mission Criteria ....................................................................... 1-22

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies only to protect technical or operational information from automatic dissemination under the International Exchange Program or by other means. This determination was made on 31 May 2001. Other requests for this document will be referred to Commander, United States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, ATTN: AOJK-DT-SFD, Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28310-5000. DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.

* This publication supersedes FM 31-20, 20 April 1990.

i

FM 3-05.20

CHQSOFTWARE.COMPage

Chapter 2

SPECIAL FORCES MISSIONS ...............................................................................2-1 Unconventional Warfare...........................................................................................2-1 Foreign Internal Defense ........................................................................................2-11 Direct Action ...........................................................................................................2-12 Special Reconnaissance ........................................................................................2-15 Combatting Terrorism.............................................................................................2-17 Counterproliferation ................................................................................................2-18 Information Operations ...........................................................................................2-19 Collateral Activities .................................................................................................2-21 Multiple and Follow-On Missions ............................................................................2-24 Special Forces Support for U.S. Tactical Operations.............................................2-24 Special Forces Operations in Rear Areas ..............................................................2-25 Force Protection .....................................................................................................2-26

Chapter 3

SPECIAL FORCES ORGANIZATION .....................................................................3-1 Special Forces Group (Airborne)..............................................................................3-1 Headquarters and Headquarters Company..............................................................3-1 Group Support Company........................................................................................3-10 Special Forces Battalion.........................................................................................3-17 Battalion Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment (SFODC) ........................3-17 Battalion Support Company....................................................................................3-23 Special Forces Company .......................................................................................3-25 Special Forces Operational Detachment A ............................................................3-28

Chapter 4

COMMAND AND CONTROL OF SPECIAL FORCES OPERATIONS ...................4-1 Command Environment............................................................................................4-1 United States Army Special Operations Command .................................................4-1 United States Army Special Forces Command (Airborne) .......................................4-2 Theater Special Operations Command ....................................................................4-2 Joint Special Operations Task Force .......................................................................4-3 Operational Bases ....................................................................................................4-4 Battle Staff ................................................................................................................4-5 Liaison and Coordination Operations .......................................................................4-5 Special Forces Command and Control During Stability Operations.........................4-6 Special Forces Command and Control During Contingency Operations .................4-8 Special Forces Command and Control of Conventional Forces ............................4-11

ii

CHQSOFTWARE.COMChapter 5

FM 3-05.20

Page

SPECIAL FORCES OPERATIONAL BASES ......................................................... 5-1 Base Location Considerations ................................................................................. 5-1 Base Organization.................................................................................................... 5-2 Alternate Bases........................................................................................................ 5-2 Base Displacement .................................................................................................. 5-2 Operations Center.................................................................................................... 5-2 Support Center......................................................................................................... 5-9 Signal Center ......................................................................................................... 5-12 Base Defense ........................................................................................................ 5-15

Chapter 6

SPECIAL FORCES TARGETING AND MISSION PLANNING............................... 6-1 Joint Special Operations Targeting and Mission Planning Process......................... 6-1 Deliberate Targeting and Mission Planning ............................................................. 6-9

Chapter 7

SPECIAL FORCES SUPPORT AND SUSTAINMENT ........................................... 7-1 Army Service Component Command ...................................................................... 7-1 Army Special Operations Forces Combat Service Support Assets ......................... 7-2 Special Forces Logistics .......................................................................................... 7-6 Operational Projects ................................................................................................ 7-6 War Reserve Materiel .............................................................................................. 7-7 Host Nation Support................................................................................................. 7-7 Developed Theater Logistics ................................................................................... 7-7 Developed Theater Personnel Service Support..................................................... 7-11 Developed Theater Combat Health Support.......................................................... 7-12 Undeveloped Theater Combat Service Support .................................................... 7-13 Reconstitution ........................................................................................................ 7-15 Special Forces Operational Detachment Support and Sustainment ..................... 7-16

Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F

SPECIAL OPERATIONS COORDINATION ELEMENT ......................................... A-1 SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND AND CONTROL ELEMENT....................... B-1 ARMY SPECIAL FORCES LIAISON ELEMENT ....................................................C-1 SPECIAL FORCES MISSION BRIEFBACK FORMAT...........................................D-1 SAMPLE GROUP OPERATION ORDER................................................................ E-1 SAMPLE BATTALION OPERATION ORDER ........................................................ F-1 GLOSSARY ................................................................................................. Glossary-1 BIBLIOGRAPHY.....................................................................................Bibliography-1 INDEX ......

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