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CurricuIum DeveIopment Division. Ministry of Education MaIaysia. 2009

Flippihg Fahtastic By Jane Langford Table of Contents ntroduction About 8hort 8tories 8ynopsis Elements Activities Beyond The Text Assessment Answer Key Glossary Panel of Writers LTERATURE COMPONENT FOR FORM 1 `|cr `rcn 2

SHORT STORY Welcome to the World of Literature! We hope you will enjoy working with this guidebook, specially designed to help you prepare your students for the Literature Component of the KBSM EnglishLanguagesyllabus. Werecommendthat theactivitiesinthisguidebook becarriedout as creatively as possible so as to allow students to appreciate the genre and to develop a sense of familiarity with the various literary terms and devices in the short story. Be ready to listen to students'viewsandopinions,andencouragethemtoproducetheirownanswers.tisour sincerehopethattheactivitiesandworksheetsinthisguidebookwillactasaspringboardfor your own ideas and methods for exploring the individual texts. Have a good time showing your students that Literature is fun!

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SHORT STORY What is a Short Story? OA short story is written in prose form and much shorter than a novel. OThe length of a short story may be between 500 to 1500 words.OThere are fewer characters in a short story compared to a novel. OThe story line is more focused and less complicated.OThe time period is shorter and the setting is not as varied as in a novel. OA short story has only one main theme and fewer sub-themes.Ot may be just fiction or based on facts.Ot often deals with basic human concerns. %heme and Sub-%heme OA theme is the central idea, the main message/ important lessons/ moral issues that you can learn from the text. Ot is not usually presented directly in the story. The theme becomes clear only when you have understood the story well. OMany short stories usually focus on issues that are of concern to society. OTo uncover the theme of a story: (a)Look at the title. Sometimes, it will give a clue about the theme. (b)Take note of any repetition. Sometimes, these will lead you to the theme. (c)Study the symbols. What are they trying to suggest? (d)Look closely at all the details and particulars that are presented. They give a lot of clues to the theme. Setting OThe setting usually refers to the time and place in which the story takes place. OThe setting often influences the values, beliefs and attitudes of people. Characters OCharacters are the people found in the story. Sometimes, a character can also be an animal or an object. OThese characters can be categorised into main characters and supporting characters. The character that dominates the story is usually the main character. OTheir characteristics are the way these characters behave and act. OReaders can learn about characters in many ways including: (a)physical traits (b)actions (c)opinions

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(d)dialogue (e)point of view !Iot OA plot tells how events are connected or how the story is told. OA common pattern of a plot is a course of events in a story that contains a conflict or a problem that ends with a resolution or a turning point. On other words, a plot is a sequence of events, the "why for the things that happen in the story. !oint of view 1.n a story, someone is telling the story from his or own point of view. 2.The point of view could be: (a)in the first person , using '' and 'We' to give the personal touch (b)in the second person, using 'they' / 'he' / 'she' / 'it' (c)who tells the story and how it is told are very important. The tone and feel of the story and even its meaning can change depending on who is telling the story. Language and StyIe 1.Language includes all the literary and sound devices a writer uses to tell his story and conveys his message.2.The language preferred by a writer and the way he uses it determine his own unique style. 3.There are many types of styles a writer may use in order to attract the attention of the reader. For example, (a)a distinctive use of descriptive words to bring out the setting, the colour, the arrangement, the people and the environment (b)a preference for certain choice of words and their arrangement (c)use of humour (d)use of rhymes, images and symbols 4.The flashback is one of the most common technique used in a short story. t is an action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time in the story, which is necessary for a better understanding. 5.Foreshadowing is the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story. 6.magery is also an important element used in a short story to evoke one or all the five senses sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. 7.Usually, writers use metaphors and similes to emphasis the images given. %one 1.The writer's tone is his attitude towards the subject of his story and towards his reader. 2.You can use adjectives such as "serious, "light-hearted, "pompous, "nostalgic, etc. to describe tone.3.Tone suggests or influences mood and atmosphere.4.Mood and atmosphere are very closely linked; both capture the general feel of the story. Mood indicates the general, underlying feel of the story. Atmosphere is the general sense of the story. 5

rony 1.rony refers to a contrast, usually between what is expected or intended and what is actual or real. 2.rony involves double meaning. n an ironic statement a speaker or writer uses words in such a way that the words suggest the opposite meaning of what they actually means. Figurative Language 1.A simiIe is a figurative comparison that uses "like or "as to connect to ideas or items. t is an indirect comparison. 2.A metaphor compares two unlike things directly. A metaphor states that one thing is something else.3.!ersonification: When something is personified, it is given human qualities. Sometimes, this makes an image vivid and dynamic for the reader. 6

SHORT STORY 'Flipping Fantastic' by Jane Langford is a story about twin brothers and their mother. Tristan is an outstanding, brilliant and a capable boy but James is shy, nervous and lacks confidence. Both of them are about to finish their primary education at Peter Hill Primary soon and plan to begin their new school term in two different schools. Their mother decides to enrol James in Highfields and Tristan who is physically challenged and wheelchair bound, in a special school (Chesterlea Grange). Both brothers are confused over the thought of being separated as they have never been apart from each other. Since they rely on each other, the twins are concerned about how they are going to cope in their new school environment. The mother wants the twins to be independent. She is confident that Tristan would be able to cope well at Chesterlea Grange. However, she worries about James and wonders how he is going to manage all alone at Highfields. Tristan changes his mind about Chesterlea Grange, in order to be with James. Besides that, the school is far away from home and he would only be able to see James once a week. On the other hand, James manages to persuade him by reminding him of all the facilities and activities in his new school that Tristan dreamt of. Knowing James cannot cope himself alone, Tristan calls on their friend Kiara Jones to help James in Highfields.The twins at last realise that they have made the right decision and their new school environment is flipping fantastic.

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SHORT STORY SE%% !eter HiII !rimary: Tristan and James are finishing their final year in this primary school.They perform in a play entitled "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer which is the last activity in the school. ChesterIea range: This is a residential school for students of special needs situated far away from Tristan's home. Tristan looks forward to be enrolled in this special school which has all the facilities that he has dreamt of such as a drama studio, games room, swimming pool and a paddock. The school also has sports activities such as basketball tournament, archery contest, wheelchair games and so on. HighfieIds: This is the school that James is going to be enrolled in when the new school term begins.At the end of the story, James feels excited about his new school as most of his schoolmates are there including Kiara Jones. CHARAC%ER %ristan and James :They are the main characters in the story. They are twin brothers who are dependent on each other. Tristan is more confident and outstanding than James. James is shy, nervous and has a low self-esteem. Mum:She is the mother of Tristan and James. She is determined to send her sons to different schools so that they would be independent and confident about their own abilities %HEMES Fear of the unknown: James dreads being alone in Highfields without the help of Tristan.Although Tristan feels excited about his new school, at times he feels confused at being alone and far away from home and his brother in the new school. MotherIy pride: Mum takes pride in her boys' ability.She admires James's courage to perform on stage despite being an introvert and appreciates Tristan's great performance. as'Tom Sawyer' in the school play. Other themes/ sub-themes:a caring society, being independent, brotherly love. VALUES

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ndependence, concern, gratefulness, appreciation, consideration, helpfulness L%ERARY DEVCES !oint of View Thisstoryiswrittenfromthefirstpersonpointofview.Thepronoun"isused.Weseethe eventsfromthreeperspectives;namelythatofTristan,JamesandMum.Wecanexperience their thoughts and feelings.%one The tone is generally sincere, serious and reflective. At times it is emotional. Diction(the choice of words used in the story) Oserious-.James,ontheotherhand,hasalwaysbeensonervous.I'vebeenreally worried about him. OreflectiveJustbecausewe'retwinsdoesn'tmeanwehavetobegoodatthesame things. I accept that. Oemotional -%alk about p