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  • FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

    DESIGN MANUAL

    OFFICE OF DESIGN, PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SECTION SEPTEMBER 2016

    TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA Topic #625-010-002

  • Topic #625-010-002Flexible Pavement Design Manual September 2016

    Table of Contents i

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section Title Page No.

    1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-11.1 PURPOSE 1-11.2 AUTHORITY 1-11.3 GENERAL 1-11.4 SCOPE 1-21.5 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN MANUAL 1-2

    ORGANIZATION AND REVISIONS1.5.1 Background 1-21.5.2 References 1-21.5.3 Florida Conditions 1-31.5.4 Appendices 1-31.6 DISTRIBUTION 1-41.7 PROCEDURE FOR REVISIONS & UPDATES 1-41.8 TRAINING 1-51.9 FORMS 1-5

    2.0 DEFINITIONS 2-12.1 PAVEMENT SYSTEM 2-12.2 AASHTO DESIGN EQUATION 2-42.2.1 Variables 2-42.2.2 Constants 2-62.2.3 Unknowns 2-72.3 TERMS 2-7

    3.0 PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN PROCESS 3-13.1 DESIGN SOURCE 3-13.2 DESIGN PERIODS 3-53.3 DISTRICT COORDINATION 3-53.4 QUALITY 3-63.5 GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN/BUILD PROJECTS 3-6

    4.0 FRICTION COURSE POLICY 4-14.1 FRICTION COURSE OPTIONS 4-1

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    Table of Contents ii

    Section Title Page No.

    4.2 FRICTION COURSES 12.5 AND 9.5 (FC-12.5 and 4-4FC-9.5)

    4.3 FRICTION COURSE 5 (FC-5) 4-4

    5.0 PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN PROCESS 5-1FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION orRECONSTRUCTION

    5.1 OVERVIEW 5-15.2 REQUIRED STRUCTURAL NUMBER (SNR) 5-1

    CALCULATIONS USING THE AASHTO DESIGNGUIDE

    5.2.1 Design Example 5-25.2.2 Design Base Highwater Clearance 5-35.2.3 Laboratory Resilient Modulus (MR) 5-35.2.4 Resilient Modulus (MR) From LBR 5-65.3 LAYER THICKNESS CALCULATIONS FOR 5-11

    NEW CONSTRUCTION5.4 BINDER SELECTION ON THE BASIS OF TRAFFIC 5-12

    SPEED AND TRAFFIC LEVEL5.5 NEW CONSTRUCTION DESIGN SAMPLE 5-19

    PROBLEM5.6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 5-245.6.1 Stabilized Subgrade 5-245.6.2 Base 5-255.6.3 Asphalt Base Curb Pad 5-275.6.4 Structural Course 5-275.6.5 Traffic Levels 5-285.6.6 Layer Thickness 5-285.6.7 Ramp Design 5-33

    6.0 PAVEMENT WIDENING 6-16.1 REQUIREMENTS 6-16.2 STRUCTURAL COURSE 6-16.3 BASE AND SUBGRADE 6-36.4 STABILIZATION 6-36.5 LABORATORY RESILIENT MODULUS (MR) 6-36.6 WIDENING DESIGN SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-4

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    Table of Contents iii

    Section Title Page No.

    7.0 PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN PROCESS 7-1FOR REHABILITATION PROJECTS

    7.1 OVERVIEW 7-17.2 REQUIRED STRUCTURAL NUMBER (SNR) 7-1

    CALCULATIONS USING THE AASHTO DESIGN7.3 RESILIENT MODULUS (MR) VARIATIONS 7-17.3.1 Resilient Modulus (MR) From 7-3

    Nondestructive Testing7.3.2 Resilient Modulus (MR) From LBR 7-37.4 EVALUATING THE EXISTING STRUCTURAL 7-7

    NUMBER (SNE)7.4.1 Field Testing 7-77.4.2 Data Collection 7-87.4.3 Pavement Evaluation 7-87.4.4 Reduced Layer Coefficients 7-97.5 MILLING 7-137.5.1 Candidate Projects 7-137.5.2 Pavement Coring and Sampling 7-147.5.3 Variable Depth Milling 7-157.5.4 Cross Slope 7-157.5.5 Rutted Pavement 7-167.5.6 Milling Depth 7-167.6 CALCULATING THE STRUCTURAL OVERLAY 7-17

    NUMBER (SNO)7.7 OVERLAY DESIGN SAMPLE PROBLEM 7-187.8 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR 7-21

    REHABILITATION PROJECTS7.8.1 Payment of Structural Course 7-227.8.2 Overbuild 7-227.8.3 Operational Projects 7-237.8.4 Functional Overlays 7-237.8.5 Crack Relief Layers 7-24

    8.0 SHOULDER DESIGN 8-18.1 DESIGN GUIDANCE 8-1

  • Topic #625-010-002Flexible Pavement Design Manual September 2016

    Table of Contents iv

    APPENDICES

    Appendix Title Page No.

    A.0 DESIGN TABLES A-1A.1 INSTRUCTIONS A-1

    B.0 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN QUALITY B-1CONTROL PLAN

    B.1 QUALITY CONTROL PLAN B-1B.2 DEFINITIONS B-1B.3 RESPONSIBILITY B-1B.4 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGNS B-2B.4.1 Minimum Requirements B-2B.4.2 Distribution B-3B.4.3 Revisions B-4B.4.4 Documentation B-5B.5 DISTRICT QUALITY CONTROL B-5B.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE REVIEWS B-6B.7 PAVEMENT DESIGN UPDATES B-6

    Flexible Pavement Design Quality Control B-7ChecklistFlorida Department of Transportation B-10Flexible Pavement Design Summary Sheet

    C.0 MECHANISTIC-EMPIRICAL PAVEMENT C-1DESIGN GUIDE

    D.0 ESTIMATING DESIGN 18-KIP EQUIVALENT D-1SINGLE AXLE LOADS (ESALD)

    D.1 BACKGROUND D-1D.2 BASIC EQUATION D-3D.3 SAMPLE PROBLEMS D-6D.3.1 Sample Problem #1 D-6D.3.2 Sample Problem #2 D-9

  • Topic #625-010-002Flexible Pavement Design Manual September 2016

    Table of Contents v

    FIGURES

    Figure Title Page No.

    2.1 ROADWAY TYPICAL SECTION 2-3

    3.1 AASHTO DESIGN EQUATION for 3-2FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

    3.2 AASHTO DESIGN EQUATION INPUT for 3-3FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

    3.3 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN VARIABLES 3-4

    4.1-4.2 ILLUSTRATIONS SHOWING LIMITS of 4-6 -FRICTION COURSE-5 (FC-5) at 4-7INTERMEDIATE MEDIAN CROSSOVER

    4.3 ILLUSTRATION SHOWING LIMITS of 4-8FRICTION COURSE-5 (FC-5) at MEDIAN AREASof LOW VOLUME INTERSECTIONS

    6.1 WIDENING DETAIL for SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-7

    7.1 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT REHABILITATION 7-2PROCESS

    7.2-7.4 EXAMPLE DEFLECTION PLOTS 7-4 -7-6

  • Topic #625-010-002Flexible Pavement Design Manual September 2016

    Table of Contents vi

    TABLES

    Table Title Page No.

    3.1 DESIGN PERIODS 3-8

    4.1 FRICTION COURSE SELECTION 4-3

    5.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESILIENT 5-8MODULUS (MR) and LIMEROCK BEARINGRATIO (LBR) SAMPLE VALUES

    5.2 RELIABILITY (%R) for DIFFERENT ROADWAY 5-9FACILITIES

    5.3 EXAMPLE DESIGN TABLE (FROM 5-10APPENDIX A, TABLE A.4A)

    5.4 STRUCTURAL COEFFICIENTS for DIFFERENT 5-14PAVEMENT LAYERS

    5.5 REQUIRED MINIMUM THICKNESS for NEW 5-15CONSTRUCTION or RECONSTRUCTION

    5.6 GENERAL USE OPTIONAL BASE GROUPS 5-16and STRUCTURAL NUMBERS

    5.7 LIMITED USE OPTIONAL BASE GROUPS 5-17and STRUCTURAL NUMBERS

    5.8 GENERAL NOTES FOR OPTIONAL BASE 5-18GROUPS and STRUCTURAL NUMBERS5.9COMBINED STRUCTURAL NUMBER 5-23

  • Topic #625-010-002Flexible Pavement Design Manual September 2016

    Table of Contents vii

    TABLES (CONTINUED)

    Table Title Page No.

    5.10 DESIGN NOTES ON LAYER THICKNESS FOR 5-31ASPHALT CONCRETE STRUCTURAL COURSES

    5.11 LAYER THICKNESS FOR ASPHALTIC CONCRETE 5-32STRUCTURAL COURSES

    7.1 REDUCED STRUCTURAL COEFFICIENTS of 7-11ASPHALT MATERIALS PER INCH

    7.2 AASHTO SUGGESTED LAYER COEFFICIENT 7-12FOR FRACTURED SLAB PAVEMENT

    A.1A- REQUIRED STRUCTURAL NUMBER (SNR) A-3 -A.10B A-22

    D.1 RELATIONSHIP of AXLE WEIGHT TO D-2DAMAGE

    D.2 LANE FACTORS (LF) FOR DIFFERENT TYPES D-4of FACILITIES

    D.3 EQUIVALENCY FACTORS E18 FOR DIFFERENT D-5TYPES of FACILITIES

    DESIGN AIDS

    Title Page No.

    FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN QUALITY CONTROL B-7CHECKLIST

    FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-10FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN SUMMARY SHEET

  • Topic No.: 625-010-002Flexible Pavement Design Manual September 2016

    Introduction 1-1

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 PURPOSE

    The objective of this manual is to provide a Pavement Design Engineer with sufficient informationso that the necessary input data can be developed and proper engineering principles applied todesign a new flexible pavement, or develop a properly engineered pavement rehabilitation project.This design manual addresses methods to properly develop a pavement rehabilitation project,pavement milling, and the computations necessary for the pavement design process.

    It is the responsibility of the Pavement Design Engineer to ensure that the designs producedconform to Department policies, procedures, standards, guidelines, and sound engineeringpractices.

    1.2 AUTHORITY

    Sections 20.23(3) (a) and 334.048(3), Florida Statutes

    1.3 GENERAL

    Chapter 334 of the Florida Statutes, known as the Florida Transportation Code, establishes theresponsibilities of the state, counties, and municipalities for the planning and development of thetransportation systems serving the people of the State of Florida, with the objective of assuringdevelopment of an integrated, balanced statewide system.

    The Code's purpose is to protect the safety and general welfare of the people of the State and topreserve and improve all transportation facilities in Florida. Under Section 334.048(3), Code setsforth the powers and duties of the Department of Transportation to develop and adopt uniformminimum standards and criteria for the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of publicroads.

    The standards in this manual represent minimum requirements, which must be met for flexiblepavement design for new construction and pavement rehabilitation of Florida Department ofTransportation projects. Any variances should be documented in project files.

  • Topic No.: 625-010-002Flexible Pavement Design Manual September 2016

    Introduction 1-2

    Pavement design is primarily a matter of sound application of acceptable engineering criteria andstandards. While the standards contained in this manual provide a basis for uniform design practicefor typical pavement design situations, precise rules which would apply to all possible situationsare impossible to give.

    1.4 SCOPE

    The principal users of this manual are the District Pavement Design Engineers and their agents(i.e. Consultants). Additional users include other department offices such as Construction,Maintenance, Traffic Operations, etc., and city and county offices.

    1.5 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN MANUAL ORGANIZATION AND REVISIONS

    1.5.1 BACKGROUNDThe manual (Topic No. 625-010-002) is published as a revision to the March 2008 manual.

    1.5.2 REFERENCES

    The design procedures incorporated in this document are based on the American Association ofState Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide for Design of Pavement Structuresplus numerous National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP),

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