Flemish Manuscript Painting in Context
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Flemish Manuscript Painting in ContextRecent Research
Flemish Manuscript Painting in ContextRecent Research
Based on symposia held at
the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
(September 56, 2003), and at
the Courtauld Institute of Art, London
(February 21, 2004, under the
sponsorship of the Courtauld Institute
and the Royal Academy of Arts),
with an additional essay by Margaret Scott
Edited by Elizabeth Morrison and Thomas Kren
the j. paul getty museum, los angeles
This publication is based on selected papers presented at two symposia, one at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles (September 56, 2003), the other at theCourtauld Institute of Art, London (February 21, 2004, under the sponsorship of the Courtauld Institute and the Royal Academy of Arts), and a lecture byMargaret Scott presented at the Getty Museum August 7, 2003. These events were held in conjunction with the exhibition lluminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, held at the J. Paul GettyMuseum, Los Angeles, from June 17 to September 7, 2003, and at The RoyalAcademy of Arts, London, from November 25, 2003, to February 22, 2004.
2006 J. Paul Getty Trust
Getty Publications1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 500Los Angeles, California 90049-1682www.getty.edu
Mark Greenberg, Editor in Chief
Dinah Berland, EditorKaren Jacobson, Manuscript EditorKurt Hauser, DesignerAnita Keys, Production Coordinator
Typesetting by Diane FrancoPrinted and bound by Tien Wah Press, Singapore
Unless otherwise specied, all photographs are courtesy of the institution thatowns the work illustrated.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Flemish manuscript painting in context : recent research / edited by ElizabethMorrison and Thomas Kren.
p. cm.Based on symposia held at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles (September
56, 2003), and at the Courtauld Institute of Art, London (February 21, 2004,under the sponsorship of the Courtauld Institute and the Royal Academy of Arts),with an additional essay by Margaret Scott.
Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-0-89236-852-5 (pbk.)ISBN-10: 0-89236-852-7 (pbk.)
1. Illumination of books and manuscripts, FlemishCongresses. 2. Illuminationof books and manuscripts, RenaissanceFlandersCongresses. I. Morrison,Elizabeth, 1968 II. Kren, Thomas, 1950 III. J. Paul Getty Museum. IV.Courtauld Institute of Art.
Front coverSimon Bening, Saint Luke (detail, g. 6.1).
Back coverAttributed to the Master of the First Prayer Book ofMaximilian (Alexander Bening?), painted border with drag-onfly (detail, g. 13.5).
Frontispiece Clockwise from upper left: Master of Edward IV, MaryMagdalene (detail, g. 2.12); Master of Fitzwilliam 268,Herdsmen Tityrus and Melibeous (detail, g. 10.1); GhentAssociate of the Vienna Master of Mary of Burgundy, Virginand Child with Jan van der Scaghe and Anne de Memere(detail, g. 1.1); Master of Antoine Rolin, painted borderwith crying eyes (detail, g. 13.4); Master of James IV ofScotland, painted border with The Rest on the Flight intoEgypt (g. 5.22); Attributed to the Master of the FirstPrayer Book of Maximilian (Alexander Bening?), paintedborder with dragonfly (detail, g. 13.5); Master of Girart deRoussilon, The Wedding of Girart de Roussilon and Berthe(detail, g. 4.9); Vienna Master of Mary of Burgundy, Maryof Burgundy(?) Reading Her Devotions (detail, g. 4.5);center: Rogier van der Weyden, Presentation of theManuscript to Philip the Good (detail, g. 7.1).
Page ixMaster of James IV of Scotland, The Tower of Babel, in theGrimani Breviary (detail, fig. 13.6).
Part 1: Illuminated Manuscripts in the Burgundian Court
1 chapter 1. Jan van der Scaghe and Anne de Memere, the First Owners of the Hours of 1480 in the Abbey Library at Nov R seLorne Campbell
9 chapter 2. The Undecorated Margin: The Fashion for Luxury Books without BordersCatherine Reynolds
27 chapter 3. A Very Burgundian Hero: The Figure of Alexander the Great under the Rule of Philip the GoodChrystle Blondeau
43 chapter 4. The Role of Dress in the Image of Charles the Bold, Duke of BurgundyMargaret Scott
Part 2: Techniques, Media, and the Organization of Production
57 chapter 5. The Suggestive Brush: Painting Techniques in Flemish Manuscripts from the Collections of the J. Paul Getty Museum and the Huntington LibraryNancy K. Turner
75 chapter 6. Flemish Manuscript Production, Care, and Repair: Fifteenth-Century SourcesLieve Watteeuw
87 chapter 7. Rogier van der Weyden and Manuscript IlluminationLorne Campbell
103 chapter 8. On Relationships between Netherlandish Drawing and Manuscript Illumination in the Fifteenth Century Stephanie Buck
117 chapter 9. Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts: Assessing Archival EvidenceJan Van der Stock
Part 3: Individual Illuminators
123 chapter 10. The Master of Fitzwilliam 268: New Discoveries and New and Revisited HypothesesGregory T. Clark
135 chapter 11. Marketing Books for Burghers: Jean Markants Activity in Tournai, Lille, and BrugesDominique Vanwijnsberghe
149 chapter 12. Iconographic Originality in the Oeuvre of the Master of the David ScenesElizabeth Morrison
Conten t s
Part 4: Directions for Further Research
163 chapter 13. Scholarship on Flemish Manuscript Illumination of the Renaissance: Remarks on Past, Present, and FutureJames H. Marrow
177 chapter 14. One Hundred Years of the Study of Netherlandish ManuscriptsJonathan J. G. Alexander
183 AppendixScribe BiographiesRichard Gay
189 About the Contributors191 Index198 Photograph Credits
While working on the catalogue for Illuminating the Renaissance: TheTriumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, we and our colleague ScotMcKendrick, who coorganized the exhibition with Thomas Kren, were con-stantly reminded of the extraordinary vitality of research in the eld of Flemishmanuscript illumination. Even as entries and essays for the catalogue werebeing completed for editing, new articles, exhibition catalogues, and bookswere appearing that dealt with one aspect or another of the sprawling topic ofFlemish book painting between 1470 and 1560. While there was clearly a needfor a synthetic treatment of the subject in the form of an exhibition and a cat-alogue, the tremendous scope and richness of the literature that had precededour endeavor, going back 150 years, often gave us pause. And there seemed tobe noteworthy additions to the literature every month. Thus, when the oppor-tunity arose to hold symposia in conjunction with both the Los Angeles andLondon presentations of the exhibition, signicant scholarship was easy toidentify, sometimes happily arising from the exhibition itself. If anything, thetwo conferences proved insufcient to feature all the new research. In the cata-logue itself we had deliberately limited the number of contributors in order togive the volume as unied a scholarly perspective as possible. The conferencesoffered the opportunity for a broader range of voices, viewpoints, and method-ologies to be heard.
This volume includes a selection of the papers that were presented at the two symposia. The rst was held at the Getty Museum in Los Angeles on September 56, 2003, under the auspices of the museum, and the secondtook place at the Courtauld Institute in London on February 21, 2004, underthe sponsorship of the Courtauld Institute and the Royal Academy of Art. Wehave also included a related paper, with changes, by Margaret Scott that wasdelivered in the Illuminating the Renaissance lecture series at the Getty onAugust 7, 2003. The papers encompass a variety of approaches to the material,including traditional studies in the form of essays on individual illuminators,their chronologies, and the denition of their production; cross-disciplinaryresearch that takes into account cultural inuences; examination of fashions inFlemish book design; analysis of manuscript illumination by a paintings spe-cialist; and new methods of stylistic analysis abetted by scientic technology.One of the themes that recurs in many of the papers concerns the evidence ofcollaboration of different kinds within the production of a given manuscript orproject. Some of the essays respond to particular issues raised in the catalogue,while others present entirely different themes and avenues of research.
We are grateful to Deborah Gribbon and William Griswold, formerdirector and former acting director, respectively, of the Getty Museum, as wellas our new director, Michael Brand, for supporting a program of scholarlysymposia in conjunction with the museums exhibition program. We also thankJohn Lowden and Scot McKendrick for organizing the Courtauld event. We areindebted to the contributors for their original talks and for their efforts in turn-ing their papers into publishable essays, often by taking into account the livelydiscussion and debate that ensued at the symposia. Many were helpful in the
P re f a c e
revision of their colleagues papers. Maryan Ainsworth offered helpful counselin the formulation of this volume and in the shaping of several papers. Finally,we would like to thank Scot McKendrick once again, for his characteristicthoughtfulness and generosity in serving as an adviser to this publication.
While this volume is intended as a companion to the exhibition cata-logue for Illuminating the Renaissance, it is also a sequel to a previous sympo-sium on Flemish manuscript illumination, Margaret of York, Simon Marmion,and the Visions of Tondal, held at the Getty in 1990 and published in 1992.We are especially indebted to Richard Gay,