first aid thiesis

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INTRODUCTION:WHAT IS SAFETYSafety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered nondesirable. Safety can also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. This can take the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to something that causes health or economical losses. It can include protection of people or of possessions.

Risks and responsesSafety is generally interpreted as implying a real and significant impact on risk of death, injury or damage to property. In response to perceived risks many interventions may be proposed with engineering responses and regulation being two of the most common. Probably the most common individual response to perceived safety issues is insurance, which compensates for or provides restitution in the case of damage or loss. First aid plays a key role in safety.

WHAT IS FIRST -AID:First aid is the immediate treatment given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness, before medical help is obtained.

AIMS OF FIRST AID: To preserve life To promote recovery

To prevent worsening of the casualtys condition.

THE FIRST AID: Highly trained and retrained practically. Examined and reexamined regularly. Up to date in knowledge and skill. First aid is a skilled assistance but the first aider is not a doctor.After the doctor takes charge the first aider responsibility ends. The first aider should observe carefully,think clearly and act quickly.

SCOP OF FIRST AID1. Diagnosis 2. Treatment and 3. Disposal

DIAGNOSIS: The first aider should examine the casualty to know the details of injuries and their nature. Diagnosis is based on its history, signs and symptoms. 1. History of the case: It is the story of the accident that is how the accident occurred. The surroundings will also add information. This information helps the first aider to estimate the condition and the type of treatment to be given. 2. Symptoms: such as pain, shivering, faintness, shock etc; will also help. 3. Signs: such as paleness, swelling, deformity of limbs etc; will also help the first aider to estimate the casualty condition. Based on these observations the treatment begins. TREATMENT: The diagnosis will give him an idea of the treatment to be given until the doctor takes charge. The main ideas are: 1. If the cause of the accident is still there, remove it for example: an electric wire, pillar or logs on body etc.

2. Remove casualty from danger for example: a burning house, a room with poisonous gas etc. 3. Failure of breathing, stoppage of heart, severe bleeding, shock poisoning etc; for these conditions require the first aiders prompt attention. 4. Continue the treatment until the doctor takes charge. DISPOSAL: Send the casualty to his house or to the hospital, as the case may be, in a suitable manner.

DRESSING:A dressing is a protective covering applied to a wound to: Prevent infection. Absorb discharge. Control bleeding. Avoid further injury.

An efficient dressing should be sterile and have a high degree of porosity to allow for oozing and sweating.

APPLICATION OF DRESSING: Great care must be taken in handling and applying dressings. Wash your hands thoroughly. Avoiding touching any part of the wound with the fingers, of any part of the dressing which will be in contact with the wound. Do not talk or cough over the wound or the dressing. Dressing must be covered with adequate pads of cotton wool, extending well beyond them and retained in position by bandage or strapping. If a dressing adheres to wound do not try to remove it. Cover it with sterile dressing after cutting away whatever can be removed.

BANDAGES:Bandages are used to: Maintain direct pressure over addressing to control bleeding. Retain dressing and slings in position. Prevent or reduce swelling. Restrict movement. Assist in lifting and carrying casualty.

Bandages should not be used for padding when other materials are available. Bandages should be applied firm enough to keep dressing and splints in position but not to so tight as to cause injury to the part or impede the circulation of the blood. A blue tinge of the finger or nails may be a danger sign that the bandages are too tight, lose of sensation is another sign.

TYPES OF BANDAGES:Two types: 1. triangular bandages 2. roller bandages

Triangular Bandage:A triangular Bandage is a piece of clothing material that can be utilized in an emergency. Among all the bandages, it practically is the most readily available since you can convert any clothing material into a triangular bandage in the event of an emergency. Among the many purposes of the triangular bandages are the following:

to hold the dressing in place to prevent infection for direct pressure for arm sling

to hold splints together From among the different types of bandages available, the triangular bandage is widely use considering that these type of bandages can easily be secured out of any clothing material. May it be at home, or in the office or practically anywhere.

Aside from its availability, the triangular bandages can be applied to almost all areas. From head to foot, you can always maneuver the bandage in such a way that it can be useful. There is also no problem in so far as sizes considering that the triangular bandage can easily be folded into different sizes in order to apply to different areas of the body. May the patient be an adult a child or an infant, triangular bandages can always be applied.

Use of triangular bandages: 1. As a whole cloth spread out fully. 2. As a broad bandage: Bring the joint to the center of the base and then fold again to the same direction. 3. As a narrow bandage: Fold broad bandage once again. 4. When a smaller size bandages is needed fold the original so as to bring the ends together. The size is now reduced by half of the original. Tying the bandage:1.

For tying the bandage Reef knot must be always used.

To make a reef knot take the ends of the bandage one in each hand cross the end in right hand under and then over the end in the left hand, thus making turn. Then cross the end now in the right hand over and then under the end in the left hand, thus making a second turn. 2. The usual Granny knot should not be used as it is likely to come loose. 3. The knot should be made where it does not hurt the skin or cause discomfort. 4. Tuck the loose ends of the bandage out of the sight. 5. When not in use, the triangular bandage should be folded narrow. Bring the two ends to the center and fold again. It becomes a packet which measures 16cm * 9cm, handy to carry. 6. Triangular bandages are used as slings.


1. fold a narrow hem of the base of open bandage and place it on the forehead just above the level of the eyebrows. 2. Take the two ends backwards,after placing the body of the bandage over the head, the point hanging near the nape of the neck. 3. Cross the two ends and take them forward above the ears to meet on the forehead, where they are tied. 4. Press on the head of the patient, draw the point firmly downwards and pin it to the bandages after taking it upwards.

For the forehead,eye, cheek or any part which is round in shape:

1. Use narrow or broad bandage depending upon the size of the wound. 2. Apply the centre of the bandage over the pad and wind the bandage around the part. 3. Tie in a suitable place.

Front or back of the chest:1. Place the centre of the bandage over the dressing, the point over the sound shoulder. 2. Carry the ends of the bandage round the body and tie it in such a way that one end is longer than the other. 3. Draw the point over shoulder and tie it to the longer end. 4. If back of the chest has wounded reverse all the steps.

For the shoulder:1. Stand facing the injured side. 2. Place the centre of the open bandage on the shoulder, with the point over the side of the neck reaching the ear. 3. Carry the ends, after hemming the base inward around the middle of the arm and tie the knot on the outer side, so the lower border of the bandage is fixed firmly in the position. 4. Apply a sling. 5. Turn down the point of the bandage over the sling knot, draw tight and pin it.

For the elbow:1. Bend the elbow to a right angle if it is advisable to do so. 2. Folding a suitable hem of the base of a triangular bandage and apply it as follows. 3. Lay the point on the back of the upper arm, and the middle of the base on the back of the forearm. 4. Cross the ends in front of the elbow then round the arm, and tie the ends above the elbow. 5. Turn the point round and pin it. 6. When the elbow should not be bent use an ordinary bandage with figure of eight technique.

For the knee:

1. Bend the knee to the right angle. 2. With a narrow inward hem, place the open bandage in front of the knee, with the point upon the thigh. 3. Cross the ends, take them upwards on the back of the thigh, bring them to the front of the thigh and tie up. 4. Bring the point down over the knot and the knee and pin it up. In case the knee is not be bent,figure of eight bandage, using a narrow or a broad bandage is applied.

For the foot:1. Place the foot in the centre of an open bandage with the point beyond the toes. 2. Draw the point over the foot onto the leg. 3. Cover the heel with the ends. 4. Cross the ends round the ankle at the back. 5. Bring the ends forward and tie them in front of the ankle. 6. Bring the point down and pin it up.

USES OF SLING:1. To support injured arm


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