final soil lab

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Soil Mechanics


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGSoil Mechanics Laboratory CEGB 321 Open Ended LabSECTION : SECTION 01GROUP NO. : NO. 5GROUP MEMBERS1. Sivasangkaran a/l Chinna Swami( Leader)CE 0920061. Swee Main GyeCE 0923181. Nor Suhana Abd Khalid CE 0917281. Nor Aisah Khalid CE 0917611. Arvien Subramaniam CE 092854




1. Appearance, formatting and grammar or spelling.12345

1. Introduction and objective12345

1. Procedure12345

1. Results: data,figures, graphs, tables, etc.12345

1. Discussions12345

1. Conclusions12345




3.MethodologyMaterial and ApparatusProcedures2-5






INTRODUCTIONA soil sample that taken at area around (near car park COIT), Jalan IKRAM UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor. It is defined that the soil sample are sand because have a range between 2.62 until 2.67 and that soil are disturbed soil. From usually, a wide variety of laboratory tests can be performed on soils to measure a wide variety of soil properties. An undisturbed sample is one where the condition of the soil in the sample is close enough to the conditions of the soil in-situ to allow tests of structural properties of the soil to be used to approximate the properties of the soil in-situ. For experiment to classify the coarse grained soil, this test is to determine the grain size distribution curve of the given dry soil samples by passing them through a stack of sieves of decreasing mesh openings sizes and by measuring the weight retained on each sieve. Then, for experiment that to determine the specific gravity of fine grained soil, through conducting this experiment are able to obtain the value of where is the ratio of mass of a given volume of soil particles at a given temperature to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water. Other than this, void porosity and degree of saturation should be taken into consideration. To begin with this experiment, the density bottle and stopper is cleaned and weighed. The density bottle is then filled with soil and water up to full before taking is weight. Finally, the bottle is cleaned up and it is it filled with only 10gm of water before weighing it again. The procedure is repeated 3 more time to acquire more accurate results. And with the formula given in the lab manual we are able to obtain the value of. Lastly, for experiment to determine the direct shear parameter of soils,the shear strength of a soil can be measured with the direct shear test. This is a conventional test which uses the simplest form of shearing with its horizontal arrangement. By using a cubic metal mold, soil is filled inside. The soil sample used is fine sand. The soil if filled in gradually while in between it is compacted so that no air is trapped in between of the soil. It is then placed in the shear box equipment that would later divide the frames of the box horizontally into two parts opposite directions; the soil at this time is confined to normal stress that would fail the specimen along the horizontal plane at its mid height. This test can be controlled either through stressing and straining. But in this test, we only performed the strained control. Only one half of the box is applied with a constant shear rate by a motor. From this test we can measure shear force (T), shear displacement () and change in thickness () of specimen. This test satisfies the coulomb equation:

OBJECTIVE.1. To identify the types of soil sampled from site through basic soil classification test. 2. To justify the selected site for soil sampling.3. To differentiate between disturbed and undisturbed soil sample obtained from site for different types of laboratory soil testing.4. To evaluate the soil rate of consolidation in laboratory and predict consolidation settlement of the soil at site.MATERIAL AND APPARATUSMATERIAL = COARSE GRAINED SOIL SAMPLESIEVE ANALYSIS TEST.1. Sieves. The sieves that are used are with the aperture sizes of 5.00 mm, 4.75mm, 3.35mm, 2.00mm, 1.18mm, 0.600mm, 0.425mm, 0.300mm, 0.150mm, and 0.063mm.2. Sieve pan and cover3. Motorized sieve shaker.4. Electronic balance sensitive to 0.1 g.5. 200g of oven dried soil sample.6. Mortar and rubber-tipped pestle.SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST. 1. Density bottle of 50ml capacity with stopper. 2. Electronic balance sensitive to 0.01g. 3. Vacuum source. 4. Wash bottle filled with distilled water.

DIRECT SHEAR TEST1. Soil sample.2. Shear box equipment.3. Weight set.

PROCEDURESFor doing the open ended Laboratory soil, soil sample from area around Uniten (COIT), the soil sample is bring and put in lab for 1 week, after that, several experiment is conducted to defined the type soil.Firstly, experiment to classify the coarse grained soil,I. 200g of oven-dried soil is obtained by weighing it on electronic balance.II. Each sieve is cleaned and weighed. Sieve weights are recorded on the data sheet provided. The sieve pan is also cleaned and weighed.III. The sieves are placed in a stack of increasing aperture sizes. The largest sieve opening should be on top and the pan on the bottom.IV. The soil sample is placed in the top sieve and the cover placed tightly on top.V. Notify your instructor that you are ready to use the sieve shaker. Under his supervision, the sieve stack is placed into the sieve shaker.VI. The sieve shaker is turned on. The sieve shaker is allowed to operate for 5 minutes.VII. Once the sieve shaker has stopped, the sieve stack is removed.VIII. Carefully disassemble the sieve stack. Be careful not to spill any of the soil.IX. Each sieve is weighed together with the soil retained and the pan plus the soil retained is weighed also. The weights are recorded on the data sheet. Secondly, experiment to determine the specific gravity of fine grained soil,I. The density bottle is washed thoroughly with distilled water to clean it and it is allowed to drain.II. The mass of the empty cleaned bottle, M1 with its stopper is found by using the electronic balance sensitive to 0.01g. (reading is taken accurate to 0.01g)III. 20gm of oven-dried soil sample is added into the density bottle. The mass, M2 of the bottle and its content with the stopper was determined by electronic balance sensitive to 0.01g.IV. The bottle is filled with deaired distilled water so that the soil is fully soaked or full. Do not fill it completely, as the content must be agitated under vacuum.V. The entrapped air is removed by subjecting the contents to a partial vacuum.VI. The bottle is completely filled with deaired distilled water and closed with stopper. The mass of the bottle and its contents, M3 is determined.VII. The bottle is emptied and cleaned thoroughly. It is filled with deaired distilled water, put on the stopper and the bottle is wiped dry from outside. The mass, M4 is determined.VIII. Steps 3 to 7 are repeated and two more determinations are taken.Lastly, experiment to determine the direct shear parameter of soils,I. The undisturbed specimen is prepared by pushing a cutting ring of size 100mm in diameter and 20mm in height. The squares specimen of size 60mm x 60mm is then cut from the circular specimen obtained.II. The test specimen is inserted carefully. The loading block is placed in place. The vertical and horizontal displacement indicator is positioned. Appropriate normal load is applied.III. The upper and lower halves of the shear box frame are separated by a gap of about 1.0mm.IV. The locking screws are removed.V. The rate of shear is on the order of 0.6mm/sec.VI. The shearing force is applied and it has reached failure, the test apparatus is stopped.VII. The readings of the load, shear displacement and vertical displacement dials are taken.VIII. The applied normal pressure, dismantle are backed off. The shear box is cleaned.Two more determinations are taken by compact the sample to be denser

Experiment to classify the coarse grained soil,

Experiment to determine the specific gravity of fine grained soil,

Experiment to determine the direct shear parameter of soils,

RESULTS1. Sieve Analysis Test.Total sample mass = 200 g

Sieve size

(mm)Mass Retained (g)% Retained(g)Total % Passing











Mass of sample after sieving = 198.0 gSoil loss = 2.0 g

CalculationExample of calculation for the sieve size 5.00mm:Mass retained on the sieve = 8.3 gMass passed the sieve = Total mass after sieving mass retained = 200 8.3= 191.7 gTotal sample mass = 200gTotal sample mass after sieving = 198.0 gTotal percent passed the sieve = (mass passed the sieve / total sample mass after sieving) x 100 %

= = 15.3%




From the experiment, it is observed that the soil loss is 2.0 g. The error due to soil loss can be obtained by:

2.Specific Gravity TestDetermination123

1. Density bottle number123

2.Mass of density bottle, M1 (g)29.0528.5029.10

3. Mass of bottle + dry soil, M2 (g)39.0538.5039.10

4. Mass of bottle + soil + water, M3 (g)85.0685.3085.10

5. Mass of bottle + water, M4 (g)78.8979.0578.90

Specific Gravity, Gs2.