Final narcolepsy power point

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Narcolepsy Report

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1. Narcolepsy Narklepsis Numbness attack Robbie Dando 2. What is Narcolepsy? Narcolepsy is a sleeping disorder characterised by uncontrollable sleep attacks, excessive day-time sleepiness and Cataplexy. Cataplexy is a sudden episode of muscle weakness which can be triggered by strong emotions. Muscle weakness may cause the victims knees to buckle or their head to drop. In severe cases cataplexy can cause temporary paralysis. 3. What is Narcolepsy? People with narcolepsy fall asleep suddenly with no prior warning. Narcolepsy can happen at any time of the day Narcolepsy is the second-leading cause of excessive daytime sleepiness. The sleepiness associated with this disorder has been described to the feeling of trying to stay awake after not sleeping for 2-3 days. People with the disorder enter REM sleep immediately rather than the usual 90 minutes after falling asleep. REM sleep occurs inappropriately throughout the day in patients with narcolepsy. 4. Prevalence Narcolepsy is not a rare sleeping disorder In the U.S it affects one in every 2000 people Narcolepsy affects people of all racial and ethnic groups, affecting males and female equally It is estimated that 3 million people worldwide suffer from narcolepsy 5. Symptoms Overwhelming fatigue feeling Cataplexy: often triggered by strong emotions Sleep attacks: short uncontrollable sleep episodes during the day Sleep paralysis : inability to move shortly after wakening Auditory or visual hallucinations: at the beginning or end of sleep Disturbed night-time sleep: tossing and turning, nightmares and frequent awakenings 6. Results People with narcolepsy are a danger to themselves and others around them. The disorder means that sufferers of the disorder usually can not be left alone, therefore they lose their sense of independence and ability to lead a normal life. This can quite often lead to depression in patients with narcolepsy. 7. Causes One cause of narcolepsy is a genetic mutation. In 1999 researches identified that a particular gene that when mutated, renders the cells in the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that regulates sleep behaviour) unable to communicate with other cells properly and abnormal sleep patterns then develop. 8. Causes Scientists have also demonstrated an association between Narcolepsy and an autoimmune response. In autoimmunity a persons immune system attacks the bodys own cells. In narcoleptics, the immune system specifically attacks the hypothalamus causing the symptoms of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy can also run in families, but in most cases people with the sleeping disorder do not have a family history of narcolepsy. 9. Diagnosis Symptoms of narcolepsy generally appear between the ages of 10-25 Narcolepsy can be diagnosed by any general practitioner familiar with the disorder as well as a psychiatrists. A diagnosis can be made if the patient is suffering from excessive day-time sleepiness and cataplexy. Laboratory tests can also confirm the diagnosis. Narcolepsy is a very complex disorder and is quite often misdiagnosed. Many people with the disorder struggle with their symptoms for around 14 years before they are correctly diagnosed. 10. Treatment Currently there is no cure for narcolepsy. The symptoms of the disorder can be managed with lifestyle changes and or medication(s) Medications for narcolepsy include various antidepressants and stimulants. Rather than using medication, sufferers of narcolepsy can exercise regularly, try to sleep at least 8 hours a night and avoid alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. 11. Bibliography - books Carson-DeWitt, R and Willingham, E Narcolepsy. Gale Encyclopaedia of Mental Health, (2007), Gale group, Farmington Hills, USA. Volume 2 pages 759-761 Mignot, E Narcolepsy. World Books Encyclopaedia, (2010), World Book Inc, new york, USA. Volume 14 pages 20-21 12. Bibliography - websites Wikipedia (2010) Narcolepsy, retrieved Tuesday 9th October, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narcolepsy National institute of neurological disorders and stroke (2009) Narcolepsy, retrieved Sunday 7th October, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narcolepsy