FILM MAKING

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You can learn here the role of third and other film techniques.

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  • 1. FILM MAKING

2. DEFINE FILM Film is a colloid art of storytelling. Films are something which is remembered, recalled and relished! If the basic unit of meaning in written texts is the WORD. The basic unit of meaning in film is the SHOT. The role of director controls the gaze through SHOTS. 3. Exercise on Gaze Put 2 thumbs in front Unique anatomy of our eye Camera is different the size 4. Framing Shots are all about composition. Rather than pointing the camera at the subject, you need to compose an image 5. What we're looking at here are a few accepted industry guidelines which you should use as rules of thumb. 6. The rules of framing video images are essentially the same as those for still photography. 7. Basic shot types 1.EWS (Extreme Wide Shot) In the EWS, the view is so far from the subject that he isn't even visible. 8. The point of this shot is to show the subject's surroundings. The EWS is often used as an establishing shot 9. the first shot of a new scene, designed to show the audience where the action is taking place. 10. 2.VWS (Very Wide Shot) _The VWS is much closer to the subject. 11. He is (just) visible here, but the emphasis is still on placing him in his environment. This also works as an establishing shot. 12. 3.WS (Wide Shot) In the WS, the subject takes up the full frame. In this case, the boy's feet are almost at the bottom of frame, and his head is almost at the top. 13. Obviously the subject doesn't take up the whole width of the frame, since this is as close as we can get without losing any part of him. you don't want to be cutting the top of the head off. It would also look uncomfortable if the feet and head were exactly at the top and bottom of frame. 14. Long shot (LS) or full shot (FS). This is a shot from the top of their heads to at least their feet 15. 4.MS (MidShot) The MS shows some part of the subject in more detail, whilst still showing enough for the audience to feel as if they were looking at the whole subject 16. In fact, this is an approximation of how you would see a person "in the flesh" if you were having a casual conversation. 17. A medium shot (MS) is normally a shot from the waist up. 18. MS of the building With people it shows interaction between characters, including dialogue. Medium shots are also used to show 19. 5.MCU (Medium Close Up) Half way between a MS and a CU. This shot shows the face more clearly, without getting uncomfortably close. 20. A medium closeup (MCU) is a shot cropped between the shoulders and the belt line. Also called a bust shot. MCU of an object (based on full size of the object 21. 6.CU (Close Up) In the CU, a certain feature or part of the subject takes up the whole frame. A close up of a person usually means a close up of their face. 22. It is used to create intimacy or to show emotional responses from characters A CU can also be used to focus on an object . Someone might be in the window? 23. 7.ECU (Extreme Close Up) The ECU gets right in and shows extreme detail. For people, the ECU is used to convey emotion 24. Extreme close- ups(XCUs) are reserved for dramatic impact. The XCU shot may show just the eyes of an individual. Use them to build suspense or to highlight an important fact. 25. 8. Over-the- shoulder shot (O/S) This shows the camera looking at someone over the shoulder of another person nearer the camera. 26. 9.CA (Cutaway) A cutaway is a shot that's usually of something other than the current action.The CA is used as a "buffer" between shots (to help the editing process), or to add interest/information. 27. 8. Cross-shot (X/S) This is a shot sequence in which the camera looks alternately at one or the other person, with the camera- near person completely out of the shot. 28. Cross shots 29. Some Rules of Framing 1. Rule of Thirds 30. The basic principle behind the rule of thirds is to imagine breaking an image down into thirds (both horizontally and vertically) so that you have 9 parts. As follows. 31. Points (or lines) of interest should occur at 1/3 or 2/3 of the way up (or across) the frame, rather than in the center. 32. Remember that breaking the rule can result in some striking shots so once youve learnt it experiment with purposely breaking it to see what you discover. 33. Everything in your frame is important, not just the subject. What does the background look like? What's the lighting like? Is there anything in the frame which is going to be distracting, or disrupt the continuity of the video? 34. CORRECT USE OF THE RULE OF THIRDS A.Still object First image of the tree is incorrectly framed This tree image uses the Rule of Thirds, framing the tree to the left third of the frame. 35. B. PERSON This image of the person is incorrectly framed. The girl is centered in the picture. This image of the girl uses the Rule of Thirds, moving the girl to the right. Don't center people unless you need to (such as in a news broadcast.) 36. 2. Headroom: No Headroom: The person may seem to be glued to the top of the screen! Too Much Headroom: The person may look like they are sinking in the frame! 37. Proper Headroom: The person has adequate space above the head. 38. "Headroom", "looking room", and "leading room". These terms refer to the amount of room in the frame which is strategically left empty 39. The shot of the baby crawling has some leading room for him to crawl into 40. The shot of his mother has some looking room for her to look into. 41. 3. Framing (faces) Give people "eye room" in the frame towards the direction they are looking. Do NOT center a person looking to one side of the frame. 42. Look to see what is behind the person or object. Don't let the backgroun d take over or alter the look of the person or object. Allow the background to give the main subject some depth and dimension but don't allow people or objects in the background to distract from the scene. 43. Depth and "not boring" are two very important things to think about in a scene. You don't want flat looking pictures. Have some background but try to control what is going on at all times. Use people in your shots to add interest and to add more depth. 44. Camera Angles, Panning and Zooming The angle of the camera can have a very strong and direct impact on viewers. The following are 3 examples of camera angles: 45. 1) Low Angle Placing the camera at a low angle suggests a dominant subject, having power over the viewer. This angle may be used to portray kings or rulers, rock musicians, gun fighters, or majestic architects. DO NOT OVERUSE THIS ANGLE IN ANY ONE PRODUCTION. 46. 2) High Angle Placing the camera at a high angle suggests a recessive subject, giving the viewer a feeling of power over the subject. This angle may be used to portray a character in despair. DO NOT OVERUSE THIS ANGLE IN ANY ONE PRODUCTION. 47. 3) Straight-On Angle Placing the camera straight on suggests a neutral relationship between the subject and the viewer. The subject appears to be an equal; a friend; unbiased. This angle may be used for newscasters, or in documentary and educational videos. 48. A. Panning: Try NOT to pan when shooting. But, if you must: 1. Use it to show a wide panorama that you can't fit into the camera frame such as landscapes and moving objects. 49. 2. Make the pan last at least 6-7 seconds but no more. 3. Try to start still for 5 seconds, then do the 6-7 second pan, them hold the shot for 5 more seconds. 50. 4. Practice panning to get a smooth move or to follow someone or something moving in a smooth manner. Most of the time "cut" to a close-up or long- shot, don't zoom. 5.TILT 6. DOLLY IN AND OUT 51. B. Zooming: Zooming in and out is a sign of someone just begriming to use a video camera. Try to NEVER use the zoom for a shot. Can your eyes zoom? No. So zooming is not a natural type of shot. But IF you do zoom, make it meaningful.So why have a zoom? To get closer to something when you can't physically more closer to it. 52. Zoom in on something or someone specific to make a point, like a dramatic zoom in to see an expression of surprise. 53. Use zoom to frame up a shot. Use it to frame up the next shot. In other words, shoot a scene, stop filming, zoom in, and film again.: 54. A very slow zoom might work if you need to move closer to a subject who is busy doing something. 55. FILM MAKING TECHNIQUES: Video 56. CHARACTERISCTICS OF A FILM MAKER 1. A film maker is POETRY 57. 2. A film maker is CINEMATO GRAPHER 58. 3. A film maker is a screen writer - put spectacle in your film- (pampagising) 59. 8. A film maker is an AUTOBIOGRAPHER - direct emotions 60. 9. A film maker is an ACTOR - identify your dream shot 61. 10. A film maker is a LOVER - frame your ideas - proper screening of the role is important 62. 11. A film maker is HISTORIAN 12. A film maker is a SCIENTIST - apply logic 13. A film maker is a SHAMAN ( Magician) 63. Film sample: Hele ni Lorna 64. SCREEN PLAY How to write a script? Every paragraph of action lines should be 3 lines or less; use the least amount of words possible; remember to keep everything in present tense; The best screenwriters keep their action description at two lines per paragraph 65. Every single one of those four aspects is important (short sentences, terse description, easy to visualize and evocative verbs; Only write what we can SEE or HEAR on screen and nothing more. Example:Shes hurting inside, and we can see it. Shes a fighter though, so finding her inner composure, she puts the journal down on the table. Thats amateurish screenwriting for several reasons: 66. She angrily wipes away a tear before slamming the journal down on the table. Try to keep 95% of your dialogue lines to 3 lines or less. Cut anything about your characters or their actions that doesnt add depth, layers, or in